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1.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806608

RESUMEN

Heads of sheep (n = 600) and goats (n = 800) slaughtered at Al-Aziziah Abattoir in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were inspected for the presence of O. ovis larvae (L). Heads were split along the longitudinal axes, and larvae (L1, L2, and L3) were gathered. The infestation rate was significantly higher in goats (44.5%; 356/800) than that in sheep (22.3%; 134/600). Out of the 151 collected larvae from sheep, 0% were L1, 1.3% were L2, and 98.7% were L3. Out of the total of 468 larvae from goats, 0% were L1, 1.2% were L2, and 98.8% were L3. The infestation rate was significantly higher in males than that in females. Myiasis-causing larvae collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were authenticated as O. ovis, according to morphological characteristics. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a partial fragment (600 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene further confirmed the species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial mtCOI gene sequence demonstrated that 23 unique sequences showed high similarity based on nucleotide pairs of O. ovis accessions retrieved from GenBank.

2.
Biosci Rep ; 41(1)2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409539

RESUMEN

Sarcocystis spp. are intracellular protozoan parasites with an intermediate-definitive host life cycle based on a prey-predator relationship. Sarcocystis infection is common among different vertebrates including humans. The pathogenicity of Sarcocystis spp. is of varied significance including a possible lethal effect for the host. The goal of the present study was to investigate the inflammatory activity of Sarcocystis spp. in different organs of naturally infected camels. The tongue, esophagus, heart, diaphragm, and skeletal muscles were collected from 50 camels, and the tissues assessed for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic examination, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, expression of the interleukin (IL)-6 was analyzed using reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Microscopic Sarcocystis spp. cysts were found in camels. TEM identified the cysts as Sarcocystis camelicanis (S. camelicanis). Sarcocystis infection increased inflammation by stimulation of IL-6 expression in different organs of the camels, particularly in those from the Al-Qassim region.

3.
J Med Entomol ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274739

RESUMEN

Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819) is one of the most important insects in forensic entomology. Its larval developmental and survival rates are influenced by nutritional resources, temperature, humidity, and geographical regions. The present study investigated the possibility of relying on body size and cuticular hydrocarbon composition as indicators for age estimation of the different larval instars of C. albiceps. Larvae were maintained in standardized laboratory conditions at different experimental temperatures. All larval instars (first, second, and third) were randomly collected for measuring their body sizes and for estimating their cuticular hydrocarbons at different rearing temperatures (30, 35, 40, and 45°C) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results indicated that the duration of larval stage was temperature dependent as it gradually decreased on increasing the rearing temperature (30, 35, and 40°C) except 45°C at which larval development was ceased. In contrary, larval body size, in terms of length, width, and weight, was temperature dependent as it gradually increased with larval development on increasing rearing temperature except at 45°C at which larval development was ceased. The GC-MS showed a significant difference in the extracted components of cuticular hydrocarbons between different larval instars reared in the same temperature and between the same larval instar that reared at different temperatures. Furthermore, the highest and lowest amounts of cuticular hydrocarbons were detected at 35 and 40°C, respectively. Overall, larval body size and cuticular hydrocarbon components were temperature dependent within the range 30-40°C, which may suggest them as possible reliable age indicators for estimating the postmortem interval in the field of medicolegal entomology.

4.
PeerJ ; 8: e10347, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240656

RESUMEN

Background: The one-humped camels are economically important for several countries in Africa, Asia, and the Arabian Peninsula. Coccidiosis causes significant economic impact. Studies on coccidian parasite species causing such infections are limited. The present study aimed to carry out a survey of Eimeria spp. in camels from Riyadh and Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 209 fecal samples from Camelus (C.) dromedarius slaughtered in West Abattoir in Riyadh and Onaizah Modern abattoir in Al-Qassim were collected. Samples were examined by flotation methods and oocyst sporulation. Results: Of the 209 examined fecal samples, 75 were positive for Eimeria spp..The prevalence of oocysts in Riyadh and Al-Qassim were 33.89% (40/118) and 38.46% (35/92), respectively. The prevalence in young male camels was 41.02% (32/78) and 39.62% (21/53), respectively and in adult males was 19.35% (6/31) and 36% (9/25), respectively. Adult females displayed a prevalence of 22.22% (2/9) and 38.46% (5/13) in Riyadh and Al-Qassim, respectively. Three Eimeria spp. were identified; E. cameli, E. rajasthani, and E. pellerdyi. The presence of E. pellerdyi is considered the first record in Saudi Arabia.

5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 333: 109333, 2020 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242462

RESUMEN

Arsenic, a major environmental pollutant of global concern, is well-known for its reproductive toxicity. In this study, the protective potential of chlorogenic acid (CGA), a caffeoylquinic acid isomer abundantly found in many plants, was investigated against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-induced testicular dysfunctions. Adult male Swiss mice were either administered NaAsO2 alone at 5 mg kg-1 or co-treated with CGA at 100 mg kg-1 or 200 mg kg-1 body weight for 4 weeks. Results showed that NaAsO2-treated mice exhibited marked declines in testes weight, sperm count, and viability accompanied by decreases in sexual hormonal levels. Moreover, NaAsO2 toxicity evoked exhaustion of antioxidant markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GSH), down-regulation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) gene expression level, and elevations in malondialdehyde. Further, elevations in inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) together with the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic biomarkers (Bax and caspase- 3) and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 were observed in NaAsO2 intoxication. Immunohistochemical analysis of testis sections of NaAsO2-treated mice showed high caspase-3 expression. These findings were well supported with testicular histopathological examination. However, pretreatment of mice with CGA resulted in noteworthy improvements in testicular damage induced by arsenic in a dose-dependent manner possibly mediated by the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Conclusively, CGA counteracted arsenic-induced testicular injury through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. Therefore, CGA could serve as a favorable intervention in the alleviation of arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.

6.
Vet Med Sci ; 2020 Sep 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979302

RESUMEN

This study describes a simple method for the large-scale isolation of pure Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites. T. gondii tachyzoites were obtained from infected human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and peritoneal exudates of mice, while tissue cysts containing bradyzoites were collected from chronically infected mice. Harvested cells and brain tissues were incubated in Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS), containing 0.25% trypsin and 0.5% taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC) for 5 min. Subsequent washes in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were conducted, and the cell viability of the preparations was good, as determined by flow cytometry and ability to reinfect HFF cells and propagate in mice. The purification procedure allowed for a rapid preparation of pure T. gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites in sufficient quantity that can be used for downstream procedures. The advantage of the new method is that it is convenient and inexpensive.

7.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(7)2020 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605261

RESUMEN

Sarcocystis (S.) spp. are intracellular protozoan parasites that infect birds and animals, resulting in substantial commercial losses. Sarcocystis spp. have an indirect life cycle; canines and felines are known to act as final hosts, and numerous domestic and wild animals act as intermediate hosts. The presence of sarcocysts in camel meat may diminish its commercial quality. There is limited knowledge regarding the taxonomy and diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. that infect camels in Saudi Arabia. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed S. cameli and S. camelicanis (camelicanis) in Camelus (C.) dromedarius. This is the first report of S. camelicanis in Saudi Arabia and is considered a significant finding. Based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COX1) sequences, two samples of Sarcocystis spp. isolated from C. dromedarius in Riyadh and Dammam were grouped with S. levinei hosted by Bubalus bubalis in India, S. rangi hosted by Rangifer tarandus in Norway, S. miescheriana hosted by Sus scrofa in Italy and S. fayeri hosted by Equus caballus in Canada. The sequences obtained in this study have been deposited in GenBank.

8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 4981386, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566085

RESUMEN

Exposure to lead (Pb) causes multiorgan dysfunction including reproductive impairments. Here, we examined the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) administration on testicular injury induced by lead acetate (PbAc) exposure in rats. This study employed four experimental groups (n = 7) that underwent seven days of treatment as follows: control group intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated with 0.1 ml of 0.9% NaCl containing 1% Tween 80 (v : v), CoQ10 group that was i.p. injected with 10 mg/kg CoQ10, PbAc group that was i.p. treated with PbAc (20 mg/kg), and PbAc+CoQ10 group that was i.p. injected with CoQ10 2 h after PbAc. PbAc injection resulted in increasing residual Pb levels in the testis and reducing testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Additionally, PbAc exposure resulted in significant oxidative damage to the tissues on the testes. PbAc raised the levels of prooxidants (malondialdehyde and nitric oxide) and reduced the amount of endogenous antioxidative proteins (glutathione and its derivative enzymes, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) available in the cell. Moreover, PbAc induced the inflammatory response as evidenced by the upregulation of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta). Further, PbAc treatment induced apoptosis in the testicular cells, as indicated by an increase in Bax and caspase 3 expression, and reduced Bcl2 expression. CoQ10 supplementation improved testicular function by inhibiting Pb accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, and histopathological changes following PbAc exposure. Our findings suggest that CoQ10 can act as a natural therapeutic agent to protect against the reproductive impairments associated with PbAc exposure.

9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(14): 5162-5170, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519758

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) leads to serious renal disorders. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a phenolic compound, has several well known physiological benefits, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study investigated the potential renoprotective effects of CGA on sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 )-induced kidney damage in mice. The mice were randomly allocated into five groups to receive daily treatment with CGA (200 mg kg-1 ), NaAsO2 (5 mg kg-1 ), NaAsO2 + CGA (100 mg kg-1 ), NaAsO2 + CGA (200 mg kg-1 ), or a control for 28 days. RESULTS: In the NaAsO2 -treated group, NaAsO2 induced significant renal dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammation, and apoptosis, as demonstrated by marked increases in urea and creatinine levels accompanied by a decrease in the kidney index. Considerable increases in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels and parallel decreases in various antioxidant markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione) levels were also detected in the renal tissues of NaAsO2 -treated mice. NaAsO2 exposure was associated with marked increases in renal inflammatory markers (interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α) and apoptosis indicators including Bax and caspase-3 levels contaminant, with a marked decrease in Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, in the NaAsO2 -treated group compared with the control group. However, pretreatment with CGA substantially mitigated the renal injury and dysfunction associated with NaAsO2 exposure by reducing tissue inflammation and apoptosis and improving the antioxidant status. The CGA pretreatment also alleviated the NaAsO2 -induced histological alterations in renal tissues. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest the efficacy of CGA in alleviating As-mediated renal tissue damage. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

10.
IUBMB Life ; 72(8): 1787-1798, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478470

RESUMEN

Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is harmful to humans, especially male reproductive organs. Luteolin (LUT) is a naturally occurring flavonoid with numerous biological activities. Our aim was to investigate the possible reproprotective effect of LUT against testicular deficits induced by Pb intoxication. In the present study, 28 rats were distributed into 4 groups: control, LUT (50 mg/kg), lead acetate (PbAc, 20 mg/kg), and LUT + PbAc groups, in which rats were pre-treated with LUT 3 hr before PbAc injection. All animals were treated for 7 days. Oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers along with histopathological changes have been examined using spectrophotometric, ELISA, real-time PCR, and histopathological methods. PbAc injection elevated Pb concentration in testicular tissue and decreased levels of sex hormones. PbAc intoxication exacerbated lipoperoxidation and nitric oxide formation, depleted superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities along with glutathione and its originated enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase). At the molecular level, PbAc deactivated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 in the testicular tissue. In addition, PbAc toxicity induced inflammatory and apoptotic cascades in testicular tissue as evidenced by the increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Bax, and caspase 3, while Bcl-2 was declined. Histopathological examination of testicular tissue also revealed that PbAc caused degeneration alterations in spermatogenic cells, the spermatogenic epithelial cells were disconnected from the basement membrane, and the seminiferous tubules were vacuolated. Remarkably, pre-treatment with LUT minimized significantly the testicular damage induced by PbAc. Therefore, we conclude that LUT may have a beneficial effect against PbAc-induced testicular injury through preventing oxidative challenge, inflammation, and finally apoptosis.

11.
Biosci Rep ; 40(6)2020 06 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469389

RESUMEN

Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) belong to the herpesviridae family and cause neurological disorders by infecting the nervous system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) extract against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro. The antioxidant activity of this extract was investigated by superoxide anion and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical assays. Rosemary extract was evaluated by an HSV-1 antiviral assay, in which viral replication in Vero cells was determined and quantified using a cytopathic effect assay. The present study showed that rosemary extract at 30 µg/ml caused 55% inhibition of HSV-1 plaques, whereas 40 µg/ml rosemary extract caused 65% inhibition of HSV-2 plaques. The extracts completely inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 plaque formation at 50 µg/ml. Scavenging activity of the superoxide anion radical was observed at 65.74 mg/ml, whereas 50% scavenging activity of the DPPH radical was observed at 67.34 mg/ml. These data suggest that rosemary extract may be suitable as a topical prophylactic or therapeutic agent for herpes viral infections. However, further research is required to elucidate the plant's active constituents, which may be useful in drug development.

12.
Front Physiol ; 11: 64, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116774

RESUMEN

The kidney is among the metabolic organs most susceptible to injury, particularly following exposure to xenobiotics and heavy metals. We aimed to explore the potential protective impacts of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on lead acetate (PbAc)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Four experimental groups (n = 7) were applied as follows: control group, CoQ10 alone (10 mg/kg), PbAc alone (20 mg/kg), and PbAc with CoQ10. Exposure to PbAc led to the accumulation of Pb in the kidney and increased urea and creatinine serum levels. The deposition of Pb coupled with the elevation of malondialdehyde and nitrate/nitrite levels along with the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, upon PbAc poisoning, glutathione content and the antioxidant enzymes were depleted along with the downregulation of Nrf2 and HO-1 expression. Moreover, PbAc injection increased the protein and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines namely, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta, while decreased the levels of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, in the kidney. Furthermore, exposure to PbAc correlated with increased levels of pro-apoptotic markers, Bax and caspase-3, and reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2. The administration of CoQ10 alleviated the molecular, biochemical and histological changes following PbAc intoxication. Thus, CoQ10 reduces the deleterious cellular side effects of PbAc exposure due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects.

13.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(1)2019 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877779

RESUMEN

The abundant use of lead (Pb; toxic heavy metal) worldwide has increased occupational and ecosystem exposure, with subsequent negative health effects. The flavonoid luteolin (LUT) found in many natural foodstuffs possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, we hypothesized that LUT could mitigate liver damage induced by exposure to lead acetate (PbAc). Male Wistar rats were allocated to four groups: control group received normal saline, LUT-treated group (50 mg/kg, oral, daily), PbAc-treated group (20 mg/kg, i.p., daily), and LUT+PbAc-treated group (received the aforementioned doses via the respective routes of administration); the rats were treated for 7 days. The results revealed that PbAc exposure significantly increased hepatic Pb residue and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin value. Oxidative reactions were observed in the liver tissue following PbAc intoxication, characterized by the depletion and downregulation of antioxidant proteins (glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, and heme oxygenase-1), and an increase in oxidants (malondialdehyde and nitric oxide). Additionally, PbAc increased the release and expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta), inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor kappa B. Moreover, PbAc enhanced hepatocyte loss by increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) and downregulating the anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). The changes in the aforementioned parameters were further confirmed by noticeable histopathological lesions. LUT supplementation significantly reversed all of the tested parameters in comparison with the PbAc-exposed group. In conclusion, our findings describe the potential mechanisms involved in the alleviation of PbAc-induced liver injury by luteolin via its potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412628

RESUMEN

Heavy metal exposure, in lead (Pb) particularly, is associated with severe neuronal impairment though oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species, and antioxidants may be used to abolish these adverse effects. This study investigated the potential neuroprotective role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) against lead acetate (PbAc)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were divided into four equal groups (n = 7) and treated as follows: the control group was injected with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl); the CoQ10 group was injected with CoQ10 (10 mg/kg); PbAc group was injected with PbAc (20 mg/kg); PbAc + CoQ10 group was injected first with PbAc, and after 1 h with CoQ10. All groups were injected intraperitoneally for seven days. PbAc significantly increased cortical lipid peroxidation, nitrate/nitrite levels, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and decreased glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activity and mRNA expression, as well as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and homoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. PbAc also promoted the secretion of interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α, inhibited interleukin-10 production, triggered the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins, and suppressed anti-apoptotic proteins. Additionally, PbAc increased the cortical levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, and glutamate, and decreased the level of ATP. However, treatment with CoQ10 rescued cortical neurons from PbAc-induced neurotoxicity by restoring the balance between oxidants and antioxidants, activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, suppressing inflammation, inhibiting the apoptotic cascade, and modulating cortical neurotransmission and energy metabolism. Altogether, our findings indicate that CoQ10 has beneficial effects against PbAc-induced neuronal damage through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuromodulatory activities.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Intoxicación del Sistema Nervioso por Plomo/tratamiento farmacológico , Compuestos Organometálicos/efectos adversos , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Intoxicación del Sistema Nervioso por Plomo/patología , Masculino , Compuestos Organometálicos/administración & dosificación , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Ubiquinona/farmacología
15.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(5)2019 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117222

RESUMEN

Sarcocystosis is induced by species of Sarcocystis, which is an intracellular protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa. The diversity and importance of Sarcocystis species in sheep and goats in Saudi Arabia are poorly understood. In this study, the tongue, esophagus, heart, diaphragm, and skeletal muscles were collected from 230 sheep and 84 goats, and the tissues were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis species by macroscopic examination and light microscopy. Microscopic Sarcocystis species cysts were found in both sheep and goats. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed S. tenella in sheep and S. capracanis in goats. Sarcocystis species were confirmed for the first time in Saudi Arabian sheep and goats by molecular testing. S. capracanis was most closely related to S. tenella, with the COX1 sequences sharing 91.7% identity. A phylogenetic analysis produced similar results and indicated that the Sarcocystis isolates were within a group of Sarcocystis species in which dogs were the final host. Finally, the Sarcocystis species cysts from sheep and goats could be grouped together, indicating that they were strongly related.

16.
Biosci Rep ; 39(5)2019 05 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028133

RESUMEN

Eugenol was investigated for the treatment of Haemoproteus columbae (H. columbae) infected squabs (young domestic pigeons, Columba domestica). Thirty naturally-infected squabs were divided into three groups of 10 each. One group was treated with Eugenol, while the positive and negative control groups were administered buparvaquone (Butalex®) and distilled water, respectively. The number of infected red blood cells (RBCs) was calculated in all groups before and after treatment at 4-day intervals for 16 days. The results showed a significant therapeutic effect of Eugenol, with a progressive decrease in the number of infected RBCs from 89.20 ± 2.11 before treatment to 0.90 ± 0.31 at the end of treatment (P≤0.05). Butalex® was able to suppress the number of infected RBCs from 93.70 ± 1.72 before treatment to 0.90 ± 0.35 at the end of the experiment (P≤0.05). Eugenol showed therapeutic effects against H. columbae and may be regarded as a candidate for further studies to develop new drugs against blood parasites, in both animals and humans.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves , Columbidae/parasitología , Eugenol/farmacología , Haemosporida/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/parasitología , Arabia Saudita
17.
Biosci Rep ; 39(2)2019 02 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670630

RESUMEN

Mice and rats are animals commonly used in research and laboratory testing. Compared with other animal species, they harbor many more zoonotic agents. Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) is a common tapeworm that parasitizes both humans and rodents. Although this tapeworm is of socio-economic importance worldwide, information related to its mitochondrial genome is limited. The present study examined the sequence diversity of two mitochondrial (mt) genes, subunit I of cytochrome oxidase (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (pnad5), of H. nana in mice and rats from two geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (Makkah and Riyadh). Partial sequences of cox1 and pnad 5 from individual H. nana isolates were separately amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The GC contents of the sequences ranged between 31.6-33.5% and 27.2-28.6% for cox1 and pnad5, respectively. The genomic similarity among specimens determined via cox1 primer and pnad5 primer was 97.1% and 99.7%, respectively. Based on these primers, our data did not indicate any differences between H. nana from rat and mice isolates. Results demonstrated that the present species are deeply embedded in the genus Hymenolepis with close relationship to other Hymenolepis species, including H. nana as a putative sister taxon, and that the isolates cannot be categorized as belonging to two different groups with origins in Makkah and Riyadh.


Asunto(s)
Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Proteínas del Helminto/genética , Hymenolepis nana/genética , NADH Deshidrogenasa/genética , Animales , Composición de Base , Himenolepiasis/veterinaria , Hymenolepis nana/aislamiento & purificación , Hymenolepis nana/patogenicidad , Filogenia , Subunidades de Proteína/genética , Arabia Saudita
18.
Biosci Rep ; 38(6)2018 12 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291217

RESUMEN

The present study was designed to investigate the use of specific biomarkers, such as albumin, serum total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), globulin, alanine amino transferase (ALT), serum cortisol and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as predictive tools for sarcoptic mange in rabbits. A total of 40 naturally infested rabbits were equally divided into four groups.Thirty infested rabbits were administered with three different treatments (propolis,ivermectin, and propolis with ivermectin) and were compared to10 infested un-treated rabbits. The impact of treatment was assessed via microscopic examination of skin scrapings, clinical signs, and blood measurements relating to the liver. The present study demonstrated that topical application of 10% propolis ointment resulted in complete recovery from clinical signs and complete absence of mites based on microscopic examination after 10-15 days of treatment. Moreover, AST, ALP, ALT, and cortisol were determined to be acceptable biomarkers to track the response of diseased rabbits to the therapeutic use of propolis.


Asunto(s)
Apiterapia , Própolis/uso terapéutico , Conejos/parasitología , Escabiosis/veterinaria , Animales , Apiterapia/métodos , Biomarcadores/análisis , Femenino , Pronóstico , Escabiosis/diagnóstico , Escabiosis/patología , Escabiosis/terapia , Piel/parasitología , Piel/patología
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786651

RESUMEN

Leishmaniasis is one of the most significant vector-borne syndromes of individuals. This parasitic infection can be affected by many species of Leishmania, most of which are zoonotic. Natural products have made and are continuing to make important contributions to the search for new antileishmanial agents. The use of plants in the production assembly of silver nanoparticles has drawn attention because of its rapid, eco-friendly, non-pathogenic, economical protocol and provides a single step technique for the biosynthetic process. Hence, we aimed to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and investigated the antileishmanial activity of these nanoparticles in a murine model of Leishmania major infection. A total of 50 mice were used and divided into five groups-healthy control, infected, infected mice treated with pentostam, infected mice treated with Ag-NPs and infected mice pretreated with Ag-NPs. In the present study, the leaf extract of the plant species Moringa oleifera was found to be a good source for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, their formation being confirmed by color change and stability in solution. In the present murine model of Leishmania major infection, we found that oral treatment with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using Moringa oleifera extract resulted in a significant reduction in the average size of leishmaniasis cutaneous lesions compared with untreated mice. Furthermore, the clinical efficacy of Moringa oleifera extract was associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, treatment with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using Moringa oleifera extract has higher and faster clinical efficacy than standard pentavalent antimonial treatment, probably by boosting the endogenous antioxidant activity.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Leishmania major , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/tratamiento farmacológico , Nanopartículas del Metal/uso terapéutico , Moringa oleifera , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Plata/uso terapéutico , Animales , Vías Biosintéticas , Femenino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Hojas de la Planta , Distribución Aleatoria , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195016, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668701

RESUMEN

The diversity and importance of Echinococcus species in domesticated animals in Saudi Arabia are poorly understood. In this study, 108 singular (hydatid) cysts were collected from goats (n = 25), sheep (n = 56) and camels (n = 27). DNA was extracted from the protoscoleces of individual fertile cysts and used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of mitochondrial subunit 1 of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) gene. Amplicon sequencing results revealed the presence of Echinococcus granulosus sensustricto (s.s.) (genotypes G1-G3) in 16 of the17 sheep cysts and 2 of the 27 camel cysts.of these samples, 18 (2 camel and 16 sheep) were divided into genotypes G1, G2, and G3.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Animales/parasitología , Equinococosis/veterinaria , Echinococcus granulosus/clasificación , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Ganado/parasitología , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Camelus , Echinococcus granulosus/aislamiento & purificación , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/química , Genotipo , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Ovinos
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