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1.
Diabet Med ; : e14548, 2021 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617669

RESUMEN

AIMS: Self-management programmes for type 1 diabetes, such as the UK's Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE), improve short-term clinical outcomes but difficulties maintaining behavioural changes attenuate long-term impact. This study used the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) framework to revise the DAFNE intervention to support sustained behaviour change. METHODS: A four-step method was based on the BCW intervention development approach: 1) Identifying self-management behaviours and barriers/enablers to maintaining them via stakeholder consultation and evidence synthesis, and mapping barriers/enablers to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model. 2) Specifying behaviour change techniques (BCTs) in the existing DAFNE intervention using the Behaviour Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1). 3) Identifying additional BCTs to target the barriers/enablers using the BCW and BCTTv1. 4) Parallel stakeholder consultation to generate recommendations for intervention revision. Revised materials were co-designed by stakeholders (diabetologists, psychologists, specialist nurses and dietitians). RESULTS: Thirty-four barriers and five enablers to sustaining self-management post-DAFNE, were identified. The existing DAFNE intervention contained 24 BCTs, which partially addressed the enablers. Twenty-seven BCTs were added, including 'Habit formation', 'Credible source' and 'Conserving mental resources'. Fifteen stakeholder-agreed recommendations for content and delivery were incorporated into the final DAFNEplus intervention, comprising three co-designed components: (1) face-to-face group learning course, (2) individual structured follow-up sessions, (3) technological support, including blood glucose data management. CONCLUSIONS: This method provided a systematic approach to specifying and revising a behaviour change intervention incorporating stakeholder input. The revised DAFNEplus intervention aims to support the maintenance of behavioural changes by targeting barriers and enablers to sustaining self-management behaviours.

2.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 20, 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435873

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback (A&F) interventions are one of the most common approaches for implementing evidence-based practices. A key barrier to more effective A&F interventions is the lack of a theory-guided approach to the accumulation of evidence. Recent interviews with theory experts identified 313 theory-informed hypotheses, spread across 30 themes, about how to create more effective A&F interventions. In the current survey, we sought to elicit from stakeholders which hypotheses were most likely to advance the field if studied further. METHODS: From the list of 313, three members of the research team identified 216 that were clear and distinguishable enough for prioritization. A web-based survey was then sent to 211 A&F intervention stakeholders asking them to choose up to 50 'priority' hypotheses following the header "A&F interventions will be more effective if…". Analyses included frequencies of endorsement of the individual hypotheses and themes into which they were grouped. RESULTS: 68 of the 211 invited participants responded to the survey. Seven hypotheses were chosen by > 50% of respondents, including A&F interventions will be more effective… "if feedback is provided by a trusted source"; "if recipients are involved in the design/development of the feedback intervention"; "if recommendations related to the feedback are based on good quality evidence"; "if the behaviour is under the control of the recipient"; "if it addresses barriers and facilitators (drivers) to behaviour change"; "if it suggests clear action plans"; and "if target/goal/optimal rates are clear and explicit". The most endorsed theme was Recipient Priorities (four hypotheses were chosen 92 times as a 'priority' hypotheses). CONCLUSIONS: This work determined a set of hypotheses thought by respondents to be to be most likely to advance the field through future A&F intervention research. This work can inform a coordinated research agenda that may more efficiently lead to more effective A&F interventions.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 105, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482752

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Better information on the typical course and management of acute common infections in the community could inform antibiotic stewardship campaigns. We aimed to investigate the incidence, management, and natural history of a range of infection syndromes (respiratory, gastrointestinal, mouth/dental, skin/soft tissue, urinary tract, and eye). METHODS: Bug Watch was an online prospective community cohort study of the general population in England (2018-2019) with weekly symptom reporting for 6 months. We combined symptom reports into infection syndromes, calculated incidence rates, described the proportion leading to healthcare-seeking behaviours and antibiotic use, and estimated duration and severity. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 873 individuals with 23,111 person-weeks follow-up. The mean age was 54 years and 528 (60%) were female. We identified 1422 infection syndromes, comprising 40,590 symptom reports. The incidence of respiratory tract infection syndromes was two per person year; for all other categories it was less than one. 194/1422 (14%) syndromes led to GP (or dentist) consultation and 136/1422 (10%) to antibiotic use. Symptoms usually resolved within a week and the third day was the most severe. CONCLUSIONS: Most people reported managing their symptoms without medical consultation. Interventions encouraging safe self-management across a range of acute infection syndromes could decrease pressure on primary healthcare services and support targets for reducing antibiotic prescribing.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones/patología , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas de Optimización del Uso de los Antimicrobianos , Estudios de Cohortes , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Infecciones/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Síndrome
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e040438, 2021 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462097

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The successful treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) requires those affected to employ insulin therapy to maintain their blood glucose levels as close to normal to avoid complications in the long-term. The Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) intervention is a group education course designed to help adults with T1D develop and sustain the complex self-management skills needed to adjust insulin in everyday life. It leads to improved glucose levels in the short term (manifest by falls in glycated haemoglobin, HbA1c), reduced rates of hypoglycaemia and sustained improvements in quality of life but overall glucose levels remain well above national targets. The DAFNEplus intervention is a development of DAFNE designed to incorporate behavioural change techniques, technology and longer-term structured support from healthcare professionals (HCPs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial in adults with T1D, delivered in diabetes centres in National Health Service secondary care hospitals in the UK. Centres will be randomised on a 1:1 basis to standard DAFNE or DAFNEplus. Primary clinical outcome is the change in HbA1c and the primary endpoint is HbA1c at 12 months, in those entering the trial with HbA1c >7.5% (58 mmol/mol), and HbA1c at 6 months is the secondary endpoint. Sample size is 662 participants (approximately 47 per centre); 92% power to detect a 0.5% difference in the primary outcome of HbA1c between treatment groups. The trial also measures rates of hypoglycaemia, psychological outcomes, an economic evaluation and process evaluation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was granted by South West-Exeter Research Ethics Committee (REC ref: 18/SW/0100) on 14 May 2018. The results of the trial will be published in a National Institute for Health Research monograph and relevant high-impact journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN42908016.

5.
PLoS Med ; 18(1): e1003433, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395437

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate the clinical effectiveness of Community Occupational Therapy for people with dementia and family carers-UK version (Community Occupational Therapy in Dementia-UK version [COTiD-UK]) relative to treatment as usual (TAU). We hypothesised that COTiD-UK would improve the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living (ADL), and family carers' sense of competence, compared with TAU. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study design was a multicentre, 2-arm, parallel-group, assessor-masked, individually randomised controlled trial (RCT) with internal pilot. It was conducted in 15 sites across England from September 2014 to January 2018. People with a diagnosis of mild to moderate dementia living in their own home were recruited in pairs with a family carer who provided domestic or personal support for at least 4 hours per week. Pairs were randomised to either receive COTiD-UK, which comprised 10 hours of occupational therapy delivered over 10 weeks in the person with dementia's home or TAU, which comprised the usual local service provision that may or may not include standard occupational therapy. The primary outcome was the Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) score at 26 weeks. Secondary outcomes for the person with dementia included the following: the BADLS scores at 52 and 78 weeks, cognition, quality of life, and mood; and for the family carer: sense of competence and mood; plus the number of social contacts and leisure activities for both partners. Participants were analysed by treatment allocated. A total of 468 pairs were recruited: people with dementia ranged from 55 to 97 years with a mean age of 78.6 and family carers ranged from 29 to 94 with a mean of 69.1 years. Of the people with dementia, 74.8% were married and 19.2% lived alone. Of the family carers, 72.6% were spouses, and 22.2% were adult children. On randomisation, 249 pairs were assigned to COTiD-UK (62% people with dementia and 23% carers were male) and 219 to TAU (52% people with dementia and 32% carers were male). At the 26 weeks follow-up, data were available for 364 pairs (77.8%). The BADLS score at 26 weeks did not differ significantly between groups (adjusted mean difference estimate 0.35, 95% CI -0.81 to 1.51; p = 0.55). Secondary outcomes did not differ between the groups. In total, 91% of the activity-based goals set by the pairs taking part in the COTiD-UK intervention were fully or partially achieved by the final COTiD-UK session. Study limitations include the following: Intervention fidelity was moderate but varied across and within sites, and the reliance on primarily proxy data focused on measuring the level of functional or cognitive impairment which may not truly reflect the actual performance and views of the person living with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Providing community occupational therapy as delivered in this study did not improve ADL performance, cognition, quality of life, or mood in people with dementia nor sense of competence or mood in family carers. Future research should consider measuring person-centred outcomes that are more meaningful and closely aligned to participants' priorities, such as goal achievement or the quantity and quality of activity engagement and participation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10748953.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e044763, 2021 01 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441367

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a major societal challenge that requires large-scale behaviour change, widespread collective action and cooperation to reduce viral transmission. Existing literature indicates that several messaging approaches may be effective, including emphasising the benefits to the recipient, aligning with the recipient's moral values and focusing on protecting others. Current research suggests that prosocial public health messages that highlight behaviours linked to societal benefits (eg, protecting 'each other'), rather than focusing on behaviours that protect oneself (eg, protecting 'yourself'), may be a more effective method for communicating strategies related to infectious disease. To investigate this we will conduct a systematic review that will identify what messages and behaviour change techniques have the potential to optimise the effect on population behaviour in relation to reducing transmission of respiratory infections. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic literature search of published and unpublished studies (including grey literature) in electronic databases will be conducted to identify those that meet our inclusion criteria. The search will be run in four electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Scopus. We will also conduct supplementary searches in databases of 'grey' literature such as PsycEXTRA, Social Science Research Network and OSF PREPRINTS, and use the Google Scholar search engine. A systematic approach to searching, screening, reviewing and data extraction will be applied based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Titles, abstracts and full texts for eligibility will be examined independently by researchers. The quality of the included studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies-of Interventions tool. Disagreements will be resolved by a consensus procedure. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol has been registered with PROSPERO. No ethical approval is required, as there will be no collection of primary data. The synthesised findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020198874.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Salud Pública/métodos , Proyectos de Investigación , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto/métodos , Humanos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 30, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407283

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smartphone apps are increasingly used for health-related behaviour change and people discover apps through different sources. However, it is unclear whether users differ by mode of app discovery. Drink Less is an alcohol reduction app that received national media coverage in the UK caused by celebrity influence (a male TV and radio national broadcaster, aged 51). Our aim was to compare users who discovered the app before and after this coverage. METHODS: A natural experiment assessing the impact of media coverage of Drink Less on users' socio-demographic and drinking characteristics, app engagement levels, and extent of alcohol reduction. The study period was from 17th May 2017 to 23rd January 2019, with media coverage starting on 21st August 2018. Users were 18 years or over, based in the UK and interested in drinking less. Interrupted time series analyses using Generalised Additive Mixed Models were conducted for each outcome variable aggregated at the weekly level. RESULTS: In 66 weeks prior to the media coverage, 8617 users downloaded the app and 18,959 in 23 weeks afterwards. There was a significant step-level increase in users' mean age (B = 8.17, p < .001) and a decrease in the percentage of female users (B = -27.71, p < .001), though these effects dissipated non-linearly over time. No effect of media coverage was detected on employment type or on the percentage of at-risk drinkers, though the mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score was lower after the media coverage (B = -1.43, p = .031). There was a step-level increase in app engagement - number of sessions (B = 3.45, p = .038) and number of days used (B = 2.30, p = .005) - which continued to increase over time following quadratic trends. CONCLUSIONS: Celebrity influence leading to national media coverage in the UK of the Drink Less app was associated with more people downloading the app who were male, older and engaged with the app; and did not appear to impact employment inequality.

8.
BMJ ; 372: m4858, 2021 01 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468518

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The HOME BP (Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure) trial aimed to test a digital intervention for hypertension management in primary care by combining self-monitoring of blood pressure with guided self-management. DESIGN: Unmasked randomised controlled trial with automated ascertainment of primary endpoint. SETTING: 76 general practices in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 622 people with treated but poorly controlled hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg) and access to the internet. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomised by using a minimisation algorithm to self-monitoring of blood pressure with a digital intervention (305 participants) or usual care (routine hypertension care, with appointments and drug changes made at the discretion of the general practitioner; 317 participants). The digital intervention provided feedback of blood pressure results to patients and professionals with optional lifestyle advice and motivational support. Target blood pressure for hypertension, diabetes, and people aged 80 or older followed UK national guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the difference in systolic blood pressure (mean of second and third readings) after one year, adjusted for baseline blood pressure, blood pressure target, age, and practice, with multiple imputation for missing values. RESULTS: After one year, data were available from 552 participants (88.6%) with imputation for the remaining 70 participants (11.4%). Mean blood pressure dropped from 151.7/86.4 to 138.4/80.2 mm Hg in the intervention group and from 151.6/85.3 to 141.8/79.8 mm Hg in the usual care group, giving a mean difference in systolic blood pressure of -3.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval -6.1 to -0.8 mm Hg) and a mean difference in diastolic blood pressure of -0.5 mm Hg (-1.9 to 0.9 mm Hg). Results were comparable in the complete case analysis and adverse effects were similar between groups. Within trial costs showed an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of £11 ($15, €12; 95% confidence interval £6 to £29) per mm Hg reduction. CONCLUSIONS: The HOME BP digital intervention for the management of hypertension by using self-monitored blood pressure led to better control of systolic blood pressure after one year than usual care, with low incremental costs. Implementation in primary care will require integration into clinical workflows and consideration of people who are digitally excluded. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN13790648.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial/métodos , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Hipertensión/terapia , Automanejo , Telemedicina/métodos , Anciano , Antihipertensivos/administración & dosificación , Antihipertensivos/efectos adversos , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial/economía , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial/normas , Femenino , Medicina General/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reino Unido
9.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 177, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215048

RESUMEN

Background: To efficiently search, compare, test and integrate behaviour change theories, they need to be specified in a way that is clear, consistent and computable. An ontology-based modelling system (OBMS) has previously been shown to be able to represent five commonly used theories in this way. We aimed to assess whether the OBMS could be applied more widely and to create a database of behaviour change theories, their constructs and propositions. Methods: We labelled the constructs within 71 theories and used the OBMS to represent the relationships between the constructs. Diagrams of each theory were sent to authors or experts for feedback and amendment. The 71 finalised diagrams plus the five previously generated diagrams were used to create a searchable database of 76 theories in the form of construct-relationship-construct triples. We conducted a set of illustrative analyses to characterise theories in the database. Results: All 71 theories could be satisfactorily represented using this system. In total, 35 (49%) were finalised with no or very minor amendment. The remaining 36 (51%) were finalised after changes to the constructs (seven theories), relationships between constructs (15 theories) or both (14 theories) following author/expert feedback. The mean number of constructs per theory was 20 (min. = 6, max. = 72), with the mean number of triples per theory 31 (min. = 7, max. = 89). Fourteen distinct relationship types were used, of which the most commonly used was 'influences', followed by 'part of'. Conclusions: The OBMS can represent a wide array of behavioural theories in a precise, computable format. This system should provide a basis for better integration and synthesis of theories than has hitherto been possible.

10.
Addiction ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220115

RESUMEN

AIM: To assess the effectiveness of training stop smoking service providers in Malaysia to deliver support for smoking cessation based on the UK National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training (NCSCT) Standard Treatment Programme compared with usual care. DESIGN: Two-arm cluster randomised controlled effectiveness trial across 19 sites with follow-up at 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. SETTING: Stop smoking services operating in public hospitals in Malaysia. PARTICIPANTS: 502 smokers (mean[SD] age 45.6[13.4] years; 97.4% male) attending stop smoking services in hospital settings in Malaysia: 330 in 10 hospitals in the intervention condition and 172 in nine hospitals in the control condition. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The intervention consisted of training stop-smoking practitioners to deliver support and follow-up according to the NCSCT Standard Treatment Programme. The comparator was usual care (brief support and follow-up). MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was continuous tobacco smoking abstinence up to 6 months in smokers who received smoking cessation treatment, verified by expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) concentration. Secondary outcomes were continuous CO-verified tobacco smoking abstinence up to 4 weeks and 3 months. RESULTS: Follow-up rates at 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months were 80.0%, 70.6%, and 53.3% respectively in the intervention group and 48.8%, 30.8%, and 23.3% respectively in the control group. At 6-month follow-up, 93 participants in the intervention group and 19 participants in the control group were abstinent from smoking, representing 28.2% versus 11.0% in an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis assuming that participants with missing data had resumed smoking, and 52.8% vs. 47.5% in a follow-up-only (FUO) analysis. Unadjusted odds ratios (accounting for clustering) were 5.04 (95%CI:1.22-20.77, p=0.025) and 1.70 (95%CI:0.25-11.53, p=0.589) in the ITT and FUO analyses respectively. Abstinence rates at 4-week and 3-month follow-ups were significantly higher in the intervention versus control group in the ITT but not the FUO analysis. CONCLUSIONS: On an intention-to-treat analysis with missing-equals-smoking imputation, training Malaysian stop smoking service providers in the 'UK National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training Standard Treatment Programme' appeared to increase 6-month continuous abstinence rates in smokers seeking help with stopping compared with usual care. However, the effect may have been due to increasing follow-up rates.

12.
BMJ ; 371: m4171, 2020 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139254
13.
Transl Behav Med ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085767

RESUMEN

Health risk behaviors are leading contributors to morbidity, premature mortality associated with chronic diseases, and escalating health costs. However, traditional interventions to change health behaviors often have modest effects, and limited applicability and scale. To better support health improvement goals across the care continuum, new approaches incorporating various smart technologies are being utilized to create more individualized digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs). The purpose of this study is to identify context-aware DBCIs that provide individualized interventions to improve health. A systematic review of published literature (2013-2020) was conducted from multiple databases and manual searches. All included DBCIs were context-aware, automated digital health technologies, whereby user input, activity, or location influenced the intervention. Included studies addressed explicit health behaviors and reported data of behavior change outcomes. Data extracted from studies included study design, type of intervention, including its functions and technologies used, behavior change techniques, and target health behavior and outcomes data. Thirty-three articles were included, comprising mobile health (mHealth) applications, Internet of Things wearables/sensors, and internet-based web applications. The most frequently adopted behavior change techniques were in the groupings of feedback and monitoring, shaping knowledge, associations, and goals and planning. Technologies used to apply these in a context-aware, automated fashion included analytic and artificial intelligence (e.g., machine learning and symbolic reasoning) methods requiring various degrees of access to data. Studies demonstrated improvements in physical activity, dietary behaviors, medication adherence, and sun protection practices. Context-aware DBCIs effectively supported behavior change to improve users' health behaviors.

14.
Addiction ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067856

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Digital interventions are effective for reducing alcohol consumption but evidence is limited regarding smartphone apps. Drink Less is a theory- and evidence-informed app to help people reduce their alcohol consumption that has been refined in terms of its content and design for usability across the sociodemographic spectrum. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of recommending Drink Less at reducing alcohol consumption compared with usual digital care. DESIGN: Two-arm individually randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Online trial in the United Kingdom (UK). PARTICIPANTS: Hazardous or harmful drinkers (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] score ≥8) aged 18+ who want to drink less alcohol (n = 5562). Participants will be recruited from July 2020 to May 2022 using multiple strategies with a focus on remote digital methods. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Participants will be randomised to receive either an email recommending that they use Drink Less (intervention) or view the National Health Service (NHS) webpage on alcohol advice (comparator). MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome is change in self-reported weekly alcohol consumption, assessed using the extended AUDIT-Consumption, between baseline and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include change in self-reported weekly alcohol consumption assessed at 1- and 3-month follow-ups, and the proportion of hazardous drinkers; alcohol-related problems and injury; health-related quality of life; and use of health services assessed at 6-month follow-up. Effectiveness will be examined with adjusted regression models, adjusting for baseline alcohol consumption and using an intention-to-treat approach. A mixed-methods process evaluation will assess engagement, acceptability and mechanism of action. Economic evaluations will be conducted using both a short- and longer-term time horizon. COMMENTS: This study will establish the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Drink Less app at reducing alcohol consumption among hazardous and harmful adult drinkers and will be the first randomised controlled trial of an alcohol reduction app for the general population in the United Kingdom. This study will inform the decision on whether it is worth investing resources in large-scale implementation.

16.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 124, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964137

RESUMEN

Background: Contextual factors such as an intervention's setting are key to understanding how interventions to change behaviour have their effects and patterns of generalisation across contexts. The intervention's setting is not consistently reported in published reports of evaluations. Using ontologies to specify and classify intervention setting characteristics enables clear and reproducible reporting, thus aiding replication, implementation and evidence synthesis. This paper reports the development of a Setting Ontology for behaviour change interventions as part of a Behaviour Change Intervention Ontology, currently being developed in the Wellcome Trust funded Human Behaviour-Change Project. Methods: The Intervention Setting Ontology was developed following methods for ontology development used in the Human Behaviour-Change Project: 1) Defining the ontology's scope, 2) Identifying key entities by reviewing existing classification systems (top-down) and 100 published behaviour change intervention reports (bottom-up), 3) Refining the preliminary ontology by literature annotation of 100 reports, 4) Stakeholder reviewing by 23 behavioural science and public health experts to refine the ontology, 5) Assessing inter-rater reliability of using the ontology by two annotators familiar with the ontology and two annotators unfamiliar with it, 6) Specifying ontological relationships between setting entities and 7) Making the Intervention Setting Ontology machine-readable using Web Ontology Language (OWL) and publishing online. Re sults: The Intervention Setting Ontology consists of 72 entities structured hierarchically with two upper-level classes: Physical setting including Geographic location, Attribute of location (including Area social and economic condition, Population and resource density sub-levels) and Intervention site (including Facility, Transportation and Outdoor environment sub-levels), as well as Social setting. Inter-rater reliability was found to be 0.73 (good) for those familiar with the ontology and 0.61 (acceptable) for those unfamiliar with it. Conclusion: The Intervention Setting Ontology can be used to code information from diverse sources, annotate the setting characteristics of existing intervention evaluation reports and guide future reporting.

17.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(11): 827-842, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959875

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Behavioral interventions typically include multiple behavior change techniques (BCTs). The theory informing the selection of BCTs for an intervention may be stated explicitly or remain unreported, thus impeding the identification of links between theory and behavior change outcomes. PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify groups of BCTs commonly occurring together in behavior change interventions and examine whether behavior change theories underlying these groups could be identified. METHODS: The study involved three phases: (a) a factor analysis to identify groups of co-occurring BCTs from 277 behavior change intervention reports; (b) examining expert consensus (n = 25) about links between BCT groups and behavioral theories; (c) a comparison of the expert-linked theories with theories explicitly mentioned by authors of the 277 intervention reports. RESULTS: Five groups of co-occurring BCTs (range: 3-13 BCTs per group) were identified through factor analysis. Experts agreed on five links (≥80% of experts), comprising three BCT groups and five behavior change theories. Four of the five BCT group-theory links agreed by experts were also stated by study authors in intervention reports using similar groups of BCTs. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to identify groups of BCTs frequently used together in interventions. Experts made shared inferences about behavior change theory underlying these BCT groups, suggesting that it may be possible to propose a theoretical basis for interventions where authors do not explicitly put forward a theory. These results advance our understanding of theory use in multicomponent interventions and build the evidence base for further understanding theory-based intervention development and evaluation.

18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1359, 2020 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938432

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: National Health Service Health Checks were introduced in 2009 to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks and events. Since then, national evaluations have highlighted the need to maximise the programme's impact by improving coverage and outputs. To address these challenges it is important to understand the extent to which positive behaviours are influenced across the NHS Health Check pathway and encourage the promotion or minimisation of behavioural facilitators and barriers respectively. This study applied behavioural science frameworks to: i) identify behaviours and actors relevant to uptake, delivery and follow up of NHS Health Checks and influences on these behaviours and; ii) signpost to example intervention content. METHODS: A systematic review of studies reporting behaviours related to NHS Health Check-related behaviours of patients, health care professionals (HCPs) and commissioners. Influences on behaviours were coded using theory-based models: COM-B and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Potential intervention types and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were suggested to target key influences. RESULTS: We identified 37 studies reporting nine behaviours and influences for eight of these. The most frequently identified influences were physical opportunity including HCPs having space and time to deliver NHS Health Checks and patients having money to adhere to recommendations to change diet and physical activity. Other key influences were motivational, such as beliefs about consequences about the value of NHS Health Checks and behaviour change, and social, such as influences of others on behaviour change. The following techniques are suggested for websites or smartphone apps: Adding objects to the environment, e.g. provide HCPs with electronic schedules to guide timely delivery of Health Checks to target physical opportunity, Social support (unspecified), e.g. include text suggesting patients to ask a colleague to agree in advance to join them in taking the 'healthy option' lunch at work; Information about health consequences, e.g. quotes and/or videos from patients talking about the health benefits of changes they have made. CONCLUSIONS: Through the application of behavioural science we identified key behaviours and their influences which informed recommendations for intervention content. To ascertain the extent to which this reflects existing interventions we recommend a review of relevant evidence.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239402, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997681

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that early life is critical for determining future obesity risk. A sharper policy focus on pregnancy and early childhood could help improve obesity prevention efforts. This study aimed to systematically identify and categorise policy levers used in England with potential to influence early life course (pregnancy, 0-5 years) and identify how these interface with energy balance behaviours. The objective is to identify gaps and where further policy actions could most effectively focus. METHODS: A behavioural science approach was taken using the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model and Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) framework. The key determinants of energy balance in the early years were identified from the Foresight Systems Map. Policy actions were scoped systematically from available literature, including any health or non-health policies which could impact on energy balance behaviours. Foresight variables and policy actions were considered in terms of COM-B and the BCW to determine approaches likely to be effective for obesity prevention and treatment. Existing policies were overlaid across the map of key risk factors to identify gaps in obesity prevention and treatment provision. RESULTS: A wide range of policy actions were identified (n = 115) to address obesity-relevant risk factors. These were most commonly educational or guidelines relating to environmental restructuring (i.e. changing the physical or social context). Scope for strengthening policies relating to the food system (e.g. the market price of food) and psychological factors contributing to obesity were identified. Policies acted via all aspects of the COM-B model, but there was scope for improving policies to increase capability through skills acquisition and both reflective and automatic motivation. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial policy activity to address early years obesity but much is focused on education. Scope exists to strengthen actions relating to upstream policies which act on food systems and those targeting psychological factors contributing to obesity risk.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Obesidad/prevención & control , Políticas , Ciencias de la Conducta , Inglaterra , Humanos , Motivación , Obesidad/psicología
20.
West J Nurs Res ; : 193945920954782, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909523

RESUMEN

Applying the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy has the potential to facilitate identification of effective childhood obesity intervention components. This article evaluates the feasibility of coding Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Consortium interventions and compares reliability between external taxonomy-familiar coders and internal intervention-familiar coders. After training, coder pairs independently coded prespecified portions of intervention materials. An adjudication process was used to explore coding discrepancies. Reliability between internal and external coders was moderate (prevalence and bias-adjusted kappa .38 to .55). Reliability for specific target behaviors varied with substantial agreement for physical activity (.63 to .76) and moderate for dietary intake (.44 to .63). Applying the taxonomy to these interventions was feasible, but agreement was modest. Coding discrepancies highlight the importance of refining coding to capture the complexities of childhood obesity interventions, which often engage multiple recipients (e.g., parents and/or children) and address multiple behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, screen time).

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