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1.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985265

RESUMEN

Impactful biobanking is underpinned by quality assurance and standardization. Several general biobank standards exist that can be associated with programs to provide different levels of conformity assessment, including the Canadian Tissue Repository Network (CTRNet) Certification program and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 20387 and accreditation bodies. We examined the CTRNet Required Operational Practices (2017) and ISO 20387 (2018), to compare them. Although the organization of each standard is different, both describe a set of discrete requirements (elements or subclauses) that comprise the standards that are contained in sections called chapters (CTRNet) or clauses (ISO). The standards have a similar number of requirements (CTRNet: 362, ISO: 322). To compare these standards, we reclassified the requirements in the ISO standard into 13 categories based on a combination of the chapter headings used in the ISBER and NCI Best Practices that represent important areas of biobanking activity. This categorization of requirements showed that each standard has a different emphasis reflected in different densities of requirements within distinct areas of biobanking. The ISO standard emphasizes Quality Management Systems whereas the CTRNet standard has an even coverage across the full spectrum of biobanking areas, including activities that are relevant to participant enrollment. Nevertheless, ∼60% of the requirements in the CTRNet standard match with those of the ISO standard. We conclude that these two standards have much in common but recommend that individual biobanks consider each standard carefully in the context of the purpose, focus, scale, and scope of their biobank to determine the appropriate standard to be followed.

3.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753525

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Carriers of pathogenic variants in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes as a double mutation (BRCA1/2 DM) have been rarely reported in women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: We reviewed the English literature and interrogated three repositories reporting EOC patients carrying BRCA1/2 DM. The clinicopathological parameters of 36 EOC patients carrying germline BRCA1/2 DM were compared to high-grade serous EOC women of the COEUR cohort with known germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carrier status (n = 376 non-carriers, n = 65 BRCA1 and n = 38 BRCA2). Clinicopathological parameters evaluated were age at diagnosis, stage of disease, loss of heterozygosity, type of mutation, immunohistochemistry profile, progression occurrence and survival. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis of BRCA1/2 DM patients was 51.9 years, similar to BRCA1 mutation carriers (49.7 years, p = .58) and younger than BRCA2 mutation carriers (58.1 years, p = .02). Most patients were diagnosed at advanced stage (III-IV; 82%) and were carriers of founder/frequent mutations (69%). Tissue immunostainings revealed no progesterone receptor expression and low intraepithelial inflammation. The 5-year survival rate (60%) was significantly lower than that of BRCA2 mutation carriers (76%, p = .03) but not of BRCA1 mutation carriers (51%, p = .37). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests some co-dominant effect of both mutations but the outcome of these patients more closely resembled that of BRCA1 mutation carriers with poor prognosis factors.

4.
Front Genet ; 10: 1005, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681433

RESUMEN

Approximately 10% of breast cancer (BC) cases are hereditary BC (HBC), with HBC most commonly encountered in the context of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome. Although thousands of loss-of-function (LoF) alleles in over 20 genes have been associated with HBC susceptibility, the genetic etiology of approximately 50% of cases remains unexplained, even when polygenic risk models are considered. We focused on one of the least-studied European populations and applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to 52 individuals from 17 Greek HBOC families, in which at least one patient was negative for known HBC risk variants. Initial screening revealed pathogenic variants in known cancer genes, including BARD1:p.Trp91* detected in a cancer-free individual, and MEN1:p.Glu260Lys detected in a BC patient. Gene- and variant-based approaches were applied to exome data to identify candidate risk variants outside of known risk genes. Findings were verified in a collection of Canadian HBOC patients of European ancestry (FBRCAX), in an independent group of Canadian BC patients (CHUM-BC) and controls (CARTaGENE), as well as in individuals from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the UK Biobank (UKB). Rare LoF variants were uncovered in MDM1 and NBEAL1 in Greek and Canadian HBOC patients. We also report prioritized missense variants SETBP1:c.4129G > C and C7orf34:c.248C > T. These variants comprise promising candidates whose role in cancer pathogenicity needs to be explored further.

5.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700155

RESUMEN

Ovarian cancer (OVCA) is the most lethal gynecological cancer, due predominantly to late presentation, high recurrence rate and common chemoresistance development. The expression of the actin-associated protein cytosolic gelsolin (GSN) regulates the gynecological cancer cell fate resulting in dysregulation in chemosensitivity. In this study, we report that elevated expression of plasma gelsolin (pGSN), a secreted isoform of GSN and expressed from the same GSN gene, correlates with poorer overall survival and relapse-free survival in patients with OVCA. In addition, it is highly expressed and secreted in chemoresistant OVCA cells than its chemosensitive counterparts. pGSN, secreted and transported via exosomes (Ex-pGSN), upregulates HIF1α-mediated pGSN expression in chemoresistant OVCA cells in an autocrine manner as well as confers cisplatin resistance in otherwise chemosensitive OVCA cells. These findings support our hypothesis that exosomal pGSN promotes OVCA cell survival through both autocrine and paracrine mechanisms that transform chemosensitive cells to resistant counterparts. Specifically, pGSN transported via exosomes is a determinant of chemoresistance in OVCA.

6.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2019 10 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622218

RESUMEN

AIMS: This review aims to present a summary of the new advances in search of biomarkers that have been recently undercovered and are entering clinical trials for patients with high grade or low grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. BACKGROUND: Clinical parameters such as disease stage and residual disease, although helpful in the management of patients after their initial surgery, are not efficient enough to establish accurate prognostic and therapeutic strategies for serous epithelial ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVE: Present a summary of the most promising predictive biomarkers for high grade or low grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. METHOD: We reviewed pubmed for recent description of biomarkers in serous epithelial ovarian cancer. We focused on the most promising biomarkers that could impact therapeutic strategies. RESULT: Efforts to identify monitoring and predictive factors have focused on molecular markers, genomic profiling and liquid biopsies. With increasing collaborative efforts of consortia to build multi-disciplinary teams and larger cohorts, the validation of biomarkers has significantly improved to address the heterogeneity of EOC and facilitate their introduction into clinical care. While BRCA testing is now a standard of care, promising biomarkers such as homologus recombination defect (HRD), immuno-markers (CD8, PD-1, PDL-1) are also entering clinical trials. CONCLUSION: In the last decade, promising biomarkers have been validated and lead to new therapeutic strategies with PARP inhibitors, immunotherapy and anti-angiogenic agents. Biomarkers such as BRCA, homologus recombination defect (HRD), immuno-markers (CD8, PD-1, PDL-1), KRAS and PR, are now used in clinical trials. Other: Assessment of genetic variants will soon represent the standard-of-care in gynecological cancers, not only to diagnose the disease but also to assist the prediction of clinical behavior of tumors and support personalized medicine to match patients with appropriate targeted therapies, improving treatment efficacy and quality of life for patients.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13924, 2019 Sep 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558772

RESUMEN

Ovarian cancer (OVCA) patients with suboptimal residual disease (RD) and advanced stages have poor survival. pGSN is an actin binding protein which protects OVCA cells from cisplatin-induced death. There is an urgent need to discover reliable biomarkers to optimize individualized treatment recommendations. 99 plasma samples with pre-determined CA125 were collected from OVCA patients and pGSN assayed using sandwich-based ELISA. Associations between CA125, pGSN and clinicopathological parameters were examined using Fisher's exact test, T test and Kruskal Wallis Test. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to statistically analyze clinical outcomes. At 64 µg/ml, pGSN had sensitivity and specificity of 60% and 60% respectively, for the prediction of RD where as that of CA125 at 576.5 U/mL was 43.5% and 56.5% respectively. Patients with stage 1 tumor had increased levels of pre-operative pGSN compared to those with tumor stage >1 and healthy subjects (P = 0.005). At the value of 81 µg/mL, pGSN had a sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 78.4%, respectively for the detection of early stage OVCA. At the value of 0.133, the Indicator of Stage 1 OVCA (ISO1) provided a sensitivity of 100% at a specificity of 67% (AUC, 0.89; P < 0.001). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, pGSN (HR, 2.00; CI, 0.99-4.05; P = 0.05) was an independent significant predictor of progression free survival (PFS) but not CA125 (HR, 0.68; CI, 0.41-1.13; P = 0.13). Pre-operative circulating pGSN is a favorable and independent biomarker for early disease detection, RD prediction and patients' prognosis.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3935, 2019 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477716

RESUMEN

Mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) is a unique subtype of ovarian cancer with an uncertain etiology, including whether it genuinely arises at the ovary or is metastatic disease from other organs. In addition, the molecular drivers of invasive progression, high-grade and metastatic disease are poorly defined. We perform genetic analysis of MOC across all histological grades, including benign and borderline mucinous ovarian tumors, and compare these to tumors from other potential extra-ovarian sites of origin. Here we show that MOC is distinct from tumors from other sites and supports a progressive model of evolution from borderline precursors to high-grade invasive MOC. Key drivers of progression identified are TP53 mutation and copy number aberrations, including a notable amplicon on 9p13. High copy number aberration burden is associated with worse prognosis in MOC. Our data conclusively demonstrate that MOC arise from benign and borderline precursors at the ovary and are not extra-ovarian metastases.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial de Ovario/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Neoplasias Ováricas/genética , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/clasificación , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial de Ovario/clasificación , Carcinoma Epitelial de Ovario/metabolismo , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Mutación , Neoplasias Ováricas/clasificación , Neoplasias Ováricas/metabolismo , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos , Análisis de Supervivencia
9.
Oncotarget ; 10(48): 4923-4936, 2019 Aug 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452834

RESUMEN

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor protein loss is common in prostate cancer (PCa). PTEN loss increases PI3K/Akt signaling, which promotes cell growth and survival. To find secreted biomarkers of PTEN loss, a proteomic screen was used to compare secretomes of cells with and without PTEN expression. We showed that PTEN downregulates Prorenin Receptor (PRR) expression and secretion of soluble Prorenin Receptor (sPRR) in PCa cells and in mouse. PRR is an accessory protein required for assembly of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) complex. V-ATPase is required for lysosomal acidification, amino acid sensing, efficient mechanistic target of Rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, and ß-Catenin signaling. On PCa tissue microarrays, PRR expression displayed a positive correlation with Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, PRR expression was required for proliferation of PCa cells by maintaining V-ATPase function. Further, we provided evidence for a potential clinical role for PRR expression and sPRR concentration in differentiating low from high Gleason grade PCa. Overall, the current study unveils a mechanism by which PTEN can inhibit tumor growth. Lower levels of PRR result in attenuated V-ATPase activity and reduced PCa cell proliferation.

10.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002847, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265453

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The identification of patients with high-risk prostate cancer (PC) is a major challenge for clinicians, and the improvement of current prognostic parameters is an unmet clinical need. We and others have identified an association between the nuclear localization of NF-κB p65 and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in PC in small and/or single-centre cohorts of patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we accessed 2 different multi-centre tissue microarrays (TMAs) representing cohorts of patients (Test-TMA and Validation-TMA series) of the Canadian Prostate Cancer Biomarker Network (CPCBN) to validate the association between p65 nuclear frequency and PC outcomes. Immunohistochemical staining of p65 was performed on the Test-TMA and Validation-TMA series, which include PC tissues from patients treated by first-line radical prostatectomy (n = 250 and n = 1,262, respectively). Two independent observers evaluated the p65 nuclear frequency in digital images of cancer tissue and benign adjacent gland tissue. Kaplan-Meier curves coupled with a log-rank test and univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used for statistical analyses of continuous values and dichotomized data (cutoff of 3%). Multivariate analysis of the Validation-TMA cohort showed that p65 nuclear frequency in cancer cells was an independent predictor of BCR using continuous (hazard ratio [HR] 1.02 [95% CI 1.00-1.03], p = 0.004) and dichotomized data (HR 1.33 [95% CI 1.09-1.62], p = 0.005). Using a cutoff of 3%, we found that this biomarker was also associated with the development of bone metastases (HR 1.82 [95% CI 1.05-3.16], p = 0.033) and PC-specific mortality (HR 2.63 [95% CI 1.30-5.31], p = 0.004), independent of clinical parameters. BCR-free survival, bone-metastasis-free survival, and PC-specific survival were shorter for patients with higher p65 nuclear frequency (p < 0.005). As the small cores on TMAs are a limitation of the study, a backward validation of whole PC tissue section will be necessary for the implementation of p65 nuclear frequency as a PC biomarker in the clinical workflow. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first study using the pan-Canadian multi-centre cohorts of CPCBN and validate the association between increased frequency of nuclear p65 frequency and a risk of disease progression.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/análisis , Núcleo Celular/química , Inmunohistoquímica , Neoplasias de la Próstata/química , Factor de Transcripción ReIA/análisis , Anciano , Neoplasias Óseas/secundario , Canadá , Núcleo Celular/patología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Supervivencia sin Progresión , Prostatectomía , Neoplasias de la Próstata/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/cirugía , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis de Matrices Tisulares
11.
Integr Biol (Camb) ; 11(4): 130-141, 2019 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172192

RESUMEN

Multicellular tumour spheroids are an ideal in vitro tumour model to study clonal heterogeneity and drug resistance in cancer research because different cell types can be mixed at will. However, measuring the individual response of each cell population over time is challenging: current methods are either destructive, such as flow cytometry, or cannot image throughout a spheroid, such as confocal microscopy. Our group previously developed a wide-field fluorescence hyperspectral imaging system to study spheroids formed and cultured in microfluidic chips. In the present study, two subclones of a single parental ovarian cancer cell line transfected to express different fluorophores were produced and co-culture spheroids were formed on-chip using ratios forming highly asymmetric subpopulations. We performed a 3D proliferation assay on each cell population forming the spheroids that matched the 2D growth behaviour. Response assays to PARP inhibitors and platinum-based drugs were also performed to follow the clonal evolution of mixed populations. Our experiments show that hyperspectral imaging can detect spheroid response before observing a decrease in spheroid diameter. Hyperspectral imaging and microfluidic-based spheroid assays provide a versatile solution to study clonal heterogeneity, able to measure response in subpopulations presenting as little as 10% of the initial spheroid.

12.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 17(6): 530-538, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194579

RESUMEN

The Canadian Tissue Repository Network (CTRNet) Biobank Certification Program was first launched in 2011 to foster translational research through improved access to high quality biospecimens. This was accomplished by creating and providing biobank education and through the establishment and deployment of common standards to harmonize biospecimen quality and approaches to governance. The CTRNet program comprises registration and certification steps as two linked phases. In the two-step registration phase, the biobank is registered into the system, and an individual completes an overview educational module. In the subsequent certification phase, biobanks undergo a seven-step process, including inviting team members, assigning and completing relevant education modules, uploading documents, and undergoing a documentation audit. As of June 2018, there were 251 biobanks engaged in the CTRNet program, 193 had completed registration, and 40 were fully certified. Over 3/4 of these biobanks completed registration within a week and over 1/3 completed certification within a month. Among registered biobanks, 163 were associated with North American institutions, while 30 were from other international locations, including Australia, Europe, and Asia. The CTRNet program enables biobanks to adopt standards with a flexible approach to accommodate different types of biobanks and a measured investment of effort, creating the foundation for increased access to high quality biospecimens.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2556, 2019 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186408

RESUMEN

Senescence is a tumor suppression mechanism defined by stable proliferation arrest. Here we demonstrate that the known synthetic lethal interaction between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 inhibitors (PARPi) and DNA repair triggers p53-independent ovarian cancer cell senescence defined by senescence-associated phenotypic hallmarks including DNA-SCARS, inflammatory secretome, Bcl-XL-mediated apoptosis resistance, and proliferation restriction via Chk2 and p21 (CDKN1A). The concept of senescence as irreversible remains controversial and here we show that PARPi-senescent cells re-initiate proliferation upon drug withdrawal, potentially explaining the requirement for sustained PARPi therapy in the clinic. Importantly, PARPi-induced senescence renders ovarian and breast cancer cells transiently susceptible to second-phase synthetic lethal approaches targeting the senescence state using senolytic drugs. The combination of PARPi and a senolytic is effective in preclinical models of ovarian and breast cancer suggesting that coupling these synthetic lethalities provides a rational approach to their clinical use and may together be more effective in limiting resistance.


Asunto(s)
Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Senescencia Celular , Reparación del ADN , Inhibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribosa) Polimerasas/farmacología , Mutaciones Letales Sintéticas , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Apoptosis , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Línea Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Antineoplásicos , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ováricas/tratamiento farmacológico
14.
Am J Pathol ; 189(7): 1451-1461, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202437

RESUMEN

Prostate cancer (PC) commonly metastasizes to the bone, resulting in pathologic fractures and poor prognosis. CCN3/nephroblastoma overexpressed is a secreted protein with a known role in promoting breast cancer metastasis to bone. However, in PC, CCN3 has been ascribed conflicting roles; some studies suggest that CCN3 promotes PC metastasis, whereas others argue a tumor suppressor role for CCN3 in this disease. Indeed, in the latter context, CCN3 has been shown to sequester the androgen receptor (AR) and suppress AR signaling. In the present study, we demonstrate that CCN3 functions as a bone-metastatic mediator, which is dependent on its C-terminal domain for this function. Analysis of tissue microarrays comprising >1500 primary PC patient radical prostatectomy specimens reveals that CCN3 expression correlates with aggressive disease and is negatively correlated with the expression of prostate-specific antigen, a marker of AR signaling. Together, these findings point to CCN3 as a biomarker to predict PC aggressiveness while providing clarity on its role as a functional mediator of PC bone metastasis.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2666, 2019 06 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209254

RESUMEN

Ran is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein that is involved in cell cycle regulation, nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, and cell transformation. Ran plays an important role in cancer cell survival and cancer progression. Here, we show that, in addition to the nucleocytoplasmic localization of Ran, this GTPase is specifically associated with the plasma membrane/ruffles of ovarian cancer cells. Ran depletion has a drastic effect on RhoA stability and inhibits RhoA localization to the plasma membrane/ruffles and RhoA activity. We further demonstrate that the DEDDDL domain of Ran is required for the interaction with serine 188 of RhoA, which prevents RhoA degradation by the proteasome pathway. Moreover, the knockdown of Ran leads to a reduction of ovarian cancer cell invasion by impairing RhoA signalling. Our findings provide advanced insights into the mode of action of the Ran-RhoA signalling axis and may represent a potential therapeutic avenue for drug development to prevent ovarian tumour metastasis.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Epitelial de Ovario/patología , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ováricas/patología , Proteína de Unión al GTP ran/metabolismo , Proteína de Unión al GTP rhoA/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Femenino , Técnicas de Silenciamiento del Gen , Humanos , Invasividad Neoplásica/patología , Dominios Proteicos , Estabilidad Proteica , Proteolisis , Serina/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Proteína de Unión al GTP ran/genética
16.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 60, 2019 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018850

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is an independent biomarker of recurrence and survival with particular treatment response, yet no study has tested its response to radiotherapy. The aim of our project was to test the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) in patients with localized to locally advanced prostate cancer (PC) and IDC-P. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of men with pT2-T3 PC treated by radical prostatectomy (RP) with or without ART, from two centres (1993-2015). Exclusion criteria were the use of another type of treatment prior to biochemical recurrence (BCR), and detectable prostate- specific antigen (PSA) following RP or ART. Primary outcome was BCR (2 consecutive PSA ≥ 0.2 ng/ml). Patients were grouped by treatment (RPonly/RP + ART), IDC-P status, and presence of high-risk features (HRF: Grade Groups 4-5, positive margins, pT3 stage). RESULTS: We reviewed 293 RP specimens (median follow-up 99 months, 69 BCR). Forty-eight patients (16.4%) were treated by RP + ART. Multivariate Cox regression for BCR indicated that IDC-P had the strongest impact (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.44-3.97), while ART reduced the risk of BCR (HR = 0.38, 95%CI: 0.17-0.85). Other HRF were all significant except for pT3b stage. IDC-P[+] patients who did not receive ART had the worst BCR-free survival (log-rank P = 0.023). Furthermore, IDC-P had the same impact on BCR-free survival as ≥1 HRF (log-rank P = 0.955). CONCLUSION: Men with IDC-P who did not receive ART had the highest BCR rates, and IDC-P had the same impact as ≥1 HRF, which are often used as ART indications. Once validated, ART should be considered in patients with IDC-P.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Intraductal no Infiltrante/radioterapia , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Neoplasias de la Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Ayuvante/mortalidad , Carcinoma Intraductal no Infiltrante/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Pronóstico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tasa de Supervivencia
17.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 5(3): 177-188, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924313

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to describe the expression of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma (EC). SATB2 is a nuclear matrix-associated transcription factor that is associated with abnormal expression in certain cancers but has not been reported for ovarian carcinoma. SATB2 mRNA and protein expression was first assessed in a pilot cohort of 26 samples by Affymetrix microarray and by routine immunohistochemistry on a small tissue microarray. A large multicenter validation cohort representing the well-characterized cases of 235 ovarian EC from the Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource (COEUR) was then used to validate this result and to assess the prognostic impact of SATB2 expression. SATB2 staining was scored as negative, weak, moderate, and strong intensity, and by percentage of stained cells. No SATB2 expression was observed in clear cell carcinomas but 10% (n = 3) of the ECs in the pilot cohort showed SATB2 expression. In the validation cohort, strong expression was observed in 11% of ECs, while weak or moderate expression levels were detected in 12% of cases. Evaluation of SATB2 expression with clinicopathological parameters revealed an association with patient age and Federation International of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade but not with disease stage or postoperative residual disease. Any expression of SATB2, independent of intensity, was also associated with longer survival and improved progression-free survival with hazard ratio (HR) = 0.14 (95% CI 0.03-0.56) and HR = 0.16 (95% CI 0.02-1.24) respectively. A greater beneficial effect was observed in patients with stage III/IV disease compared to patients with stage I/II disease. Furthermore, direct comparison of SATB2 with other reported prognostic biomarkers such as progesterone receptor, CDX2 and ß-catenin within this cohort showed that SATB2 had the strongest association with survival. Given the current lack of accurate prognostic factors for these patients, SATB2 has promising clinical utility and warrants further study.

18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 86, 2019 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922393

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Permanence of front-line management of lung cancer by immunotherapies requires predictive companion diagnostics identifying immune-checkpoints at baseline, challenged by the size and heterogeneity of biopsy specimens. METHODS: An innovative, tumor heterogeneity reducing, immune-enriched tissue microarray was constructed from baseline biopsies, and multiplex immunofluorescence was used to profile 25 immune-checkpoints and immune-antigens. RESULTS: Multiple immune-checkpoints were ranked, correlated with antigen presenting and cytotoxic effector lymphocyte activity, and were reduced with advancing disease. Immune-checkpoint combinations on TILs were associated with a marked survival advantage. Conserved combinations validated on more than 11,000 lung, breast, gastric and ovarian cancer patients demonstrate the feasibility of pan-cancer companion diagnostics. CONCLUSIONS: In this hypothesis-generating study, deepening our understanding of immune-checkpoint biology, comprehensive protein-protein interaction and pathway mapping revealed that redundant immune-checkpoint interactors associate with positive outcomes, providing new avenues for the deciphering of molecular mechanisms behind effects of immunotherapeutic agents targeting immune-checkpoints analyzed.

19.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 2019 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789501

RESUMEN

The origin of serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) is debated, due to its premalignant and independently malignant nature. It often arises next to endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC), with a propensity for polypoid growth. We aimed to better characterize this discrepancy by analyzing the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of polypoid carcinoma associated with SEIC (P-SEIC), and compared them with usual endometrial serous carcinoma without SEIC (UESC). Consecutive patients with P-SEIC were recruited and compared with UESC controls from our institutional research center. Clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical (IHC, ER, PR, P53, Napsin-A, WT1, P16) were analyzed. BRCA testing results and familial history were also extracted from clinical databases. Welch T test, Pearson χ, and Fisher exact test were performed in SPSS version 23. A total of 37 P-SEIC and 25 UESC were the basis of a case-control study. P-SEIC was associated with more bilateral ovarian involvement (P=0.026), yet showed lower rates of myometrial invasion (P=0.002). P-SEIC showed a statistically different IHC profile: p53+, p16+, ER+, PR+, and WT-1+, and high rates of Napsin-A, while UESC was p53+, p16+, WT-1-, Napsin-A-, with lower rates of ER and PR. We also identified 2 patients who received prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy for BRCA mutations and who subsequently developed P-SEIC with its unique IHC pattern. Our results suggest different underlying expression profiles and possibly diverging molecular signatures between both P-SEIC and UESC. If confirmed in further molecular studies, it could lead to a distinct molecular subclass.

20.
Lab Chip ; 19(4): 693-705, 2019 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671574

RESUMEN

There is an urgent need and strong clinical and pharmaceutical interest in developing assays that allow for the direct testing of therapeutic agents on primary tissues. Current technologies fail to provide the required sample longevity, throughput, and integration with standard clinically proven assays to make the approach viable. Here we report a microfluidic micro-histological platform that enables ex vivo culture of a large array of prostate and ovarian cancer micro-dissected tissue (MDT) followed by direct on-chip fixation and paraffination, a process we term paraffin-embedding lithography (PEL). The result is a high density MDT-Micro Array (MDTMA) compatible with standard clinical histopathology that can be used to analyse ex vivo tumor response or resistance to therapeutic agents. The cellular morphology and tissue architecture are preserved in MDTs throughout the 15 day culture period. We also demonstrate how this methodology can be used to study molecular pathways involved in cancer by performing in-depth characterization of biological and pharmacological mechanisms such as p65 nuclear translocation via TNF stimuli, and to predict the treatment outcome in the clinic via MDT response to taxane-based therapies.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Neoplasias Ováricas/diagnóstico , Adhesión en Parafina , Neoplasias de la Próstata/diagnóstico , Animales , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Hidrocarburos Aromáticos con Puentes/farmacología , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Diseño de Equipo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentación , Neoplasias Experimentales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Experimentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ováricas/tratamiento farmacológico , Adhesión en Parafina/instrumentación , Pronóstico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Taxoides/farmacología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Células Tumorales Cultivadas
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