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1.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806608

RESUMEN

Heads of sheep (n = 600) and goats (n = 800) slaughtered at Al-Aziziah Abattoir in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were inspected for the presence of O. ovis larvae (L). Heads were split along the longitudinal axes, and larvae (L1, L2, and L3) were gathered. The infestation rate was significantly higher in goats (44.5%; 356/800) than that in sheep (22.3%; 134/600). Out of the 151 collected larvae from sheep, 0% were L1, 1.3% were L2, and 98.7% were L3. Out of the total of 468 larvae from goats, 0% were L1, 1.2% were L2, and 98.8% were L3. The infestation rate was significantly higher in males than that in females. Myiasis-causing larvae collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were authenticated as O. ovis, according to morphological characteristics. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a partial fragment (600 bp) of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) gene further confirmed the species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial mtCOI gene sequence demonstrated that 23 unique sequences showed high similarity based on nucleotide pairs of O. ovis accessions retrieved from GenBank.

3.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742252

RESUMEN

Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease, with an unpredictable course and no standard treatment with guaranteed outcome. Intralesional corticosteroids is the most commonly used treatment for patchy AA, but with a common side effect of localized atrophy. Thirty patients with localized AA, with three patches were included in this study. Each alopecic patch in each patient was subjected to treatment by intralesional carbon dioxide injection (carboxy therapy), intralesional corticosteroids (ILC) and a combination of both. Sessions were done every 2 weeks for a total of 12 weeks, followed by a 2-month follow-up period. Evaluation was done at baseline, after treatment and after follow-up, clinically by modified SALT score (a novel modification of the SALT score), dermoscopically (yellow dots, black dots, tapered hair, regrowing hair) and by photography. All treatment regimens resulted in significant improvement of mSALT score and dermoscopic parameters. Comparison of the three treatment modalities revealed a 79.2% hair regrowth following the combined regimen, 69.5% improvement after ILC, and 50% improvement after carboxy therapy, with a statistical difference. The combined regimen also produced the largest significant increase in regrowing hair after treatment. Side effects included temporary pain during injection and relapse in the alopecic patch treated by ILC in one patient. All treatment regimens proved effective for treatment of patchy alopecia areata, with highest efficacy encountered following the combined modality as it caused the greatest and earliest hair regrowth.Study registered in Protocol Registration and Results System (clincaltrials.gov). Registration number: NCT04228029.

4.
Biosci Rep ; 41(1)2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409539

RESUMEN

Sarcocystis spp. are intracellular protozoan parasites with an intermediate-definitive host life cycle based on a prey-predator relationship. Sarcocystis infection is common among different vertebrates including humans. The pathogenicity of Sarcocystis spp. is of varied significance including a possible lethal effect for the host. The goal of the present study was to investigate the inflammatory activity of Sarcocystis spp. in different organs of naturally infected camels. The tongue, esophagus, heart, diaphragm, and skeletal muscles were collected from 50 camels, and the tissues assessed for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic examination, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, expression of the interleukin (IL)-6 was analyzed using reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Microscopic Sarcocystis spp. cysts were found in camels. TEM identified the cysts as Sarcocystis camelicanis (S. camelicanis). Sarcocystis infection increased inflammation by stimulation of IL-6 expression in different organs of the camels, particularly in those from the Al-Qassim region.

5.
Clin Imaging ; 69: 45-49, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652457

RESUMEN

THE AIM OF THIS WORK: The aim of this work was to estimate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in predicting malignant invasion of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) by underlying breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study included 70 female patients with breast cancer with a mean age of 45.8 years (range: 28-68). DWI of the breast was done for all patients. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were automatically constructed. The mean ADC values of NAC were independently measured by two observers who are experts in breast imaging and correlated with the results of histopathological examinations. RESULTS: Both observers found a significantly lower ADC value of malignant NAC invasion (n = 18) when compared with free NAC (n = 52), with mean ADC value for malignant NAC invasion was 0.86 ± 0.35 × 10-3 mm2/s and 0.84 ± 0.08 × 10-3 mm2/s for observer one and two respectively versus mean ADC value of 1.34 ± 0.25 × 10-3 mm2/s and 1.4 ± 0.26 × 10-3 mm2/s for free NAC by observer one and two respectively (P-value =0.001). Observer one found that a cutoff ADC value of 1.05 × 0-3 mm2/s can predict malignant NAC invasion with 0.975 AUC, 92.8% accuracy, 94.4% sensitivity, and 92.3% specificity. Observer two found that a cutoff ADC value of 0.95 × 10-3 mm2/s can predict malignant NAC invasion with 0.992 AUC, 95.7% accuracy, 88.9% sensitivity, and 98.1% specificity. CONCLUSION: DWI can predict malignant NAC invasion in patients with breast cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Pezones , Adulto , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico por imagen , Difusión , Imagen de Difusión por Resonancia Magnética , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pezones/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Rol , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
6.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 77: 102096, 2020 Dec 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302096

RESUMEN

The blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has been known to breed in both animal and human carcasses in different geographical regions and is considered an important post-mortem indicator in forensic entomology. Determining the age of its larvae is an essential tool for the accurate determination of post-mortem intervals (PMI). This study adopted a molecular-based approach for age determination of the immature stages of the blowfly, C. albiceps, by evaluating the genes 15_2, 2014192, EcdR, AR, hsp90, and Actin, during larval development at different temperatures. Targeted genes were amplified by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and the resulting amplicons were normalized against the two housekeeping genes, rp49 and 19_2. Data showed that the expression profile of AR was constant throughout all larval developmental stages at all tested temperatures. 2014192 showed low expression levels throughout the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd larval stages. Hsp90 and EcdR showed different expression profiles. The expression of 15_2 was low at the tested temperatures and was undetectable on most days. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that larvae exhibit temperature-dependent and age-specific up- and down-regulation in the expression profile of the targeted genes. This may indicate a possibility to be utilized as age estimation markers for C. albiceps.

7.
J Med Entomol ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274739

RESUMEN

Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819) is one of the most important insects in forensic entomology. Its larval developmental and survival rates are influenced by nutritional resources, temperature, humidity, and geographical regions. The present study investigated the possibility of relying on body size and cuticular hydrocarbon composition as indicators for age estimation of the different larval instars of C. albiceps. Larvae were maintained in standardized laboratory conditions at different experimental temperatures. All larval instars (first, second, and third) were randomly collected for measuring their body sizes and for estimating their cuticular hydrocarbons at different rearing temperatures (30, 35, 40, and 45°C) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results indicated that the duration of larval stage was temperature dependent as it gradually decreased on increasing the rearing temperature (30, 35, and 40°C) except 45°C at which larval development was ceased. In contrary, larval body size, in terms of length, width, and weight, was temperature dependent as it gradually increased with larval development on increasing rearing temperature except at 45°C at which larval development was ceased. The GC-MS showed a significant difference in the extracted components of cuticular hydrocarbons between different larval instars reared in the same temperature and between the same larval instar that reared at different temperatures. Furthermore, the highest and lowest amounts of cuticular hydrocarbons were detected at 35 and 40°C, respectively. Overall, larval body size and cuticular hydrocarbon components were temperature dependent within the range 30-40°C, which may suggest them as possible reliable age indicators for estimating the postmortem interval in the field of medicolegal entomology.

8.
PeerJ ; 8: e10347, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240656

RESUMEN

Background: The one-humped camels are economically important for several countries in Africa, Asia, and the Arabian Peninsula. Coccidiosis causes significant economic impact. Studies on coccidian parasite species causing such infections are limited. The present study aimed to carry out a survey of Eimeria spp. in camels from Riyadh and Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 209 fecal samples from Camelus (C.) dromedarius slaughtered in West Abattoir in Riyadh and Onaizah Modern abattoir in Al-Qassim were collected. Samples were examined by flotation methods and oocyst sporulation. Results: Of the 209 examined fecal samples, 75 were positive for Eimeria spp..The prevalence of oocysts in Riyadh and Al-Qassim were 33.89% (40/118) and 38.46% (35/92), respectively. The prevalence in young male camels was 41.02% (32/78) and 39.62% (21/53), respectively and in adult males was 19.35% (6/31) and 36% (9/25), respectively. Adult females displayed a prevalence of 22.22% (2/9) and 38.46% (5/13) in Riyadh and Al-Qassim, respectively. Three Eimeria spp. were identified; E. cameli, E. rajasthani, and E. pellerdyi. The presence of E. pellerdyi is considered the first record in Saudi Arabia.

9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 333: 109333, 2020 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242462

RESUMEN

Arsenic, a major environmental pollutant of global concern, is well-known for its reproductive toxicity. In this study, the protective potential of chlorogenic acid (CGA), a caffeoylquinic acid isomer abundantly found in many plants, was investigated against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-induced testicular dysfunctions. Adult male Swiss mice were either administered NaAsO2 alone at 5 mg kg-1 or co-treated with CGA at 100 mg kg-1 or 200 mg kg-1 body weight for 4 weeks. Results showed that NaAsO2-treated mice exhibited marked declines in testes weight, sperm count, and viability accompanied by decreases in sexual hormonal levels. Moreover, NaAsO2 toxicity evoked exhaustion of antioxidant markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GSH), down-regulation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) gene expression level, and elevations in malondialdehyde. Further, elevations in inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) together with the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic biomarkers (Bax and caspase- 3) and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 were observed in NaAsO2 intoxication. Immunohistochemical analysis of testis sections of NaAsO2-treated mice showed high caspase-3 expression. These findings were well supported with testicular histopathological examination. However, pretreatment of mice with CGA resulted in noteworthy improvements in testicular damage induced by arsenic in a dose-dependent manner possibly mediated by the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Conclusively, CGA counteracted arsenic-induced testicular injury through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. Therefore, CGA could serve as a favorable intervention in the alleviation of arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.

10.
Biomed Instrum Technol ; 54(4): 251-257, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171501

RESUMEN

Hospital noise is associated with adverse effects on patients and staff. Communication through overhead paging is a major contributor to hospital noise. Replacing overhead paging with smartphones through a clinical mobility platform has the potential to reduce transitory noises in the hospital setting, though this result has not been described. The current study evaluated the impact of replacing overhead paging with a smartphone-based clinical mobility platform on transitory noise levels in a labor and delivery unit. Transitory noises were defined as sound levels greater than 10 dB above baseline, as recorded by a sound level meter. Prior to smartphone implementation, 77% of all sound levels at or above 60 dB were generated by overhead paging. Overhead pages occurred at an average rate of 3.17 per hour. Following smartphone implementation, overhead pages were eliminated and transitory noises decreased by two-thirds (P < 0.001). The highest recorded sound level decreased from 76.54 to 57.34 dB following implementation. The percent of sounds that exceeded the thresholds recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency and International Noise Council decreased from 31.2% to 0.2% following implementation (P < 0.001). Replacement of overhead paging with a clinical mobility platform that utilized smartphones was associated with a significant reduction in transitory noise. Clinical mobility implementation, as part of a noise reduction strategy, may be effective in other inpatient settings.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Comunicación en Hospital , Teléfono Inteligente , Hospitales , Humanos , Ruido
11.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119888

RESUMEN

At least 60% of the neonates with opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) require morphine to control withdrawal symptoms. Currently, the morphine dosing strategies are empiric, not optimal and associated with longer hospital stay. The aim of the study was to develop a quantitative, model-based, real world data-driven approach to morphine dosing to improve clinical outcomes such as reducing time on treatment. Longitudinal morphine dose, clinical response (Modified Finnegan Score (MFS)), and baseline risk factors were collected using a retrospective cohort design from the electronic medical records of neonates with NOWS (N=177) admitted to the University of Maryland Medical Center. A dynamic linear mixed effects model was developed to describe the relationship between MFS and morphine dose adjusting for baseline risk factors using a split-sample data approach (70% training: 30% test). The training model was evaluated in the test dataset using a simulation based approach. Maternal methadone and benzodiazepine use, race were significant predictors of the MFS response. Positive autocorrelations of 0.56 and 0.12 were estimated between consecutive MFS responses. On an average, for a 1000 microgram increase in the morphine dose, the MFS decreased by 0.3 units. The model evaluation showed that observed and predicted median time on treatment were similar (13.0 vs 13.8 days). A model based framework was developed to describe the MFS-morphine dose relationship using real world data that could potentially be used to develop an adaptive, individualized morphine dosing strategy to improve clinical outcomes in infants with NOWS.

12.
Vet Med Sci ; 2020 Sep 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979302

RESUMEN

This study describes a simple method for the large-scale isolation of pure Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites. T. gondii tachyzoites were obtained from infected human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and peritoneal exudates of mice, while tissue cysts containing bradyzoites were collected from chronically infected mice. Harvested cells and brain tissues were incubated in Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS), containing 0.25% trypsin and 0.5% taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC) for 5 min. Subsequent washes in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were conducted, and the cell viability of the preparations was good, as determined by flow cytometry and ability to reinfect HFF cells and propagate in mice. The purification procedure allowed for a rapid preparation of pure T. gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites in sufficient quantity that can be used for downstream procedures. The advantage of the new method is that it is convenient and inexpensive.

13.
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat ; 28(2): 57-62, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876029

RESUMEN

Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a life-threatening, autoimmune blistering disease affecting the skin and mucous membranes, exerting a detrimental effect on the quality of life (QOL). Our aim was to evaluate the psychological status and QOL of patients with PV and investigate Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of pemphigus and associated depression. The study included 22 patients with PV, 21 patients with depression, and 20 normal controls. All the 63 participants were subjected to assessment of their QOL, psychiatric profile, as well as estimation of serum level of IL-6. All (100%) of the included patients with PV had a negative effect on their QOL, which was significant compared with controls (P<0.001). Among patients with PV, 13 patients (59.1%) had depression. IL-6 was non-significantly elevated in the pemphigus group when compared with the controls (P=0.057). QOL was significantly worse in the depressed pemphigus subgroup compared with the non-depressed pemphigus subgroup (P=0.006 and <0.001) respectively. However, IL-6 was non-significantly elevated in the depressed pemphigus subgroup compared with the non-depressed pemphigus subgroup (P=0.095). A marked deterioration in the QOL was observed in patients with pemphigus. More than 50%, but not all, of patients with pemphigus had depression. IL-6 was non-significantly elevated in patients with pemphigus.

14.
J Med Entomol ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725190

RESUMEN

Forensic entomology focuses on the analysis of insect larvae present at crime scenes to help identify unknown cadavers. Carrion-feeding maggots store food in a crop located at the anterior end of the gut. DNA recovered from the crop can be amplified, sequenced, and identified to determine the origin of the food. This information could help investigators to identify a missing victim if maggots are discovered at a crime scene in the absence of a corpse. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Musca domestica (Linnaeus) are primary forensic species. Little or no information on the identification of unknown cadavers using C. albiceps and M. domestica larvae is available, and we aimed to compare the effectiveness of using the crop contents of instars of C. albiceps and M. domestica larvae to identify corpses at different time intervals. Two hundred and forty larvae of both species were reared on rat and/or mouse liver, and DNA from crop contents was extracted after different time intervals from different instar larvae. DNA was amplified using specific primers that match the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mt COI) gene of the food source. Results showed that food provided to larvae affected life span and the ability to be used to identify unknown cadavers. Chrysomya albiceps larvae proved more useful than M. domestica larvae. Moreover, crop contents of third instar larvae of both species fed for 24 h are more useful than contents from other time intervals in identifying unknown tissues. Results are promising and may help investigators to identify unknown/missing victims.

15.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(7)2020 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605261

RESUMEN

Sarcocystis (S.) spp. are intracellular protozoan parasites that infect birds and animals, resulting in substantial commercial losses. Sarcocystis spp. have an indirect life cycle; canines and felines are known to act as final hosts, and numerous domestic and wild animals act as intermediate hosts. The presence of sarcocysts in camel meat may diminish its commercial quality. There is limited knowledge regarding the taxonomy and diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. that infect camels in Saudi Arabia. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed S. cameli and S. camelicanis (camelicanis) in Camelus (C.) dromedarius. This is the first report of S. camelicanis in Saudi Arabia and is considered a significant finding. Based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COX1) sequences, two samples of Sarcocystis spp. isolated from C. dromedarius in Riyadh and Dammam were grouped with S. levinei hosted by Bubalus bubalis in India, S. rangi hosted by Rangifer tarandus in Norway, S. miescheriana hosted by Sus scrofa in Italy and S. fayeri hosted by Equus caballus in Canada. The sequences obtained in this study have been deposited in GenBank.

16.
Pediatr Res ; 88(6): 865-870, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563185

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit may be exposed to ethanol via medications that contain ethanol as an excipient and through inhalation of ethanol vapor from hand sanitizers. We hypothesized that both pathways of exposure would result in elevated urinary biomarkers of ethanol. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from infants in incubators and in open cribs. Two ethanol metabolites, ethyl sulfate (EtS) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), were quantified in infants' urine. RESULTS: A subset of infants both in incubators and open cribs had ethanol biomarkers greater than the cutoff concentration that identifies adult alcohol consumption. These concentrations were associated with the infant having received an ethanol-containing medication on the day of urine collection. When infants who received an ethanol-containing medication were excluded from analysis, there was no difference in ethanol biomarker concentrations between the incubator and crib groups. CONCLUSIONS: Some infants who received ethanol-containing medications had concentrations of ethanol biomarkers that are indicative of adult alcohol consumption, suggesting potential exposure via ethanol excipients. IMPACT: Infants and newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit are exposed to concerning amounts of ethanol. No one has shown exposure to ethanol in these infants before this study. The impact is that better understanding of the excipients in medications given to patients in the NICU is needed. When physicians order medications in the NICU, the amount of excipient needs to be indicated.

17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 4981386, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566085

RESUMEN

Exposure to lead (Pb) causes multiorgan dysfunction including reproductive impairments. Here, we examined the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) administration on testicular injury induced by lead acetate (PbAc) exposure in rats. This study employed four experimental groups (n = 7) that underwent seven days of treatment as follows: control group intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated with 0.1 ml of 0.9% NaCl containing 1% Tween 80 (v : v), CoQ10 group that was i.p. injected with 10 mg/kg CoQ10, PbAc group that was i.p. treated with PbAc (20 mg/kg), and PbAc+CoQ10 group that was i.p. injected with CoQ10 2 h after PbAc. PbAc injection resulted in increasing residual Pb levels in the testis and reducing testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Additionally, PbAc exposure resulted in significant oxidative damage to the tissues on the testes. PbAc raised the levels of prooxidants (malondialdehyde and nitric oxide) and reduced the amount of endogenous antioxidative proteins (glutathione and its derivative enzymes, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) available in the cell. Moreover, PbAc induced the inflammatory response as evidenced by the upregulation of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta). Further, PbAc treatment induced apoptosis in the testicular cells, as indicated by an increase in Bax and caspase 3 expression, and reduced Bcl2 expression. CoQ10 supplementation improved testicular function by inhibiting Pb accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, and histopathological changes following PbAc exposure. Our findings suggest that CoQ10 can act as a natural therapeutic agent to protect against the reproductive impairments associated with PbAc exposure.

18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(14): 5162-5170, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519758

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) leads to serious renal disorders. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a phenolic compound, has several well known physiological benefits, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study investigated the potential renoprotective effects of CGA on sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 )-induced kidney damage in mice. The mice were randomly allocated into five groups to receive daily treatment with CGA (200 mg kg-1 ), NaAsO2 (5 mg kg-1 ), NaAsO2 + CGA (100 mg kg-1 ), NaAsO2 + CGA (200 mg kg-1 ), or a control for 28 days. RESULTS: In the NaAsO2 -treated group, NaAsO2 induced significant renal dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammation, and apoptosis, as demonstrated by marked increases in urea and creatinine levels accompanied by a decrease in the kidney index. Considerable increases in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels and parallel decreases in various antioxidant markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione) levels were also detected in the renal tissues of NaAsO2 -treated mice. NaAsO2 exposure was associated with marked increases in renal inflammatory markers (interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α) and apoptosis indicators including Bax and caspase-3 levels contaminant, with a marked decrease in Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, in the NaAsO2 -treated group compared with the control group. However, pretreatment with CGA substantially mitigated the renal injury and dysfunction associated with NaAsO2 exposure by reducing tissue inflammation and apoptosis and improving the antioxidant status. The CGA pretreatment also alleviated the NaAsO2 -induced histological alterations in renal tissues. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest the efficacy of CGA in alleviating As-mediated renal tissue damage. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

19.
IUBMB Life ; 72(8): 1787-1798, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478470

RESUMEN

Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is harmful to humans, especially male reproductive organs. Luteolin (LUT) is a naturally occurring flavonoid with numerous biological activities. Our aim was to investigate the possible reproprotective effect of LUT against testicular deficits induced by Pb intoxication. In the present study, 28 rats were distributed into 4 groups: control, LUT (50 mg/kg), lead acetate (PbAc, 20 mg/kg), and LUT + PbAc groups, in which rats were pre-treated with LUT 3 hr before PbAc injection. All animals were treated for 7 days. Oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers along with histopathological changes have been examined using spectrophotometric, ELISA, real-time PCR, and histopathological methods. PbAc injection elevated Pb concentration in testicular tissue and decreased levels of sex hormones. PbAc intoxication exacerbated lipoperoxidation and nitric oxide formation, depleted superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities along with glutathione and its originated enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase). At the molecular level, PbAc deactivated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 in the testicular tissue. In addition, PbAc toxicity induced inflammatory and apoptotic cascades in testicular tissue as evidenced by the increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Bax, and caspase 3, while Bcl-2 was declined. Histopathological examination of testicular tissue also revealed that PbAc caused degeneration alterations in spermatogenic cells, the spermatogenic epithelial cells were disconnected from the basement membrane, and the seminiferous tubules were vacuolated. Remarkably, pre-treatment with LUT minimized significantly the testicular damage induced by PbAc. Therefore, we conclude that LUT may have a beneficial effect against PbAc-induced testicular injury through preventing oxidative challenge, inflammation, and finally apoptosis.

20.
Biosci Rep ; 40(6)2020 06 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469389

RESUMEN

Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) belong to the herpesviridae family and cause neurological disorders by infecting the nervous system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) extract against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro. The antioxidant activity of this extract was investigated by superoxide anion and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical assays. Rosemary extract was evaluated by an HSV-1 antiviral assay, in which viral replication in Vero cells was determined and quantified using a cytopathic effect assay. The present study showed that rosemary extract at 30 µg/ml caused 55% inhibition of HSV-1 plaques, whereas 40 µg/ml rosemary extract caused 65% inhibition of HSV-2 plaques. The extracts completely inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 plaque formation at 50 µg/ml. Scavenging activity of the superoxide anion radical was observed at 65.74 mg/ml, whereas 50% scavenging activity of the DPPH radical was observed at 67.34 mg/ml. These data suggest that rosemary extract may be suitable as a topical prophylactic or therapeutic agent for herpes viral infections. However, further research is required to elucidate the plant's active constituents, which may be useful in drug development.

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