Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 69
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Aquat Toxicol ; 241: 106004, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739976

RESUMEN

Plastic pollution has become a major environmental and societal concern in the last decade. From larger debris to microplastics (MP), this pollution is ubiquitous and particularly affects aquatic ecosystems. MP can be directly or inadvertently ingested by organisms, transferred along the trophic chain, and sometimes translocated into tissues. However, the impacts of such MP exposure on organisms' biological functions are yet to be fully understood. Here, we used a multi-diagnostic approach at multiple levels of biological organization (from atoms to organisms) to determine how MP affect the biology of a marine fish, the gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata. We exposed juvenile seabreams for 35 days to spherical 10-20 µm polyethylene primary MP through food (Artemia salina pre-exposed to MP) at a concentration of 5 ± 1 µg of MP per gram of fish per day. MP-exposed fish experienced higher mortality, increased abundance of several brain and liver primary metabolites, hepatic and intestinal histological defects, higher assimilation of an essential element (Zn), and lower assimilation of a non-essential element (Ag). In contrast, growth and muscle C/N isotopic profiles were similar between control and MP-exposed fish, while variable patterns were observed for the intestinal microbiome. This comprehensive analysis of biological responses to MP exposure reveals how MP ingestion can cause negligible to profound effects in a fish species and contributes towards a better understanding of the causal mechanisms of its toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Dorada , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidad , Polietileno/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
2.
J Environ Radioact ; 240: 106753, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619634

RESUMEN

The partitioning coefficient, Kd, which is defined by the reversible sorption processes between a solid and an aqueous phase at equilibrium, is one of the most important parameters to assess environmental transport and risk. In this study, a series of simple laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate sorption properties of 134Cs on a model sediment under two treatments (shaken vs non-shaken) and with three (small: <75 µm, large: > 75 µm and bulk i.e., composite) particle size fractions. Vertical transport of 134Cs across the water-sediment interface and into sediment was also evaluated. As expected, grain size had the strongest influence on 134Cs Kd values, with the small particle size fraction yielding significantly higher Kd values than the large and bulk fractions. The mean Kd values obtained from the various experiments ranged from 89 ± 13-130 ± 5 L kg-1 (small), 44 ± 10-91 ± 13 L kg-1 (large), 73 ± 3-112 ± 11 L kg-1 (bulk, shaken) and 73 ± 5-110 ± 4 L kg-1 (bulk, non-shaken). Most of the 134Cs partitioning processes occurred rapidly (<2 h) into the experiment. Physical mixing (shaken) did not appear to significantly affect the 134Cs Kd values. In complement, a separate experiment on the vertical penetration of 134Cs into a bulk sediment column showed that 134Cs was able to penetrate up to 5 cm into the sediment column after 88 days (∼0.6 mm d-1) and this flux rate is comparable to natural settings. Adsorption and contact time were found to be key for the 134Cs penetration process. Results from these experiments add to the literature on post-event radionuclide transport studies in marine settings and provide an experimental perspective that can be built upon to complement field observations.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo de Radiación , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Adsorción , Radioisótopos de Cesio/análisis , Sedimentos Geológicos , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis
3.
Nature ; 597(7876): 360-365, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526707

RESUMEN

Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Alimentos Marinos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Cambio Climático , Dieta , Ecología , Política Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Humanos , Moluscos , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Algas Marinas , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
4.
MethodsX ; 8: 101395, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430291

RESUMEN

One important aspect of marine plastic pollution is that small particles are ubiquitously present in seawater and can transport a large variety of co-contaminants. The sorption-desorption kinetics of these co-contaminants sorbed to microplastics (MPs) are not fully understood, partially due to the lack of any standardised procedures between studies. The present work aims at describing a new and efficient method to investigate the sorption of co-contaminants onto different types of particles using proven radiotracer techniques. This work provides recommendations as well as a thorough description of the materials, conditions and procedures required to optimise the adsorption of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) onto particles. Details of the controlled experimental conditions, such as the volume of the container, the concentration of particles, and specifics of the radiotracer are provided. In addition, a thorough description of the novel filtration methodology specific to these radiotracer techniques is presented, for the first time in the literature. To validate the efficiency of the method, we examined the partition coefficients (Kd) of ¹4C-PCB#153 onto virgin MP (10-29 µm polyethylene beads) and onto natural sediment particles that are similarly sized (1-17.8 µm) in seawater. After 40 h, plastic particles adsorbed 25.7% of ¹4C-PCB#153 while sediment particles adsorbed 89.3% of the same compound. Results suggest that in this scenario, polyethylene MP particles may be less effective transport vectors of ¹4C-PCB#153 than natural sediment particles.•Details of experimental conditions, such as the volume of the container, and the concentration of particles and of radiotracer, were defined•A thorough description of the filtration methodology specific to radiotracer techniques is presented•Results highlight that virgin polyethylene MPs may be less effective transport vectors of ¹4C-PCB#153 than natural sediment particles.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 288: 117786, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284207

RESUMEN

The widespread decline in oceanic dissolved oxygen (DO), known as deoxygenation, is a threat to many marine ecosystems, and fish are considered one of the more vulnerable marine organisms. While food intake and growth rates in some fish can be reduced under hypoxic conditions (DO ~ 60 µmol kg-1), the dietary transfer of essential metals remains unclear. In this context, we investigated the influence of DO on the dietary acquisition of two essential metals (Zn and Mn) in the commercially important gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) using radiotracer techniques. Fish were exposed to variable DO conditions (normoxia 100% DO, mild-hypoxia 60% DO, and hypoxia 30% DO), and fed a single radiolabeled food ration containing known activities of 54Mn and 65Zn. Depuration and assimilation mechanisms under these conditions were followed for 19 d. Based on whole body activity after the radio-feeding, food consumption tended to decrease with decreasing oxygen, which likely caused the significantly reduced growth (- 25%) observed at 30% DO after 19 d. While there was an apparent reduction in food consumption with decreasing DO, there was also significantly higher essential metal assimilation with hypoxic conditions. The proportion of 65Zn remaining was significantly higher (~60%) at both low DO levels after 24 h and 19 d while 54Mn was only significantly higher (27%) at the lowest DO after 19 d, revealing element specific effects. These results suggest that under hypoxic conditions, stressed teleost fish may allocate energy away from growth and towards other strategic processes that involve assimilation of essential metals.


Asunto(s)
Dorada , Oligoelementos , Animales , Dieta , Ecosistema , Metales
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(12): 7770-7775, 2021 06 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027665

RESUMEN

Plastic pollution has become one of the most pressing environmental challenges and has received commensurate widespread attention. Although it is a top priority for policymakers and scientists alike, the knowledge required to guide decisions, implement mitigation actions, and assess their outcomes remains inadequate. We argue that an integrated, global monitoring system for plastic pollution is needed to provide comprehensive, harmonized data for environmental, societal, and economic assessments. The initial focus on marine ecosystems has been expanded here to include atmospheric transport and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. An earth-system-level plastic observation system is proposed as a hub for collecting and assessing the scale and impacts of plastic pollution across a wide array of particle sizes and ecosystems including air, land, water, and biota and to monitor progress toward ameliorating this problem. The proposed observation system strives to integrate new information and to identify pollution hotspots (i.e., production facilities, cities, roads, ports, etc.) and expands monitoring from marine environments to encompass all ecosystem types. Eventually, such a system will deliver knowledge to support public policy and corporate contributions to the relevant United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Plásticos , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Políticas
7.
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124453, 2021 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168318

RESUMEN

Crab has been designated by the ICRP as one of twelve reference/model organisms for understanding the impacts of radionuclide releases on the biosphere. However, radionuclide-crab interaction data are sparse compared with other reference organisms (e.g. deer, earthworm). This study used an estuarine crab (Paragrapsus laevis) to investigate the contribution of water, diet and sediment sources to radionuclide (134Cs and 85Sr) bioaccumulation kinetics using live-animal radiotracing. The distribution of each radionuclide within the crab tissues was determined using dissection, whole-body autoradiography and synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM). When moulting occurred during exposure, it caused significant increases in 85Sr bioaccumulation and efflux of 134Cs under constant aqueous exposure. Dietary assimilation efficiencies were determined as 55 ± 1% for 134Cs and 49 ± 3% for 85Sr. 85Sr concentrated in gonads more than other organs, resulting in proportionally greater radiation dose to the reproductive organs and requires further investigation. 134Cs was found in most soft tissues and was closely associated with S and K. Biodynamic modelling suggested that diet accounted for 90-97% of whole-body 137Cs, while water accounted for 59-81% of 90Sr. Our new data on crab, as a representative invertebrate, improves understanding of the impacts of planned or accidental releases of fission radionuclides on marine ecology.


Asunto(s)
Braquiuros , Ciervos , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua , Animales , Bioacumulación , Radioisótopos de Cesio , Cinética , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Agua/análisis
9.
Mar Environ Res ; 163: 105200, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248410

RESUMEN

Coral reef ecosystems are declining at an alarming rate. Increasing seawater temperatures and occurrence of extreme warming events can impair sexual reproduction in reef-building corals and inhibit the ability for coral communities to replenish and persist. Here, we investigated the role of photophysiology on the reproductive ecology of Pocillopora acuta coral colonies by focusing on the impacts of bleaching susceptibility of parents on reproduction and larval performance, during an El Niño Southern Oscillation event in Mo'orea, French Polynesia. Elevated temperature conditions at that time induced bleaching phenotypic differences among P. acuta individuals: certain colonies became pale (from the loss of pigments and/or decline in symbiont cell density), while others remained pigmented (normal/high symbiont cell density). More specifically, we studied the impact of parental phenotypes on offspring's fluorescence by counting released larvae and sorting them by fluorescence types, we assessed survival to thermal stress, recruitment success and post-recruitment survival of released larvae from each fluorescent phenotype, during summer months (February to April 2016). Our results showed that red and green fluorescent larvae released by P. acuta had distinct physiological performances: red fluorescent larvae exhibited a higher survival into the pelagic phase regardless temperature conditions, with lower capacity to settle and survive post-recruitment, compared to green larvae that settle within a short period. Interestingly, pale colonies released two-to seven-fold more red fluorescent larvae than pigmented colonies did. In the light of our results, photophysiological profiles of the brooding P. acuta parental colonies may modulate the fluorescence features of released larvae, and thus influence the dispersal strategy of their offspring, the green fluorescent larval phenotypes being more performant in the benthic than pelagic phase.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Fluorescencia , Larva , Polinesia
10.
Mar Environ Res ; 161: 105124, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891914

RESUMEN

Although it has been shown that trophic transfer of trace elements in oysters can be influenced by the diet, most of the studies investigating the ability of oysters to bioaccumulate trace elements from their diet are based on experiments using phytoplankton alone. Wild oysters feed also on large bacteria, ciliates or detritic organic matter. The present study aimed at examining the influence of food quality on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of trace elements in the Pacific cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas. Oysters were exposed via their food to the radiotracers of essential (57Co, 54Mn and 65Zn) and non-essential (110mAg, 241Am and 109Cd) trace elements under different diets (protozoan ciliates Uronema marinum and diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana). Significant differences were found only for Ag and 241Am, with lower AEs measured in oysters fed with ciliates than in individuals fed with diatoms (Ag: 54 ± 3% vs. 67 ± 4% and 241Am: 62 ± 4% vs. 76 ± 4%). Interestingly, no significant difference was found among estimated depuration rates (kel) for all trace elements ingested with the two diets tested. These findings indicate that the differences observed are driven by the digestion process, presumably due to difference of bioavailability of trace elements dependent on the quality of the food ingested.


Asunto(s)
Crassostrea , Oligoelementos , Animales , Dieta , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Alimentos Marinos
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(14): 8506-8508, 2020 07 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643368
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3614, 2020 07 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681015

RESUMEN

Larval metamorphosis and recruitment represent critical life-history transitions for most teleost fishes. While the detrimental effects of anthropogenic stressors on the behavior and survival of recruiting fishes are well-documented, the physiological mechanisms that underpin these patterns remain unclear. Here, we use pharmacological treatments to highlight the role that thyroid hormones (TH) play in sensory development and determining anti-predator responses in metamorphosing convict surgeonfish, Acanthurus triostegus. We then show that high doses of a physical stressor (increased temperature of +3 °C) and a chemical stressor (the pesticide chlorpyrifos at 30 µg L-1) induced similar defects by decreasing fish TH levels and affecting their sensory development. Stressor-exposed fish experienced higher predation; however, their ability to avoid predation improved when they received supplemental TH. Our results highlight that two different anthropogenic stressors can affect critical developmental and ecological transitions via the same physiological pathway. This finding provides a unifying mechanism to explain past results and underlines the profound threat anthropogenic stressors pose to fish communities.


Asunto(s)
Peces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Glándula Tiroides/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Cloropirifos/toxicidad , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Metamorfosis Biológica/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Fisiológico/efectos de los fármacos , Glándula Tiroides/metabolismo , Hormonas Tiroideas/metabolismo
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111203, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510362

RESUMEN

Changes in seawater pH can alter the chemical speciation of waterborne chemical elements, affecting their bioavailability and, consequently, their bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Here, controlled environmental conditions and a 210Pb radiotracer were used to assess the effect of five distinct pH conditions (pHT ranging from 7.16 to 7.94) on the short-term (9 days) accumulation of Pb in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. After 9 days of exposure, higher levels of Pb were observed in the soft tissues of mussels maintained in the lower pH conditions, while Pb levels accumulated by mussel shells showed no difference across pH conditions. These results suggest that pH decreases such as those predicted by ocean acidification scenarios could enhance Pb contamination in marine organisms, with potential subsequent contamination and effect risks for human consumers.


Asunto(s)
Mytilus edulis , Mytilus , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Plomo , Agua de Mar
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111223, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510371

RESUMEN

Plastic pollution has become a major environmental concern worldwide, and marine ecosystems have become polluted with ubiquitous microplastic particles (MP). MP can contain chemical additives and can also scavenge pollutants from the surrounding environment, and these co-contaminants may threaten the marine biota when MP become inadvertently ingested and transferred up the food chain. However, our understanding of the sorption-desorption kinetics of chemical compounds bound to MP remains limited. Moreover, whether MP are better transport vectors of co-contaminants than other natural particles (e.g. sediment) has not received much attention. Here, we used radiotracers to examine the partition coefficients (Kd) of three trace metals (109Cd, 134Cs, and 65Zn) to virgin MP (32-75 µm polyethylene beads) and to natural sediment particles of a similar size (35-91 µm) in seawater. After 72 h, sediment particles adsorbed 2.5% of 109Cd, 68.0% of 134Cs, and 71.0% of 65Zn, while MP adsorbed <0.8% of these three elements. Results highlight that under these experimental conditions, virgin polyethylene MP may not be effective transport vectors for these trace metals. Important variations in Kd were observed between elements, inciting for further studies to decipher how chemical characteristics, MP composition, and associated-biofilms, all interact in these biokinetic processes. These results demonstrate how radiotracers can allow us to address important knowledge gaps and broaden our understanding regarding the interactions between waterborne contaminants, naturally occurring particles and marine wildlife.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Adsorción , Cadmio , Ecosistema , Microplásticos , Polietileno , Zinc
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 155: 111175, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469783

RESUMEN

French Polynesia exhibits a wide diversity of islands and coral-reef habitats, from urbanized high islands to remote atolls. Here, we present a geographically extensive baseline survey that examine the concentrations of nine metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and one metalloid (As) in superficial sediments from 28 sites spread over three islands of French Polynesia. We used Principal Component Analysis, Pearson's correlation, hierarchical cluster analysis and generalized linear mixed-effect models on Pollution Load Index to investigate site contamination and metal(loid) associations. At most sites, metal(loid) concentrations were below commonly applied sediment quality guidelines. However, a few sites located near farming activities, river discharges and urbanized areas showed concentrations above these guidelines. This study provides critical baseline values for metal(loid) contaminants in this region and in coral-reef areas in general, and spur decreased discharge of metal(loid) contaminants in the anthropogenised areas of French Polynesia.


Asunto(s)
Metaloides/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Arrecifes de Coral , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Islas , Metales/análisis , Polinesia , Ríos
17.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt A): 114559, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325355

RESUMEN

We investigated physiological responses including calcification, photosynthesis and alterations to polar metabolites, in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata exposed to different concentrations of polyethylene microplastics. Results showed that at high plastic concentrations (50 particles/mL nominal concentration) the photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II in the coral symbiont was affected after 4 weeks of exposure. Both moderate and high (5 and 50 particles/mL nominal) concentrations of microplastics caused subtle but significant alterations to metabolite profiles of coral, as determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Specifically, exposed corals were found to have increased levels of phosphorylated sugars and pyrimidine nucleobases that make up nucleotides, scyllo-inositol and a region containing overlapping proline and glutamate signals, compared to control animals. Together with the photo-physiological stress response observed and previously published literature, these findings support the hypothesis that microplastics disrupt host-symbiont signaling and that corals respond to this interference by increasing signaling and chemical support to the symbiotic zooxanthellae algae. These findings are also consistent with increased mucus production in corals exposed to microplastics described in previous studies. Considering the importance of coral reefs to marine ecosystems and their sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors, more research is needed to elucidate coral response mechanisms to microplastics under realistic exposure conditions.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Arrecifes de Coral , Ecosistema , Microplásticos , Fotosíntesis , Plásticos , Polietileno , Estrés Fisiológico , Simbiosis
18.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126314, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234623

RESUMEN

The dissolved oxygen concentration of the world's oceans has systematically declined by 2% over the past 50 years, and there has been a notable commensurate expansion of the global oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Such wide-scale ocean deoxygenation affects the distribution of biological communities, impacts the physiology of organisms that may affect their capacity to absorb and process contaminants. Therefore, the bioaccumulation efficiencies of three contrasting radionuclides, 110mAg, 134Cs and 65Zn were investigated using controlled aquaria in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis under three contrasting dissolved oxygen regimes: normoxic; 7.14 mg L-1, reduced oxygen; 3.57 mg L-1 and hypoxic 1.78 mg L-1 conditions. Results indicated that hypoxic conditions diminished 110mAg uptake in the mussel, whereas depuration rates were not affected. Similarly, hypoxia appeared to cause a decrease in the 65Zn bioaccumulation rate, as evidenced by both weakened uptake and rapid elimination rates. Effects of hypoxia on the metabolome of mussels were also explored by untargeted Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods. The metabolic response was characterised by significantly greater abundance of several amino acids, amino sulfonic acids, dicarboxylic acids, carbohydrates and other metabolites in the lowest oxygen treatment, as compared to the higher oxygen treatments. Clearance rates significantly dropped in hypoxic conditions compared to normoxia. Results suggest that hypoxic conditions, and even partly moderate hypoxia, alter ventilation, an-aerobic, oxidative and osmoregulation metabolism of this mussel, which may further influence the trace element bioaccumulation capacity.


Asunto(s)
Mytilus edulis/fisiología , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animales , Bioacumulación , Hipoxia , Metaboloma/fisiología , Mytilus/metabolismo , Mytilus edulis/metabolismo , Océanos y Mares , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Radioisótopos/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 154: 111065, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319899

RESUMEN

Trace elements can be accumulated from coastal environment by aquatic organisms from their food and be transferred throughout the food webs. Studying the effects of salinity on the trophic transfer of trace elements in a euryhaline fish, able to deal with large variations in salinity, is therefore key to understand their dynamics in aquatic environments. In this context, we investigated the potential influence of salinity on the trophic transfer of two essential elements (Mn and Zn) in the euryhaline fish, the turbot Scophthalmus maximus using radiotracer techniques. After acclimation to three salinities (10, 25 and 38), turbots were fed with radiolabelled pellets (54Mn and 65Zn). Kinetic parameters of depuration were determined after a 21-d period and trophic transfer factors were calculated. Trophic transfer of Mn at the highest salinity was significantly lower than for the other conditions whereas salinity did not significantly influenced Zn trophic transfer. Differences in the processes involved in the regulation (homeostasis) of the two tested trace elements may explain the contrasting influence of seawater salinity for Mn and Zn.


Asunto(s)
Peces Planos/fisiología , Cadena Alimentaria , Oligoelementos , Animales , Estado Nutricional , Salinidad , Alimentos Marinos
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(8): 4733-4745, 2020 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202766

RESUMEN

Environmental plastic pollution is a major ecological and societal concern today. Over the past decade, a broad range of laboratory and experimental studies have complemented field observations in the hope of achieving a better understanding of the fate and impact of micro- and/or nanoplastics (MP/NP) on diverse organisms (e.g., birds, fish, and mammals). However, plastic pollution remains challenging to monitor in the environment and to control under laboratory conditions, and plastic particles are often naturally or experimentally co-contaminated with diverse chemical pollutants. Therefore, our understanding of the effects of virgin MP/NP in freshwater and marine fish is still limited. Here, we performed a systematic review of the most up-to-date literature on the effects of virgin MP/NP on fish under laboratory conditions. A total of 782 biological endpoints investigated in 46 studies were extracted. Among these endpoints, 32% were significantly affected by exposure to virgin MP/NP. More effects were observed for smaller plastic particles (i.e., size ≤20 µm), affecting fish behavioral and neurological functions, intestinal permeability, metabolism, and intestinal microbiome diversity. In addition, we propose suggestions for new research directions to lead toward innovative, robust, and scientifically sound experiments in this field. This review of experimental studies reveals that the toxicity of virgin MP/NP on fish should be more systematically evaluated using rigorous laboratory-based methods and aims toward a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this toxicity to fish.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Peces , Agua Dulce , Plásticos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...