Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 53
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
J Food Sci ; 85(2): 386-393, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985832

RESUMEN

Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds were analyzed in the fruits of juneberry (Amelanchier lamarckii). Different food products were made from fresh juneberry fruits: jam, liqueur, juice, and tea. A detailed analysis of the phenolic component was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and the content of phenolics in different products was compared with the control treatment (fresh fruits extracted with 70% methanol: 27% water: 3% formic acid; v/v/v). Four sugars and six organic acids were determined in the fruits. The main sugars were glucose (61 g/kg fresh weight [FW]) and fructose (64 g/kg FW) and the acids: malic (5.85 g/kg FW) and citric acid (2.6 g/kg) were abundant. Hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonol glycosides were the major phenolic groups in juneberry fruits. Fruit processing significantly affected the content of phenolic compounds in the different fruit products. Liqueur had 17% higher phenolic acid contents than the control treatment (fresh fruits extracted with a solution of 70% MeOH/27% H2 O/3% formic acid) and jam had 14% higher content than the control, calculated on the dry mass of fruit. Juneberry juice had the highest content of total analyzed phenolics (298 mg/100 mL), followed by liqueur (108 mg/100 mL) and tea (8 mg/100 mL). Fruits of juneberry are rich in bioactive compounds and a useful source for the food industry for making various health snacks, jellies, marmalades, alcoholic drinks, juices, and so on. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Juneberry is becoming a desirable organically grown fruit species with many views as new functional food. The content of phenolic compounds has been measured in different food products made from juneberries. The results could be useful for food and nutraceutical industry.

2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 343-353, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584698

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Herbs are rich in various beneficial bioactive compounds and they can be used for many different purposes. One of the most common is maceration of herbs in alcohol. Different substances respond differently to extraction in prepared solutions. It is very important to enhance the highest proportion of beneficial ingredients during the maceration process in a herbal liqueur. A comparative analysis of numerous different phenolic compounds from eight of the most frequently used herbs for making aperitifs in Europe was performed. RESULTS: In the comparison among all studied herbs, the highest phenolic content was found with Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) (14.61 mg g-1 ) and Mentha piperita (peppermint) (13.89 mg g-1 ), while the lowest content was found with Centaurium erythraea (common centaury) (3.96 mg g-1 ). Salvianolic acid isomers and caffeic acid derivatives were the greatest contributors to the total phenolic content in lemon balm, wormwood, peppermint, fennel and sage. These compounds contain more hydroxyl groups and they were better extracted at the beginning of the maceration process. Caraway and common centaury contain more flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol derivatives), with higher chemical stability and fewer hydroxyl groups in their structure. CONCLUSION: The compositions of eight herbal liqueurs were highly related to the presence of different herbal ingredients and their solubility in the extract over time. Most flavonol derivatives were extracted over a longer time and the two liqueurs (common centaury and caraway) therefore had the highest phenolic contents after 3 weeks of maceration. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/química , Plantas Medicinales/química , Artemisia/química , Carum/química , Centaurium/química , Europa (Continente) , Manipulación de Alimentos , Isomerismo , Mentha piperita/química , Fenoles/química
3.
J Med Food ; 22(1): 102-108, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222488

RESUMEN

Medicinal plants are widely used for the relief of disease symptoms or as dietary supplements. In recent decades, purple coneflower has become extremely well known. An infusion or tincture of purple coneflower can be prepared by anyone simply, inexpensively, and ecologically safely. Three plant parts of purple coneflower were used in the study: extracts from roots, flowers, and leaves were obtained using three different solvents (100% and 40% ethanol and water). High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometer identified and quantified 23 individual phenolics. Pure (100%) ethanol gave the lowest yield of all the investigated phenolic compounds in all herb parts. Chicoric and caftaric acids were the major phenolic compounds in coneflower. Caftaric acid, with health promoting properties, was extracted best in a water solution from purple coneflower leaves (2673.31 mg/100 g dry weight [DW]) and chicoric acid, also with a beneficial effect on human health, yielded the highest levels in 40% ethanol solution from flowers (1571.79 mg/100 g DW) and roots (1396.27 mg/100 g DW).


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Cafeicos/análisis , Echinacea/química , Flores/química , Fenoles/análisis , Extractos Vegetales , Hojas de la Planta/química , Raíces de Plantas/química , Succinatos/análisis , Química Farmacéutica , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Tés de Hierbas
4.
Food Chem ; 272: 434-440, 2019 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309566

RESUMEN

Chemical composition and colorimetric parameters of alcoholic liqueurs prepared from rose petals were evaluated by comparing the potential of three cultivars ('Amadeus', 'Colossal Meidiland' and 'Rosanna') and three traditional methods of preparation (fresh/air-dried petals extracted in 50% ethanol or aqueous sucrose syrup). Extraction was performed at room temperature for 2 weeks. High performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of 6 anthocyanins, 4 flavanols, 4 phenolic acids, 2 hydrolysable tannins and 31 flavonols in petal liqueurs. The highest concentrations of anthocyanins were determined in extracts from 'Amadeus' petals, followed by 'Colossal Meidiland' and finally, 'Rosanna'. The best extraction yields and optimal colour characteristics were achieved by ethanolic extraction of dry petals followed by fresh petal extraction in ethanol and, finally, extraction in sucrose syrup. Air-dehydration of 'Amadeus' petals prior to extraction in 50% ethanol yielded rose liqueur with the best all round characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Fenoles/análisis , Rosa/química , Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Antocianinas/análisis , Antocianinas/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Color , Etanol/química , Espectrometría de Masas , Fenoles/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Rosa/metabolismo , Sacarosa/química , Temperatura Ambiental
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 216, 2018 Oct 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285622

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Commercially available poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) varieties prevalently accumulate cyanidin derivatives and show intense red coloration. Orange-red bract color is less common. We investigated four cultivars displaying four different red hues with respect to selected enzymes and genes of the anthocyanin pathway, putatively determining the color hue. RESULTS: Red hues correlated with anthocyanin composition and concentration and showed common dark red coloration in cultivars 'Christmas Beauty' and 'Christmas Feeling' where cyanidin derivatives were prevalent. In contrast, orange-red bract color is based on the prevalent presence of pelargonidin derivatives that comprised 85% of the total anthocyanin content in cv. 'Premium Red' and 96% in cv. 'Harvest Orange' (synonym: 'Orange Spice'). cDNA clones of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) were isolated from the four varieties, and functional activity and substrate specificity of the corresponding recombinant enzymes were studied. Kinetic studies demonstrated that poinsettia DFRs prefer dihydromyricetin and dihydroquercetin over dihydrokaempferol, and thus, favor the formation of cyanidin over pelargonidin. Whereas the F3'H cDNA clones of cultivars 'Christmas Beauty', 'Christmas Feeling', and 'Premium Red' encoded functionally active enzymes, the F3'H cDNA clone of cv. 'Harvest Orange' contained an insertion of 28 bases, which is partly a duplication of 20 bases found close to the insertion site. This causes a frameshift mutation with a premature stop codon after nucleotide 132 and, therefore, a non-functional enzyme. Heterozygosity of the F3'H was demonstrated in this cultivar, but only the mutated allele was expressed in the bracts. No correlation between F3'H-expression and the color hue could be observed in the four species. CONCLUSIONS: Rare orange-red poinsettia hues caused by pelargonidin based anthocyanins can be achieved by different mechanisms. F3'H is a critical step in the establishment of orange red poinsettia color. Although poinsettia DFR shows a low substrate specificity for dihydrokaempferol, sufficient precursor for pelargonidin formation is available in planta, in the absence of F3'H activity.


Asunto(s)
Codón sin Sentido , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/genética , Euphorbia/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Clonación Molecular , Euphorbia/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Pigmentación/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa
6.
J Food Sci ; 83(7): 1856-1861, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905949

RESUMEN

Bilberries are processed into different food products and beverages. Therefore, we studied how various bilberry items (puree, infusion, liqueur, and fresh and pasteurized juices) differ in secondary metabolites as compared to the fresh fruit. For this purpose, we identified phenolics with a liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS) system and compared phenolic profiles and phenolic contents in various bilberry products prepared from the same raw material. Our results show that processing significantly affected the biochemical pattern and levels of phenolics. Total analyzed phenolics decreased with processing, mostly due to anthocyanins, which had the highest share in phenolic profile of all bilberry-based products. The highest differences among products in flavanol (63.7-fold), followed by flavonol contents (26.3-fold). Fresh fruits had the highest content of total anthocyanins (5,190 mg/100 g dry weight [DW]), followed by puree (2,719 mg/100 g DW), infusion (2,469 mg/100 g DW), and liqueur (1,830 mg/100 g DW), whereas fresh and pasteurized juices had the lowest content of total anthocyanins (921 and 1,099 mg/100 g DW). PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Although we confirmed the common belief among consumers that the consumption of fresh berries is more beneficial than consuming processed products, this study showed that various bilberry-derived products can also be valuable source of phenolic compounds all year round.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/química , Fenoles/análisis , Vaccinium myrtillus/química , Antocianinas/análisis , Bebidas/análisis , Cromatografía Liquida , Flavonoles/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas , Polifenoles/análisis
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(22): 5439-5450, 2018 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757634

RESUMEN

Changes in the photosynthetic traits of plants and metabolic composition of fruits of two tomato cultivars, grafted onto two rootstocks, grown in three salinity levels were studied in two growing periods during the season. Increased salinity stress conditions lowered water potential, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of grafted tomato plants, in both growing periods. Water deficit induced stomatal closure, which resulted in stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. The proline content in tomato leaves increased and was closely correlated with salinity. Some of the quality parameters of tomato fruits were affected by rootstock. The sugar/acid ratio was the highest in fruits of 'Belle'/'Maxifort' grafts. With increasing salt stress conditions from 40 to 60 mM NaCl, the lycopene content increased and ascorbic acid content decreased in fruits of 'Gardel'/'Maxifort' grafts, indicating the ability of this scion/rootstock combination to mitigate the toxicity effect of salinity stress. A higher phenolics concentration in fruits from the first growing period may be an additional indicator of stress, caused by higher temperatures and solar radiation, compared with the later period.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis , Cloruro de Sodio/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Prolina/análisis , Prolina/metabolismo , Salinidad , Estaciones del Año , Cloruro de Sodio/análisis , Estrés Fisiológico
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(11): 2742-2748, 2018 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494766

RESUMEN

A rare walnut variant with a red seed coat (pellicle) was examined for alterations in its phenolic profile during development. The red-walnut (RW) pellicle was compared with two commonly colored walnut varieties: 'Lara' (brown) and 'Fernor' (light brown). Furthermore, the activities of selected enzymes of the phenylpropanoid- and flavonoid-related pathways and the relative expressions of the structural genes phenylalanine ammonia lyase ( PAL) and anthocyanidin synthase ( ANS) were examined in the pellicles of the three varieties. In the pellicles of the RWs, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and related PAL expression was most pronounced in August, about one month before commercial maturity, suggesting a high synthesis rate of phenolic compounds at this development stage. The most pronounced differences between the red and light- and dark-brown varieties were the increased PAL activity, PAL expression, and ANS expression in RWs in August. The vibrant color of the RW pellicle is based on the presence of four derivatives of cyanidin- and delphinidin-hexosides.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/biosíntesis , Juglans/química , Nueces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Oxigenasas/genética , Fenoles/química , Fenilanina Amoníaco-Liasa/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Antocianinas/química , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación del Desarrollo de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Juglans/enzimología , Juglans/genética , Juglans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Nueces/química , Nueces/genética , Nueces/metabolismo , Oxigenasas/metabolismo , Fenoles/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Fenilanina Amoníaco-Liasa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 252: 349-355, 2018 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478553

RESUMEN

In studies of secondary metabolites in nuts, many constituents in the kernel remain unidentified due to a high content of phenolic compounds in the pellicle. In the present study, we focused on the investigation of the phenolic and dicarboxylic acid profiles of walnut and hazelnut pellicle-less kernels. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-MSn) was used to carry out the determination of individual phenolics and dicarboxylic acids in brown and red-pellicle walnut and hazelnut. Results show that hexahydroxydiphenic acid (HHDP) di-galloyl hexose isomer, vanillic acid hexoside, quinic acid derivative and catechin are the main constituents of the phenolic profile of walnut, while galloylquinic derivative, caffeoyl hexoside and catechin are the main constituents of the hazelnut kernel. Even though both walnut and hazelnut kernels have a considerably lower content of phenolic compounds and dicarboxylic acids in comparison to the pellicles, when calculated as a percentage of the total mass, the kernel makes a significant contribution to the total phenolic content of the whole nut.


Asunto(s)
Juglans/química , Nueces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fenoles/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Catequina/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Color , Corylus/química , Corylus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Juglans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Espectrometría de Masas , Nueces/química
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(9): 3333-3342, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240233

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Interest in organic blue honeysuckle berries has increased in recent years. They are rich in various health-promoting compounds which are sensitive to different environmental factors and are modified during the growing season. RESULTS: Honeysuckle berries from different locations differed significantly in their contents of primary and secondary metabolites. The location Ogulin, with the highest altitude and consequently high UV radiation, had the highest phenolic content (259.85 mg per 100 g). Additionally, Vukovski Vrh, with the lowest temperature, had the highest ascorbic acid content (36.83 mg per 100 g), while Smartno pri Litiji and Visnja Gora, with the highest precipitation, had the highest organic acid contents (885.85 and 850.01 mg per 100 g respectively). A combination of stressful environmental conditions of temperature, water source and light intensity led to the highest saponin content in Visnja Gora (695 mg per 100 g), the highest tannin content in Dolnje Impolje (134 mg per 100 g) and the highest sugar content (2585.45 mg per 100 g) in Vucetinac. CONCLUSION: The contents of bioactive substances were influenced by various environmental factors such as temperature, UV radiation, altitude, light intensity and fruit ripening stage. Different compounds respond distinctly to different environmental factors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Frutas/química , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Lonicera/crecimiento & desarrollo , Altitud , Antioxidantes/análisis , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Croacia , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Fenoles/análisis , Saponinas/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Eslovenia , Taninos/análisis , Temperatura Ambiental , Rayos Ultravioleta
11.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0190246, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272302

RESUMEN

Relative expressions of structural genes and a number of transcription factors of the anthocyanin pathway relevant in Vaccinium species, and related key enzyme activities were compared with the composition and content of metabolites in skins of ripe fruits of wild albino and blue bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) found in Slovenia. Compared to the common blue type, the albino variant had a 151-fold lower total anthocyanin and a 7-fold lower total phenolic content in their berry skin, which correlated with lower gene expression of flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (FGT; 33-fold), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (FHT; 18-fold), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS; 11-fold), chalcone synthase (CHS, 7.6-fold) and MYBPA1 transcription factor (22-fold). The expression of chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and MYBC2 transcription factor was reduced only by a factor of 1.5-2 in the albino berry skins, while MYBR3 and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) were increased to a similar extent. Expression of the SQUAMOSA class transcription factor TDR4, in contrast, was independent of the color type and does therefore not seem to be correlated with anthocyanin formation in this variant. At the level of enzymes, significantly lower FHT and DFR activities, but not of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and CHS/CHI, were observed in the fruit skins of albino bilberries. A strong increase in relative hydroxycinnamic acid derivative concentrations indicates the presence of an additional bottleneck in the general phenylpropanoid pathway at a so far unknown step between PAL and CHS.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Genes Reguladores , Vaccinium myrtillus/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Fenoles/metabolismo , Eslovenia , Especificidad de la Especie , Vaccinium myrtillus/genética
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(48): 10621-10629, 2017 Dec 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125745

RESUMEN

In fruit production seeds are mostly regarded as waste, but for plants they represent a beginning of new life. Seeds accumulate toxic or health-beneficial compounds, and the elucidation of their metabolic profile is especially important to people who consume the entire fruit, including the seeds. The present research quantifies the levels of bioactive compounds (phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides (CGG)) in fruit seeds of 35 cultivars belonging to 6 different fruit species. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrophotometry were used to detect and identify the studied compounds. Significant differences in the content of individual bioactive compounds as well as their groups were recorded (p < 0.05). For the first time neoamygdalin and prunasin were detected in a number of fruit cultivars. All fruit seeds, except pears, accumulated from 2- to 46-fold higher levels of CGG than phenolics. On average, seeds contained from 75.46 to 1648.14 µg/g phenolics and from 46.39 to 4374.31 µg/g CGG. The study also clarifies the new lethal dose for cyanogenic glycosides.


Asunto(s)
Extractos Vegetales/química , Rosaceae/química , Semillas/química , Residuos/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Frutas/química , Frutas/clasificación , Glicósidos/química , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masas , Fenoles/química , Rosaceae/clasificación , Semillas/clasificación
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(31): 6615-6624, 2017 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692264

RESUMEN

Alterations in phenolic contents were studied in Esca symptomatic (Sym) and asymptomatic (Asym) vines of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' based on wood conditions (healthy, HLT; necrotic, Nec; and rotten, Rot) and vine parts (head, trunk, and rootstock). In Asym vines, only Alternaria alternate was identified in Nec wood, while the HLT wood of Sym vines was colonized by Botryospaeriaceae sp. and Aureobasidium pullulans, Nec wood by Fomitiporia mediterranea, and Rot wood by Fomitiporia mediterranea and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. Esca infection caused a significant accumulation of gallic acid, total flavanols, stilbenes (STB), and total analyzed phenolics (TAP) in all studied woods, especially in Nec wood. In Asym vines, TAP in the head increased with necrosis, but in Sym it decreased, while TAP in the trunk and rootstock of Sym showed an opposite response. The significantly highest contents of procyanidins (Pcys), catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallates, and Pcys dimers and tetramers were measured in HLT wood in the head and in Nec wood in the trunk of Sym vines. The significant increase of STB content was not caused only by Esca infection in HLT wood but also by necrosis in Asym vines, especially of ε-viniferin glucoside, resveratrol glycosides, and astringin. The obtained results suggest that the alteration in phenolics differed not only due to Esca infection but also due to the wood conditions and vine part, which might reflect the impact of the duration of the presence of the pathogen in different parts of the vine.


Asunto(s)
Ascomicetos/fisiología , Fenoles/química , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Vitis/microbiología , Madera/microbiología , Tallos de la Planta/química , Tallos de la Planta/microbiología , Vitis/química , Madera/química
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(14): 4835-4846, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28382623

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Double maturation raisonnée (DMR) is a potential canopy measure that affects grape and wine composition. The aim of this work was to study for the first time the DMR impact on the physical, biochemical and sensorial characteristics of the berries and wines of Merlot, one of the world's fastest-expanding grapevine varieties. RESULTS: DMR significantly increased the content of soluble solids (1.2-fold), free amino nitrogen (1.8-fold) and acidity in berries but decreased the weight of 100 berries on harvest (approx. 28%). Irrespective of the vintage, DMR-treated grapes had a significantly higher content of non-astringent tannins (0.73-0.78 mg L-1 ) and anthocyanin extractability (34.7-36.4%) but a lower index of astringency (31.2-33.7) when compared to the control. Consequently, the DMR wines achieved higher alcohol, total acidity and extract, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanol and flavonol contents, whereas the content of anthocyanins was similar to that of the control. Sensorial evaluation showed that DMR wines were not rated higher and would not be appreciated more than control wines. CONCLUSION: Changes in berries during DMR altered the wine characteristics only in terms of primary metabolites. A reduced accumulation of phenolics, especially anthocyanin content, in the berry skin of DMR-treated grapes was not reflected in their presence in wines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that has reported an impact of DMR on the grape and wine composition of Merlot, as one of the most promising red varieties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Producción de Cultivos/métodos , Frutas/química , Vitis/química , Vino/análisis , Antocianinas/análisis , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análisis , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Polifenoles/análisis , Polifenoles/metabolismo , Vitis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Vitis/metabolismo
15.
Planta ; 246(2): 217-226, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28315000

RESUMEN

MAIN CONCLUSION: Rare red currants colors caused by low anthocyanin content in the pink and a lack of anthocyanins in the white cultivar correlated with low ANS gene expression, enzyme activity, and increased sugar/acid ratios. Changes in the contents of polyphenols, sugars, and organic acids in berries of the three differently colored Ribes rubrum L. cultivars ('Jonkheer van Tets', 'Pink Champagne', and 'Zitavia') were determined by LC-MS and HPLC at 4 sampling times during the last month of fruit ripening. The activities of the main flavonoid enzymes, chalcone synthase/chalcone isomerase (CHS/CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (FHT), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and the expression of anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) were additionally measured. Despite many attempts, activities of flavonol synthase and glycosyltransferase did not show reliable results, the reason of which they could not be demonstrated in this study. The pink fruited cultivar 'Pink Champagne' showed generally lower enzyme activity than the red cultivar 'Jonkheer van Tets'. The white cultivar 'Zitavia' showed very low CHS/CHI activity and ANS expression and no FHT and DFR activities were detected. The DFR of R. rubrum L. clearly preferred dihydromyricetin as substrate although no 3',4',5'-hydroxylated anthocyanins were present. The anthocyanin content of the red cultivar slightly increased during the last three weeks of ripening and reached a maximum of 890 mg kg-1 FW. Contrary to this, the pink cultivar showed low accumulation of anthocyanins; however, in the last three weeks of ripening, their content increased from 14 to 105 mg kg-1 FW. Simultaneously, the content of polyphenols slightly decreased in all 3 cultivars, while the sugar/acid ratio increased. The white cultivar had no anthocyanins, but the sugar/acid ratios were the highest. In the white and pink cultivars, reduction/lack of anthocyanins was mainly compensated by increased relative concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Frutas/enzimología , Oxigenasas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenoles/metabolismo , Ribes/enzimología , Aciltransferasas/genética , Aciltransferasas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/fisiología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Oxigenasas de Función Mixta/genética , Oxigenasas de Función Mixta/metabolismo , Oxidorreductasas/genética , Oxidorreductasas/metabolismo , Oxigenasas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ribes/genética , Ribes/fisiología
16.
J Food Sci ; 82(3): 647-658, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28182841

RESUMEN

In this study, biochemical profile of fruits of 9 Sorbus genotypes was analyzed. The content of total sugars ranged from 69.7 g/kg ('Titan') to 217.5 g/kg (Sorbus torminalis) and total organic acids from 17.7 g/kg ('Businka') to 40.2 g/kg (S. torminalis). The highest content of total anthocyanins had 'Burka' (871 mg/kg FW) and 'Businka' (856 mg/kg FW). Quercetin derivatives represented more than 95% of total flavonols. 'Alaja krupnaja' had 3.5- to 29-fold higher rutin content than other analyzed genotypes. S. torminalis fruits had the greatest diversity of isorhamnetin and kaempferol derivatives. Chlorogenic acid was the major hydroxycinnamic acid and its share was 33% to 73% of total analyzed hydoxycinnamic acid derivatives. The richest in chlorogenic acid were 'Krasavica' and 'Alaja krupnaja' fruits. Cultivar 'Businka' had the highest content of epicatechin (40.7 mg/kg) and neochlorogenic acid (1061 mg/kg). Different procyanidin oligomers were detected among flavanols in Sorbus fruits. The highest content of total flavanols was measured in 'Alaja Krupnaja' fruits. Cultivars 'Krasavica' (84.5 mg/kg) and 'Burka' (85.1 mg/kg) had 1.2- to 6.9-fold higher amount of total carotenoids. 'Businka' was highlighted as the richest in total tannin and phenolic contents (3768 mg GAE/kg) and consequently, it had the highest antioxidant activity (57.6 mM TE/kg FW). Being abundant in polyphenolics, some extracts of Sorbus genotypes, for example, 'Businka,' 'Burka,' and 'Alaja krupnaja' could serve as valuable resource of bioactive compounds to food and pharmaceutical industries.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/análisis , Carotenoides/análisis , Frutas/química , Genotipo , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polifenoles/análisis , Sorbus/química , Antocianinas/análisis , Biflavonoides/análisis , Catequina/análisis , Ácido Clorogénico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Clorogénico/análisis , Flavonoles/análisis , Quempferoles/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Proantocianidinas/análisis , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/análisis , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/análisis
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(3): 849-857, 2017 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27197623

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Three different irrigation regimes - upper limit of field capacity (UFC), -12 kPa); lower limit of field capacity (LFC), -33 kPa; and deficit irrigation (DI), -70 kPa) were established on silty-loam soil and monitored with tensiometers. Yield and fruit quality of 'Flamenco' and 'Eva's Delight' ever-bearing strawberry cultivars were monitored. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different irrigation regimes on the content of sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry HPLC/HPLC-MS. RESULTS: Deficit irrigation significantly increased the content of sugars (from 1.1- to 1.3 fold), organic acids (from 1.1- to 1.3-fold), their ratio (from 1.1- to 1.2-fold) and the content of most identified phenolics in cv. 'Flamenco'. Conversely, higher amounts of total sugars and organic acids (1.7- to 1.8-fold) were detected in 'Eva's Delight' strawberries at UFC and LFC irrigation. Deficit irrigation generally decreased strawberry yield of cv. 'Eva's Delight'. CONCLUSION: The results suggest superior fruit quality and taste of strawberries grown under minor deficit irrigation for cv. 'Flamenco'. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Riego Agrícola , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Producción de Cultivos , Productos Agrícolas/química , Calidad de los Alimentos , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Ácidos Acíclicos/análisis , Ácidos Acíclicos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análisis , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cinamatos/análisis , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Cruzamientos Genéticos , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/análisis , Flavonoides/análisis , Flavonoides/biosíntesis , Fragaria/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxiácidos/análisis , Hidroxiácidos/metabolismo , Fenómenos Mecánicos , Valor Nutritivo , Fenoles/análisis , Fenoles/metabolismo , Fitomejoramiento , Sensación , Eslovenia , Especificidad de la Especie , Gusto
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(8): 2623-2632, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27734518

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) possesses high antioxidant activity and has been used to treat numerous medicinal disorders. In addition to their antioxidant properties, elderberry parts accumulate toxic cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). It has been proven that altitude influences the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. In the present study we investigated the change of phenolics and CGG in elder leaves, flowers, and berries induced by different altitudes and locations. RESULTS: The data indicate that the accumulation of CGG and phenolics is affected by the altitude of the growing site. An increase of anthocyanin content was recorded in elder berries collected at higher elevations in both locations. Fruit collected at the foothills of location 2 contained 3343 µg g-1 anthocyanins as opposed to fruit from the hilltop, which contained 7729 µg g-1 . Elder berries contained the lowest levels of harmful CGG compared to other analysed plant parts. However, more cyanogenic glycosides were always present in plant parts collected at the hilltop. Accordingly, berries accumulated 0.11 µg g-1 CGG at the foothills and 0.59 µg g-1 CGG at the hilltop. CONCLUSION: Elder berries and flowers collected at the foothill were characterised by the lowest levels of both beneficial (phenolics) and harmful compounds (CGG) and are suitable for moderate consumption. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Glicósidos/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/análisis , Sambucus nigra/química , Altitud , Antocianinas/análisis , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flores/química , Flores/crecimiento & desarrollo , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/metabolismo , Glicósidos/metabolismo , Fenoles/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Sambucus nigra/crecimiento & desarrollo , Sambucus nigra/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 215: 41-9, 2017 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27542448

RESUMEN

Five blackberry cultivars were selected for the study ('Chester Thornless', 'Cacanska Bestrna', 'Loch Ness', 'Smoothstem' and 'Thornfree') and harvested at three different maturity stages (under-, optimal- and over-ripe). Optimally ripe and over-ripe blackberries contained significantly higher levels of total sugars compared to under-ripe fruit. 'Loch Ness' cultivar was characterized by 2.2-2.6-fold higher levels of total sugars than other cultivars and consequently, the highest sugar/acids ratio. 'Chester Thornless' stands out as the cultivar with the highest level of vitamin C in under-ripe (125.87mgkg(-1)) and optimally mature fruit (127.66mgkg(-1)). Maturity stage significantly affected the accumulation of phenolic compounds. The content of total anthocyanins increased for 43% at optimal maturity stage and cinnamic acid derivatives for 57% compared to under-ripe fruit. Over-ripe blackberries were distinguished by the highest content of total phenolics (1251-2115mg GAE kg(-1) FW) and greatest FRAP values (25.9-43.2mM TE kg(-1) FW).


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Frutas/química , Fenoles/análisis , Rubus/química
20.
J Food Sci ; 81(8): C1928-37, 2016 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27464261

RESUMEN

Sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were quantified in fruit of 4 wild growing Prunus species (wild cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, and mahaleb cherry) using HPLC-DAD-MSn. In wild Prunus, the major sugars were glucose and fructose, whereas malic and citric acids dominated among organic acids. The most abundant classes of phenolic compounds in the analyzed fruit species were anthocyanins, flavonols, derivatives of cinnamic acids, and flavanols. Two major groups of anthocyanins measured in Prunus fruits were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Flavonols were represented by 19 derivatives of quercetin, 10 derivatives of kaempferol, and 2 derivatives of isorhamnetin. The highest total flavonol content was measured in mahaleb cherry and bird cherry, followed by blackthorn and wild cherry fruit. Total phenolic content varied from 2373 (wild cherry) to 11053 mg GAE per kg (bird cherry) and ferric reducing antioxidant power antioxidant activity from 7.26 to 31.54 mM trolox equivalents per kg fruits.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Flavonoles/farmacología , Frutas/química , Fenoles/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Prunus/química , Ácidos/análisis , Antocianinas/análisis , Antocianinas/farmacología , Antioxidantes/análisis , Carbohidratos/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Flavonoles/análisis , Glucósidos/análisis , Glucósidos/farmacología , Humanos , Fenoles/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/química
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA