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1.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 40(12): 3299-3305, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265130

RESUMEN

Current methodologies for microplastic polymer identification such as Fourier-transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry are neither cost-efficient nor practical in fieldwork. Density analysis is an inexpensive and readily transportable alternative method. However, current density analysis methods use many different hazardous solutions to carry out separation and identification of plastics. We demonstrate the use of water, sucrose, and ethanol solutions for the density analysis of microplastics. The method developed was able to successfully distinguish between and identify 8 polymers commonly found in microplastic pollution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;40:3299-3305. © 2021 SETAC.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2927, 2021 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536485

RESUMEN

Marine pollution impacts coastal nations around the world, and more so: (a) in confined maritime areas with significant marine traffic, (b) where exploitation of natural and mineral resources is taking place, or (c) in regions witnessing pressure from tourism, local population growth, and industry. In this work, Digital Elevation Models, hydrographic, and climatic data are used together with computer simulations to understand the control of climate change on marine pollution. The results show that different climate change signals can potentially alter the flow and concentration of pollution in the European Seas, when compared to the present day. Ultimately, this work identifies the main sources of marine pollution as: (1) rivers and streams near cities and industrialised areas, (2) coastal areas experiencing sudden demographic pressures, (3) offshore shipping lanes in which oil and other marine debris are released, and (4) areas of rugged seafloor where industrial fishing takes place. This paper finishes by describing new educational material prepared to teach school children around the world. It explains why how a new training curriculum and e-game developed by Sea4All can be crucial in future Environmental Education and Education for a Sustainable Development.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1706, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765479

RESUMEN

In September 2017 the Agia Zoni II sank in the Saronic Gulf, Greece, releasing approximately 500 tonnes of heavy fuel oil, contaminating the Salamina and Athens coastlines. Effects of the spill, and remediation efforts, on sediment microbial communities were quantified over the following 7 months. Five days post-spill, the concentration of measured hydrocarbons within surface sediments of contaminated beaches was 1,093-3,773 µg g-1 dry sediment (91% alkanes and 9% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), but measured hydrocarbons decreased rapidly after extensive clean-up operations. Bacterial genera known to contain oil-degrading species increased in abundance, including Alcanivorax, Cycloclasticus, Oleibacter, Oleiphilus, and Thalassolituus, and the species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus from approximately 0.02 to >32% (collectively) of the total bacterial community. Abundance of genera with known hydrocarbon-degraders then decreased 1 month after clean-up. However, a legacy effect was observed within the bacterial community, whereby Alcanivorax and Cycloclasticus persisted for several months after the oil spill in formerly contaminated sites. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of the Agia Zoni II oil-spill on microbial communities in an oligotrophic sea, where in situ oil-spill studies are rare. The results aid the advancement of post-spill monitoring models, which can predict the capability of environments to naturally attenuate oil.

4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 106(1-2): 200-1, 2016 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26971232

RESUMEN

Discarded plastic is known to be harmful for marine animals through ingestion and entanglement. Here we report the first documentation of Eleonora's falcons providing plastic waste to dependent nestlings. Eleonora's falcons breed colonially on sea cliffs and islets in areas of the Mediterranean Sea and the Canary Islands in which they normally feed their nestlings exclusively with small migratory birds.


Asunto(s)
Falconiformes , Plásticos/análisis , Residuos/análisis , Contaminantes del Agua/análisis , Animales , Aves , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Mar Mediterráneo , Fotograbar , España
5.
PLoS One ; 10(11): e0141236, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26540195

RESUMEN

In the first continent-wide study of the golden jackal (Canis aureus), we characterised its population genetic structure and attempted to identify the origin of European populations. This provided a unique insight into genetic characteristics of a native carnivore population with rapid large-scale expansion. We analysed 15 microsatellite markers and a 406 base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Bayesian-based and principal components methods were applied to evaluate whether the geographical grouping of samples corresponded with genetic groups. Our analysis revealed low levels of genetic diversity, reflecting the unique history of the golden jackal among Europe's native carnivores. The results suggest ongoing gene flow between south-eastern Europe and the Caucasus, with both contributing to the Baltic population, which appeared only recently. The population from the Peloponnese Peninsula in southern Greece forms a common genetic cluster with samples from south-eastern Europe (ΔK approach in STRUCTURE, Principal Components Analysis [PCA]), although the results based on BAPS and the estimated likelihood in STRUCTURE indicate that Peloponnesian jackals may represent a distinct population. Moreover, analyses of population structure also suggest either genetic distinctiveness of the island population from Samos near the coast of Asia Minor (BAPS, most STRUCTURE, PCA), or possibly its connection with the Caucasus population (one analysis in STRUCTURE). We speculate from our results that ancient Mediterranean jackal populations have persisted to the present day, and have merged with jackals colonising from Asia. These data also suggest that new populations of the golden jackal may be founded by long-distance dispersal, and thus should not be treated as an invasive alien species, i.e. an organism that is "non-native to an ecosystem, and which may cause economic or environmental harm or adversely affect human health". These insights into the genetic structure and ancestry of Baltic jackals have important implications for management and conservation of jackals in Europe. The golden jackal is listed as an Annex V species in the EU Habitats Directive and as such, considering also the results presented here, should be legally protected in all EU member states.


Asunto(s)
Chacales/genética , Animales , Asia , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Demografía , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Variación Genética/genética , Haplotipos/genética , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Biología Molecular , Crecimiento Demográfico
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