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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515272

RESUMEN

Hexamethoxymethyl-melamine (HMMM) is used as a crosslinking agent in resins and plastics and in the manufacture of tires. In the present study, surface water samples were collected from two rivers adjacent to high traffic highways in the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. Composite samples collected from the Don River and Highland Creek during rain events and a period of rapid snowmelt were preconcentrated using solid phase extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Elevated concentrations (> 1 µg/L) of HMMM were detected in surface waters during rain events in October of 2019 and during snow melt in early March of 2020. There were lower average concentrations of HMMM detected during rain events in the winter and spring of 2020. Temporal profiles of changes in the concentrations of HMMM in composite samples collected every 3 h during a rain event in October 2019 closely corresponded to the hydrograph profiles at the sampling sites, with the HMMM concentrations peaking > 6 h after the peak in water levels. This work contributes to the literature showing that HMMM is a ubiquitous contaminant of urban watersheds and that runoff from roads is a vector for the transport of this compound into urban surface waters.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 404(Pt A): 124110, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049625

RESUMEN

Two separate pilot-scale studies were performed at two wastewater treatment plants comparing conventional ozonation and catalytic ozonation with an alumina-based catalyst supplied by BASF. The results of the first pilot study showed that catalytic ozonation achieved the same degree of disinfection as conventional ozonation with 30% lower applied ozone dose and enhanced the removal of several contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). The second pilot study conducted over 6 months of operation with the same batch of catalyst showed sustained enhanced removal of CECs relative to ozonation alone. The removals of CECs by catalytic ozonation was particularly effective for compounds with low reaction rates with ozone, indicating reactions with hydroxyl radicals formed in the presence of the catalyst. Analysis of plasma vitellogenin and total glutathione in liver tissues of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected with wastewater extracts indicated that catalytic ozonation removed the estrogenic activity and modulated oxidative stress caused by exposure to the organic compounds in wastewater extracts. Analysis of other biomarker responses indicated that no transformation products were formed that can cause lipid damage in the liver or affect levels of a brain neurotransmitter (i.e. serotonin). Catalytic ozonation is a promising technology to increase the efficiency of ozone treatment of municipal wastewater and to meet increasingly more stringent regulations for effluent quality.

3.
Environ Pollut ; : 116058, 2020 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279264

RESUMEN

As a result of historical industrial activity, the sediments in the inner harbor of Owen Sound Bay in the northeastern part of Lake Huron in Ontario, Canada are contaminated with organic compounds. The present study showed that the concentrations of Æ© PAH16-EPA in all sediments in the inner harbor were above the sediment quality guidelines for the province of Ontario, Canada, with mean Æ© PAH16-EPA concentrations at the most contaminated site of 46,000 µg/kg dry weight. The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated diphenyl ethers, and organochlorine compounds were all below sediment quality guidelines. The patterns of PAH and alkyl-PAH compounds in sediment cores indicated that contamination is from mixed sources, with a strong indication of pyrogenic contamination from industries that used to operate in the area, including a coal gasification plant. Other areas of the bay are impacted by petrogenic contamination, potentially from spills of fuel. The even distribution of PAH and alkyl-PAH compounds throughout core profiles at depths up to 25 cm indicates that this is a dynamic system and contaminated sediments are not being covered by deposition of less contaminated sediments. This study illustrates the value of determining the patterns of both PAH and alkyl-PAH compounds in sediments for regulatory purposes and also for forensic source tracking.

4.
Chemosphere ; : 128729, 2020 Oct 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131736

RESUMEN

Little is known about the dissipation rate of microcontaminants in biosolids during storage and stabilization in stockpiles (unsaturated) or storage lagoons/tanks (saturated). The objective of this study was to characterize the dissipation in biosolids of two antibiotics, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP), in microcosms under saturated and unsaturated conditions that simulate biosolids that are stockpiled on land or deposited in lagoons/tanks, respectively. The laboratory experiment was conducted at 22 °C using biosolids spiked at an initial nominal concentration of 10 mg kg-1 for both antibiotics. Biosolids were sampled in triplicate at seven sampling times over a 42-d period. Concentrations of SMX and TMP in extracts prepared from biosolids were quantified using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Dissipation data fitted to a first-order kinetic model indicated that the time to 50% dissipation (DT50) for SMX was significantly shorter in the unsaturated microcosms (2.8 d) than the saturated microcosms (4.4 d), while the DT50 for TMP was significantly shorter in microcosms under saturated conditions (10 d) relative to unsaturated conditions (116 d). These results indicate that the reducing conditions that develop in biosolids deposited in lagoons or placed in storage tanks might be effective for enhancing the microbial degradation of antibiotics that are otherwise persistent under aerobic conditions (i.e., TMP), while also being effective for removing other antibiotics including those that dissipate relatively readily under aerobic conditions (i.e., SMX).

5.
J Int Adv Otol ; 16(3): 432-442, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136026

RESUMEN

Establish outcomes following cochlear implantation (CI) in patients with Pendred syndrome. Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Databases searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Collection and ClinicalTrials.gov. No limits placed on language or year of publication. Review conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Searches identified 251 abstracts and 242 full texts. Of these, 22 studies met inclusion criteria reporting outcomes in 231 patients with at least 234 implants. Hearing outcomes were generally good with patients experiencing useful functional improvement. A total of 46 minor complications were reported in 78 cases. The methodological quality of included studies was modest, predominantly consisting of case reports and non-controlled case series with small numbers of patients. All studies were OCEBM grade III-IV. Hearing outcomes following CI in Pendred syndrome are generally good with useful functional improvement. However, outcomes reported in published studies lack long term follow up.

6.
J Int Adv Otol ; 16(3): 456-462, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136028

RESUMEN

Establish outcomes following cochlear implantation (CI) in patients with Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome (JLNS). Methods Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Databases searched on Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Collection and ClinicalTrials.gov. No limits placed on language or year of publication. Review conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Searches identified 63 abstracts and 19 full texts. Of these, 9 studies met inclusion criteria reporting outcomes in 66 patients with at least 72 implants. Hearing outcomes were generally good. Mortality secondary to cardiac complications within the follow up period occurred in at least five cases (7.6%), though three of these were thought to be unrelated to surgery. Potentially dangerous arrhythmias without associated morbidity were also noted in at least five patients. The methodological quality of included studies was modest, predominantly consisting of case reports and non-controlled case series with small numbers of patients. All studies were OCEBM grade IV. One study contributed 41/66 patients (62%). Hearing outcomes following CI in JLNS are generally good with the majority of patients experiencing useful hearing improvement. Significant peri-operative cardiac risks exist and should be discussed with the patient and family during pre-operative counselling and prompt thorough investigation, pre-operative optimisation and peri-operative monitoring.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242437, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211766

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been recognized as an important risk factor for suicidal behaviour among adults, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is lacking. This study explored associations between ACE and hospital admission due to non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. METHODS: This was a case-control study. Adults admitted to a tertiary care hospital for medical management of self-poisoning were included as cases, and age and sex matched controls were recruited from the outpatient department. ACE were measured using the World Health Organization's Childhood Adversity Scale. Logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and religion were used to quantify the association between ACE and self-poisoning. RESULTS: The study included 235 cases and 451 controls. Cases were 2.5 times (95% CI 1.8, 3.6) more likely to report an ACE than controls and had higher ACE scores. Childhood physical abuse (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.2, 19.0) and emotional abuse or neglect (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3, 10.1, and 3.7, 95% CI 2.3, 6.0 respectively), increased the risk of self-poisoning in adulthood, as did witnessing household violence (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4, 3.4), growing up in a household with a mentally ill or suicidal household member (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2, 3.4), and experiencing parental death/separation/divorce (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0, 4.9) as a child. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing exposures to ACEs should be a priority for prevention of suicide and self-harm in Sri Lanka. Innovative methods to increase support for children facing adversity should be explored.

8.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 283-297, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063196

RESUMEN

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely used as antibacterial agents in both commercial products and for industrial applications. As such, AgNP has a high potential for release into freshwater environments. As part of a whole-lake ecosystem experiment to examine the impacts of AgNP exposure at low µg/L concentrations over multiple years, we evaluated biological responses in Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) before, during, and after AgNP additions to a freshwater lake. Yellow Perch were monitored for responses to in situ AgNP additions at the cellular (suite of biomarkers), individual (growth, prey consumption, and metabolism), and population (abundance and gross prey consumption) scales. At the cellular level, several biomarkers of oxidative stress in liver tissues revealed down-regulation, including decreased mRNA levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in Yellow Perch collected during AgNP exposure, and elevated ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione. At the individual level, Yellow Perch bioenergetic models revealed that prey consumption and total metabolism significantly declined during AgNP additions and remained depressed one year after AgNP addition. At the population level, Yellow Perch densities and gross prey consumption declined after AgNP was added to the lake. Together, these results reveal a holistic assessment of the negative impacts of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant AgNP concentrations (i.e., µg/L) on Yellow Perch at cellular, individual, and population levels.


Asunto(s)
Lagos/química , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Percas/metabolismo , Plata/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Catalasa/metabolismo , Ecosistema , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Percas/crecimiento & desarrollo
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e036024, 2020 09 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907896

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Active surveillance (AS) enables men with low risk, localised prostate cancer (PCa) to avoid radical treatment unless progression occurs; lack of reliable AS protocols to determine progression leaves uncertainties for men and clinicians. This study investigated men's strategies for coping with the uncertainties of active monitoring (AM, a surveillance strategy within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment, ProtecT trial) over the longer term and implications for optimising supportive care. DESIGN: Longitudinal serial in-depth qualitative interviews every 2-3 years for a median 7 (range 6-14) years following diagnosis. SETTING: Four centres within the UK Protect trial. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sample of 20 men with localised PCa: median age at diagnosis 64 years (range 52-68); 15 (75%) had low-risk PCa; 12 randomly allocated to, 8 choosing AM. Eleven men continued with AM throughout the study period (median 7 years). Nine received radical treatment after a median 4 years (range 0.8-13.8 years). INTERVENTION: AM: 3-monthly serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-level assessment (year 1), 6-12 monthly thereafter; increase in PSA ≥50% during previous 12 months or patient/clinician concern triggered review. MAIN OUTCOMES: Thematic analysis of 73 interviews identified strategies to accommodate uncertainty and anxiety of living with untreated cancer; implications for patient care. RESULTS: Men sought clarity, control or reassurance, with contextual factors mediating individual responses. Trust in the clinical team was critical for men in balancing anxiety and facilitating successful management change/continued monitoring. Only men from ProtecT were included; men outside ProtecT may have different experiences. CONCLUSION: Men looked to clinicians for clarity, control and reassurance. Where provided, men felt comfortable continuing AM or having radical treatments when indicated. Clinicians build patient trust by clearly describing uncertainties, allowing patients control wherever possible and being aware of how context influences individual responses. Insights indicate need for supportive services to build trust and patient engagement over the long term. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN20141297; Pre-results.

10.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(37): 1-176, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773013

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the UK. Prostate-specific antigen testing followed by biopsy leads to overdetection, overtreatment as well as undertreatment of the disease. Evidence of treatment effectiveness has lacked because of the paucity of randomised controlled trials comparing conventional treatments. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of conventional treatments for localised prostate cancer (active monitoring, radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy) in men aged 50-69 years. DESIGN: A prospective, multicentre prostate-specific antigen testing programme followed by a randomised trial of treatment, with a comprehensive cohort follow-up. SETTING: Prostate-specific antigen testing in primary care and treatment in nine urology departments in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Between 2001 and 2009, 228,966 men aged 50-69 years received an invitation to attend an appointment for information about the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study and a prostate-specific antigen test; 82,429 men were tested, 2664 were diagnosed with localised prostate cancer, 1643 agreed to randomisation to active monitoring (n = 545), radical prostatectomy (n = 553) or radical radiotherapy (n = 545) and 997 chose a treatment. INTERVENTIONS: The interventions were active monitoring, radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy. TRIAL PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Definite or probable disease-specific mortality at the 10-year median follow-up in randomised participants. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall mortality, metastases, disease progression, treatment complications, resource utilisation and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for 17 prostate cancer-specific (p = 0.48) and 169 all-cause (p = 0.87) deaths. Eight men died of prostate cancer in the active monitoring group (1.5 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 3.0); five died of prostate cancer in the radical prostatectomy group (0.9 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 2.2 per 1000 person years) and four died of prostate cancer in the radical radiotherapy group (0.7 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 0.3 to 2.0 per 1000 person years). More men developed metastases in the active monitoring group than in the radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy groups: active monitoring, n = 33 (6.3 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 4.5 to 8.8); radical prostatectomy, n = 13 (2.4 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.2 per 1000 person years); and radical radiotherapy, n = 16 (3.0 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 4.9 per 1000 person-years; p = 0.004). There were higher rates of disease progression in the active monitoring group than in the radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy groups: active monitoring (n = 112; 22.9 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 19.0 to 27.5 per 1000 person years); radical prostatectomy (n = 46; 8.9 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 6.7 to 11.9 per 1000 person-years); and radical radiotherapy (n = 46; 9.0 per 1000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 6.7 to 12.0 per 1000 person years; p < 0.001). Radical prostatectomy had the greatest impact on sexual function/urinary continence and remained worse than radical radiotherapy and active monitoring. Radical radiotherapy's impact on sexual function was greatest at 6 months, but recovered somewhat in the majority of participants. Sexual and urinary function gradually declined in the active monitoring group. Bowel function was worse with radical radiotherapy at 6 months, but it recovered with the exception of bloody stools. Urinary voiding and nocturia worsened in the radical radiotherapy group at 6 months but recovered. Condition-specific quality-of-life effects mirrored functional changes. No differences in anxiety/depression or generic or cancer-related quality of life were found. At the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence threshold of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year, the probabilities that each arm was the most cost-effective option were 58% (radical radiotherapy), 32% (active monitoring) and 10% (radical prostatectomy). LIMITATIONS: A single prostate-specific antigen test and transrectal ultrasound biopsies were used. There were very few non-white men in the trial. The majority of men had low- and intermediate-risk disease. Longer follow-up is needed. CONCLUSIONS: At a median follow-up point of 10 years, prostate cancer-specific mortality was low, irrespective of the assigned treatment. Radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy reduced disease progression and metastases, but with side effects. Further work is needed to follow up participants at a median of 15 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN20141297. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 37. See the National Institute for Health Research Journals Library website for further project information.

11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e17768, 2020 08 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784188

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in adolescents is common and disabling. Teenagers in the United Kingdom are more likely to recover if they access specialist care, but most do not have access to a local specialist CFS/ME service. Delivering treatment remotely via the internet could improve access to treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess (1) the feasibility of recruitment and retention into a trial of internet-delivered specialist treatment for adolescents with CFS/ME and (2) the acceptability of trial processes and 2 web-based treatments (to inform continuation to full trial). METHODS: This study is an internal pilot for the initial 12 months of a full randomized controlled trial (RCT), with integrated qualitative methods (analysis of recruitment consultations and participant and clinician interviews). Recruitment and treatment were delivered remotely from a specialist pediatric CFS/ME treatment service within a hospital in South West United Kingdom. Adolescents (aged 11-17 years) from across the United Kingdom with a diagnosis of CFS/ME and no access to local specialist treatment were referred by their general practitioner to the treatment center. Eligibility assessment and recruitment were conducted via remote methods (telephone and on the web), and participants were randomized (via a computer-automated system) to 1 of 2 web-based treatments. The trial intervention was Fatigue in Teenagers on the InterNET in the National Health Service, a web-based modular CFS/ME-specific cognitive behavioral therapy program (designed to be used by young people and their parents or caregivers) supported by individualized clinical psychologist electronic consultations (regular, scheduled therapeutic message exchanges between participants and therapist within the platform). The comparator was Skype-delivered activity management with a CFS/ME clinician (mainly a physiotherapist or occupational therapist). Both treatments were intended to last for up to 6 months. The primary outcomes were (1) the number of participants recruited (per out-of-area referrals received between November 1, 2016, to October 31, 2017) and the proportion providing 6-month outcome data (web-based self-report questionnaire assessing functioning) and (2) the qualitative outcomes indicating the acceptability of trial processes and treatments. RESULTS: A total of 89 out of 150 (59.3% of potentially eligible referrals) young people and their parents or caregivers were recruited, with 75 out of 89 (84.2%) providing 6-month outcome data. Overall, web-based treatment was acceptable; however, participants and clinicians described both the advantages and disadvantages of remote methods. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Recruiting young people (and their parents or caregivers) into an RCT of web-based treatment via remote methods is feasible and acceptable. Delivering specialist treatment at home via the internet is feasible and acceptable, although some families prefer to travel across the United Kingdom for face-to-face treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 18020851; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN18020851. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13063-018-2500-3.

12.
Br J Cancer ; 123(7): 1063-1070, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669672

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence relating to the cost-effectiveness of treatments for localised prostate cancer. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness of active monitoring, surgery, and radiotherapy was evaluated within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial from a UK NHS perspective at 10 years' median follow-up. Prostate cancer resource-use collected from hospital records and trial participants was valued using UK reference-costs. QALYs (quality-adjusted-life-years) were calculated from patient-reported EQ-5D-3L measurements. Adjusted mean costs, QALYs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated; cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and sensitivity analyses addressed uncertainty; subgroup analyses considered age and disease-risk. RESULTS: Adjusted mean QALYs were similar between groups: 6.89 (active monitoring), 7.09 (radiotherapy), and 6.91 (surgery). Active monitoring had lower adjusted mean costs (£5913) than radiotherapy (£7361) and surgery (£7519). Radiotherapy was the most likely (58% probability) cost-effective option at the UK NICE willingness-to-pay threshold (£20,000 per QALY). Subgroup analyses confirmed radiotherapy was cost-effective for older men and intermediate/high-risk disease groups; active monitoring was more likely to be the cost-effective option for younger men and low-risk groups. CONCLUSIONS: Longer follow-up and modelling are required to determine the most cost-effective treatment for localised prostate cancer over a man's lifetime. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN20141297: http://isrctn.org (14/10/2002); ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02044172: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (23/01/2014).

14.
Ecol Appl ; 30(7): e02146, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338804

RESUMEN

Indigenous rights, knowledge, and value systems are linked inextricably to the lands, waters, and non-human beings that form the environments of Indigenous Peoples. Across the globe, the rights of Indigenous peoples are being formally recognized and as a result, efforts are being made to include Indigenous Knowledge and value systems in environmental policy and decision making. Scientists and decision makers must not only recognize this reality, but also operationalize these efforts through meaningful changes to create space for the inclusion of Indigenous Knowledge, Indigenous values, and sovereignty within the current methods for scientific enquiry and the development of environmental policies. Professionals in the environmental field have a responsibility to ensure that their work has a positive impact on Indigenous Peoples and their environments. In this study, we explore the concept of consultation and informed consent through the lens of the development of environmental policy and decision making. We will discuss these concepts in the context of ecological risk assessment related to a case study focused on contaminated sediment in a harbor within the Great Lakes. We will demonstrate a process that deconstructs the current protocols for risk assessments at sites with localized pollutants in sediment and rebuilds them with elements that recognize both Western and Indigenous knowledge systems. This process includes collaborative fieldwork, relationship building, and informal and formal interviews with participants and community members. By utilizing such approaches, we were able to develop a risk assessment framework that recognizes the sovereignty of Indigenous peoples and promotes effective Nation-to-Nation decision making.

16.
BMJ ; 368: m322, 2020 02 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102782

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a complex intervention in primary care that aims to increase uptake of hepatitis C virus (HCV) case finding and treatment. DESIGN: Pragmatic, two armed, practice level, cluster randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 45 general practices in South West England (22 randomised to intervention and 23 to control arm). Outcome data were collected from all intervention practices and 21/23 control practices. Total number of flagged patients was 24 473 (about 5% of practice list). INTERVENTION: Electronic algorithm and flag on practice systems identifying patients with HCV risk markers (such as history of opioid dependence or HCV tests with no evidence of referral to hepatology), staff educational training in HCV, and practice posters/leaflets to increase patients' awareness. Flagged patients were invited by letter for an HCV test (with one follow-up) and had on-screen pop-ups to encourage opportunistic testing. The intervention lasted one year, with practices recruited April to December 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: uptake of HCV testing. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: number of positive HCV tests and yield (proportion HCV positive); HCV treatment assessment at hepatology; cost effectiveness. RESULTS: Baseline HCV testing of flagged patients (six months before study start) was 608/13 097 (4.6%) in intervention practices and 380/11 376 (3.3%) in control practices. During the study 2071 (16%) of flagged patients in the intervention practices and 1163 (10%) in control practices were tested for HCV: overall intervention effect as an adjusted rate ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence interval 1.21 to 2.08; P<0.001). HCV antibodies were detected in 129 patients from intervention practices and 51 patients from control practices (adjusted rate ratio 2.24, 1.47 to 3.42) with weak evidence of an increase in yield (6.2% v 4.4%; adjusted risk ratio 1.40, 0.99 to 1.95). Referral and assessment increased in intervention practices compared with control practices (adjusted rate ratio 5.78, 1.6 to 21.6) with a risk difference of 1.3 per 1000 and a "number needed to help" of one extra HCV diagnosis, referral, and assessment per 792 (95% confidence interval 558 to 1883) patients flagged. The average cost of HCV case finding was £4.03 (95% confidence interval £2.27 to £5.80) per at risk patient and £3165 per additional patient assessed at hepatology. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio was £6212 per quality adjusted life year (QALY), with 92.5% probability of being below £20 000 per QALY. CONCLUSION: HepCATT had a modest impact but is a low cost intervention that merits optimisation and implementation as part of an NHS strategy to increase HCV testing and treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN61788850.


Asunto(s)
Hepacivirus/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Atención Primaria de Salud/economía , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Inglaterra , Hepatitis C/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis C/economía , Hepatitis C/virología , Humanos , Juego de Reactivos para Diagnóstico/economía , Juego de Reactivos para Diagnóstico/provisión & distribución , Medicina Estatal
17.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e035505, 2020 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964677

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Outcome reporting in research studies of breast reconstruction is inconsistent and lacks standardisation. The results of individual studies therefore cannot be meaningfully compared or combined limiting their value. A core outcome set (COS) has been developed to address these issues and identified 11 key outcomes to be measured and reported in all future research and audit studies in reconstructive breast surgery (RBS). A COS represents what key outcomes should be measured. The next step is to determine how and when this should be done. The aim of this study is to develop a core measurement set (CMS) for use in research and audit studies in implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The CMS will be developed in accordance with the guidance developed by the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials initiative (COMET) and COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) group for the selection of outcome measurement instruments (OMIs) for relevant outcome domains included in the RBS COS. This will involve three phases with strategies to promote implementation as a final additional phase. The phases are (1) conceptual considerations in which the target population, procedures and settings are defined; (2) systematic reviews to identify existing clinical, patient-reported and cosmetic OMIs and, if appropriate, assess their quality using COSMIN methodology; (3) a modified Delphi process including sequential Delphi surveys involving approximately 100 healthcare professionals and a face to face consensus meeting to agree and ratify which outcome definitions and OMIs should be used and standardised time points for assessment; (4) strategies to promote dissemination and adoption of the CMS. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by University of Bristol Faculty Research Ethics Committee FREC ID 60221. Dissemination strategies will include scientific meeting presentations and peer-reviewed journal publications. Implementation activities will include engagement with journal editors and funders to promote uptake and use of the CMS.

18.
BJU Int ; 125(4): 506-514, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900963

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the baseline clinico-pathological features of the men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) included in the ProtecT (Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment) trial who progressed (n = 198) at a 10-year median follow-up were different from those of men with stable disease (n = 1409). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We stratified the study participants at baseline according to risk of progression using clinical disease stage, pathological grade and PSA level, using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: The findings showed that 34% of participants (n = 505) had intermediate- or high-risk PCa, and 66% (n = 973) had low-risk PCa. Of 198 participants who progressed, 101 (51%) had baseline International Society of Urological Pathology Grade Group 1, 59 (30%) Grade Group 2, and 38 (19%) Grade Group 3 PCa, compared with 79%, 17% and 5%, respectively, for 1409 participants without progression (P < 0.001). In participants with progression, 38% and 62% had baseline low- and intermediate-/high-risk disease, compared with 69% and 31% of participants with stable disease (P < 0.001). Treatment received, age (65-69 vs 50-64 years), PSA level, Grade Group, clinical stage, risk group, number of positive cores, tumour length and perineural invasion were associated with time to progression (P ≤ 0.005). Men progressing after surgery (n = 19) were more likely to have a higher Grade Group and pathological stage at surgery, larger tumours, lymph node involvement and positive margins. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that one-third of the ProtecT cohort consists of people with intermediate-/high-risk disease, and the outcomes data at an average of 10 years' follow-up are generalizable beyond men with low-risk PCa.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangre , Neoplasias de la Próstata/sangre , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
19.
Autism ; 24(6): 1360-1372, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782656

RESUMEN

Low-intensity cognitive behaviour therapy including behavioural activation is an evidence-based treatment for depression, a condition frequently co-occurring with autism. The feasibility of adapting low-intensity cognitive behaviour therapy for depression to meet the needs of autistic adults via a randomised controlled trial was investigated. The adapted intervention (guided self-help) comprised materials for nine individual sessions with a low-intensity psychological therapist. Autistic adults (n = 70) with depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ⩾10) recruited from National Health Service adult autism services and research cohorts were randomly allocated to guided self-help or treatment as usual. Outcomes at 10-, 16- and 24-weeks post-randomisation were blind to treatment group. Rates of retention in the study differed by treatment group with more participants attending follow-up in the guided self-help group than treatment as usual. The adapted intervention was well-received, 86% (n = 30/35) of participants attended the pre-defined 'dose' of five sessions of treatment and 71% (25/35) attended all treatment sessions. The findings of this pilot randomised controlled trial indicate that low-intensity cognitive behaviour therapy informed by behavioural activation can be successfully adapted to meet the needs of autistic people. Evaluation of the effectiveness of this intervention in a full scale randomised controlled trial is now warranted.

20.
Eur Urol ; 77(3): 320-330, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771797

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ProtecT trial reported intention-to-treat analysis of men with localised prostate cancer (PCa) randomly allocated to active monitoring (AM), radical prostatectomy, and external beam radiotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To determine report outcomes according to treatment received in men in randomised and treatment choice cohorts. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study focuses on secondary care. Men with clinically localised prostate cancer at one of nine UK centres were invited to participate in the treatment trial comparing AM, radical prostatectomy, and radiotherapy. INTERVENTION: Two cohorts included 1643 men who agreed to be randomised; 997 declined randomisation and chose treatment. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Health-related quality of life impacts on urinary, bowel, and sexual function were assessed using patient-reported outcome measures. Analysis was carried out based on treatment received for each cohort and on pooled estimates using meta-analysis. Differences were estimated with adjustment for known prognostic factors using propensity scores. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: According to treatment received, more men receiving AM died of PCa (AM 1.85%, surgery 0.67%, radiotherapy 0.73%), whilst this difference remained consistent with chance in the randomised cohort (p=0.08); stronger evidence was found in the exploratory analyses (randomised plus choice cohort) when AM was compared with the combined radical treatment group (p=0.003). There was also strong evidence that metastasis (AM 5.6%, surgery 2.4%, radiotherapy 2.7%) and disease progression (AM 20.35%, surgery 5.87%, radiotherapy 6.62%) were more common in the AM group. Compared with AM, there were higher risks of sexual dysfunction (95% at 6mo) and urinary incontinence (55% at 6mo) after surgery, and of sexual dysfunction (88% at 6mo) and bowel dysfunction (5% at 6mo) after radiotherapy. The key limitations are the potential for bias when comparing groups defined by treatment received and outdating of the interventions being evaluated during the lengthy follow-up required in trials of screen-detected PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses according to treatment received showed increased rates of disease-related events and lower rates of patient-reported harms in men managed by AM compared with men managed by radical treatment, and stronger evidence of greater PCa mortality in the AM group. PATIENT SUMMARY: More than 90 out of every 100 men with localised prostate cancer do not die of prostate cancer within 10yr, irrespective of whether treatment is by means of monitoring, surgery, or radiotherapy. Side effects on sexual and bladder function are much better after active monitoring, but the risks of spreading of prostate cancer are more common.

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