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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 714, 2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637012

RESUMEN

This paper assesses the concentrations, spatial distribution, compositional patterns, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the dissolved aqueous phase along the Abou Ali River course. The 16 priority PAHs, listed by the USEPA, were investigated in surface- and groundwater samples for 2 years starting August 2015 and ending in March 2017. Statistical analysis was done by using the ANOVA test at p < 0.05. The spatial distribution analysis and illustration were done using the ARC GIS software. The total PAHs concentration in surface and groundwater samples varied between not detected to 15.162 ng mL-1 and not detected to 0.635 ng mL-1, respectively. The highest concentration of PAHs in surface water was observed at site S16, downstream of the river. However, the absence of PAHs was noticed at sites S1 and S2 of the upstream. The contamination levels of PAHs were found to be high in surface water samples, and low in groundwater samples. The 5- and 6-ring PAHs were the most abundant species among others in surface water samples, whereas the 3-ring PAHs were the most abundant in groundwater. Pyrogenic inputs deriving from fuel combustion, incineration, and miscellaneous burning were found to be the main PAH sources in surface and groundwater without ignoring the contribution of petrogenic inputs in some areas.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Líbano , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1651: 462339, 2021 Aug 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161838

RESUMEN

A new sensitive and selective analytical methodology to quantify glyphosate (GLY), aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate (GLU) in both soil and earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) was developed. The extraction and purification methods were optimized. The samples were extracted with various aqueous solutions (HNO3, H2O, KOH and borate buffer) and derivatized with 9-Fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOCCl). To optimize the extraction step, a method to remove the excess FMOCCl was applied based on liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether. The purification of derivatized extracts was carried out using XLB solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges before internal standard quantification by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The elution step was optimized to obtain the best recoveries possible, which was with acidic methanol (1% formic acid) (67% for GLY, 70% for GLU and 65% for AMPA). The extraction and purification method followed by analysis of the two herbicides and AMPA in soils using LC/MS/MS determined limit of quantification (LOQ) values of 0.030 µg g - 1 for GLY, 0.025 µg g - 1 for AMPA and 0.020 µg g - 1 for GLU . For earthworms, LOQ were 0.23 µg g - 1 for GLY, 0.20 µg g - 1 for AMPA and 0.12 µg g - 1 for GLU. . The developed method was applied to determine these compounds in natural soils and earthworms.


Asunto(s)
Aminobutiratos/análisis , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Oligoquetos/química , Organofosfonatos/análisis , Suelo/química , Aminobutiratos/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Técnicas de Química Analítica/instrumentación , Cromatografía Liquida , Glicina/análisis , Glicina/aislamiento & purificación , Herbicidas/análisis , Herbicidas/aislamiento & purificación , Organofosfonatos/aislamiento & purificación , Extracción en Fase Sólida , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
3.
EFSA J ; 19(3): e06498, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815619

RESUMEN

The European Commission asked the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to prepare a statement on a framework for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of transition metals (e.g. iron and copper) used as active substances in plant protection products (PPPs). Non-degradability, essentiality and specific conditions affecting fate and behaviour as well as their toxicity are distinctive characteristics possibly not covered in current guidance for PPPs. The proposed risk assessment framework starts with a preliminary phase, in which monitoring data on transition metals in relevant environmental compartments are provided. They deliver the metal natural background and anthropogenic residue levels to be considered in the exposure calculations. A first assessment step is then performed assuming fully bioavailable residues. Should the first step fail, refined ERA can, in principle, consider bioavailability issues; however, non-equilibrium conditions need to be taken into account. Simple models that are fit for purpose should be employed in order to avoid unnecessary complexity. Exposure models and scenarios would need to be adapted to address environmental processes and parameters relevant to the fate and behaviour of transition metals in water, sediment and soils (e.g. speciation). All developments should follow current EFSA guidance documents. If refined approaches have been used in the risk assessment of PPPs containing metals, post-registration monitoring and controlled long-term studies should be conducted and assessed. Utilisation of the same transition metal in other PPPs or for other uses will lead to accumulation in environmental compartments acting as sinks. In general, it has to be considered that the prospective risk assessment of metal-containing PPPs can only cover a defined period as there are limitations in the long-term hazard assessment due to issues of non-degradability. It is therefore recommended to consider these aspects in any risk management decisions and to align the ERA with the goals of other overarching legislative frameworks.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(8): 10283-10291, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447982

RESUMEN

Among the various species of vegetation, conifers play an important role as a biomonitor of air pollution. The current study presents the determination of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 15 conifer samples collected in August 2018 (summer season) from different regions in north Lebanon (Tripoli, Koura, Bcharre, and Akkar). Pollutants were extracted based on QuEChERS-SPME followed by liquid and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that the samples collected from Bcharre region had the lowest concentration in both pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a total concentration of 50 and 66 ng g-1, while the samples collected from the regions widely known by their agriculture (Akkar, Tripoli, and Koura areas) were the most polluted with concentrations of 231 and 422 ng g-1, 192 and 370 ng g-1, and 127 and 98 ng g-1 for pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons respectively. This study revealed that conifers are suggested to be efficient biomonitors of contamination levels in the air.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Pinus , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Líbano , Plaguicidas/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141722, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207457

RESUMEN

Despite the richness of data collected on pesticide concentrations in ambient air in France, knowledge on this topic remains partial and heterogeneous in the absence of specific regulations. The population exposure remains thus difficult to estimate; therefore it was necessary to define modalities for implementing national monitoring of pesticides in ambient air in metropolitan France and in the overseas territories. The objective of this work was to identify which active substances (a.s.) have to be monitored in priority. As part of a collective expertise, a group of multidisciplinary experts has developed a method to rank active substances authorised as plant protection products, biocides and antiparasitic agents, which were available on the French market in 2015. A 3-steps approach has been developed. The first step consisted of a theoretical approach based on a hierarchy of substances according to four criteria: (a) national uses, (b) emission potential to the air, (c) persistence in the air, and (d) chronic toxicity. The three first criteria give information on their potential to be present in the atmosphere, and the fourth criterion allows to consider their potential of hazard. The second step was an observational approach based on existing database on pesticide air measurements in France. In the third step, both approaches were combined using decision trees to select priority pesticides. Among the 1316 a.s. first identified from the EU Pesticides database, 90 were selected, among which 43 required metrological and/or analytical development. The experts recommended confirming the relevance of performing a longer term monitoring of these a. s. after a one-year exploratory campaign. The proposed method is reproduceable, transparent, easy to update (e.g. in the light of a change in product authorization), and can be adapted to other agricultural and geographical conditions, and objectives (e.g. monitoring of the ecotoxicological effects of pesticides).

6.
EFSA J ; 18(10): e06276, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133274

RESUMEN

The European Commission requested EFSA to provide scientific advice on the translocation potential by Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA342 in plants after seed treatment of cereals and peas and, if applicable, for a revision of the assessment of the risk to humans by its metabolite 2,3-deepoxy-2,3-didehydro-rhizoxin (DDR) and this based on the evidence available in the dossier for renewal of the approval. The information from other P. chlororaphis strains than MA342 was taken into account with care, because the studies available in the dossier did not confirm the identity of the strain MA342 as belonging to the species P. chlororaphis. It has been concluded that there is a potential for translocation of P. chlororaphis MA342 to edible plant parts following seed treatment till an estimated concentration up to about 105 cfu/g and some exposure can be assumed by consumption of fresh commodities. Also, production of the metabolite DDR in the plant cannot be excluded. Regarding levels of DDR in the raw agricultural commodities, exposure estimates based on the limit of quantification (LOQ) for DDR in cereals cannot be further refined while there is no information on the levels of DDR in peas in the dossier. As regards genotoxicity, DDR induced chromosomal damage; however, it was not possible to conclude whether it is through an aneugenic or clastogenic mechanism. Hence, it is not possible to draw a reliable conclusion that DDR is producing an aneugenic effect nor to determine a threshold dose for aneugenicity. Thus, it is not possible to revise the human risk assessment as regards exposure to DDR. The concerns identified in the EFSA conclusion of 2017 remain.

7.
EFSA J ; 18(3): e06053, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874265

RESUMEN

The Panel received a mandate from the European Commission to assess the genotoxic potential of triazine amine based on available information submitted by the applicants. Available information includes experimental genotoxicity data on triazine amine, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis and read across with structurally similar compounds. Based on the overall weight of evidence, the Panel, in agreement with the cross-cutting Working Group Genotoxicity, concluded that there is no concern for the potential of triazine amine to induce gene mutations and clastogenicity; however, the potential to induce aneugenicity was not adequately investigated. For a conclusion, an in vitro micronucleus assay performed with triazine amine would be needed.

8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(15): 17997-18012, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170616

RESUMEN

The objective of this study is to assess the occurrence, spatial, and temporal distribution of forty-eight multiclass pesticides in surface and groundwater samples of the Abou Ali River, located in the North of Lebanon. A 3-year monitoring program (six batches from August 2015 to March 2017) was implemented, and thirty sampling points were selected along the river for analysis. The analysis was executed using a previously developed and optimized solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Statistical analysis, using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunnet T3 multiple comparison tests, was applied to compare mean concentrations of pesticides between the different sampling sites and the batches taken. The pesticides that had the highest frequency of detection in the surface and groundwater samples were alachlor, α-endosulfan, and methomyl. For surface water samples, high mean concentrations were perceived for two stations in the upper stream (S5 and S7), two stations (S11 and S14) in the middle stream, and one station (S16) in the lower stream of the river. The highest mean concentrations were observed in October 2015 and August 2016, the time of the year which correlates with the period of pesticide application. Considering groundwater samples, high mean concentrations of pesticides were detected in sites G4, G9, G10, and G12 and during October 2015 and March 2016, following the rainy season. Ecotoxicological risk assessment using the risk quotient (RQ) methodology revealed high risk for five pesticides under average conditions and fourteen under extreme conditions. This study presents, for the first time, a statistical analysis showing the quantification of pesticides in the water resources of the Abou Ali River. In conclusion, it reveals the need to apply a complete pesticide monitoring program, not only for the Abou Ali River but for all the water resources in Lebanon.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Líbano , Medición de Riesgo , Recursos Hídricos
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1621: 461006, 2020 Jun 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156459

RESUMEN

This paper reports an optimized multiresidue extraction strategy based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure and on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the simultaneous screening of 120 pesticides, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls from the terrestrial snail Helix aspersa. The optimized extraction method was based on QuEChERS using acetonitrile, followed by dispersive-Solid-phase extraction clean-up using primary secondary amine and octadecyl (C18) sorbents. The obtained extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. This latest technique was preceded by a pre-concentration step using SPME with appropriate fibers. Afterwards, the method was validated for its linearity, sensitivity, recovery, and precision. Results showed high sensitivity, accuracy, and precision, with limits of detection and quantification lower than 20 ng g - 1 for most considered pollutants. Both inter and intra-day analyses revealed low relative standard deviation (%), which was lower than 20% for most targeted compounds. Moreover, the obtained regression coefficient (R2) was higher than 0.98 and the recoveries were higher than 60% for the majority of the assessed pollutants.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Caracoles Helix/química , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Acetonitrilos , Animales , Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Biomarcadores Ambientales , Contaminantes Ambientales/aislamiento & purificación , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Residuos de Plaguicidas/aislamiento & purificación , Bifenilos Policlorados/aislamiento & purificación , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/aislamiento & purificación , Microextracción en Fase Sólida , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760619

RESUMEN

Prosulfocarb is a thiocarbamate herbicide that is rapidly growing in use due to the progressive bioresistance of weeds to certain pesticides and the ban and/or limitation of others. However, the use of prosulfocarb is only recent, and the relevant literature is scarce. The environmental and food impact of prosulfocarb has already been observed, and its transfer mode from targeted crops to untargeted parcels has been investigated. This expertise highlights the volatilization effect to explain the pollution of lone parcels and hedge inefficiency against residue spreads.

11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19632-19645, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079297

RESUMEN

Pesticides have been associated with various pathologies, and there is growing evidence of pesticide presence in domestic environments. However, most available studies focused on a limited number of pesticides or households, and few have been conducted in Europe. We aimed to assess indoor pesticide contamination by screening the prevalence of 276 pesticides and ten pesticide metabolites, in French households from different agricultural and urban areas. We sampled indoor dust from 239 households in 2012, proximate to orchards (n = 69), cereals (n = 66) and vineyard (n = 68) crops, or from urban area (n = 36). we used cellulose wipes moistened with isopropanol and polypropylene dust traps to collect recent (7 and 30 days, respectively) and settled dust (> 6 months). Overall, 125 pesticides and piperonyl butoxide were detected at least once in households, mostly at low prevalence: 97 in recent dust, and 111 in settled dust. In recent dust, the most prevalent compounds were o-phenylphenol (168 households, 70%), pentachlorophenol (86, 36%), and piperonyl butoxide (82, 34%). In addition to agricultural pesticides, we found a high proportion of domestic and banned compounds in recent and settled house dust. Several pesticides were identified in house dust, from different pesticide groups and sources. Our results suggest that domestic usage and persistence of banned pesticides may contribute substantially to indoor pesticide contamination. Graphical abstract 97 pesticides detected in households' recent indoor dust.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Producción de Cultivos , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Vivienda/normas , Plaguicidas/análisis , Francia , Humanos
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(10): 9391-9408, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715709

RESUMEN

The continuous discharge of diverse chemical products in the environment is nowadays of great concern to the whole world as some of them persist in the environment leading to serious diseases. Several sampling techniques have been used for the characterization of this chemical pollution, although biomonitoring using natural samplers has recently become the technique of choice in this field due to its efficiency, specificity, and low cost. In fact, several living organisms known as biomonitors could accumulate the well-known persistent environmental pollutants allowing their monitoring in the environment. In this work, a review on environmental biomonitoring is presented. The main sampling techniques used for monitoring environmental pollutants are first reported, followed by an overview on well-known natural species used as passive samplers and known as biomonitors. These species include conifer needles, lichen, mosses, bees and their byproducts, and snails, and were widely used in recent research as reliable monitors for environmental pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Animales , Atmósfera/química , Abejas/química , Briófitas/química , Líquenes/química , Caracoles/química
13.
EFSA J ; 17(6): e05712, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626335

RESUMEN

The EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues was requested to establish health-based reference values for groundwater metabolites (LM2, LM3, LM4, LM5 and LM6) of the active substance terbuthylazine based on the available evidence, unless the evidence was considered insufficient to do so. The request was accepted under the explicit circumstance that the reassessment would be made according to a different methodology than the routine methodology currently applied for the assessment of metabolites in groundwater. While for metabolites LM2, LM4 and LM5, it was concluded that the reference values for terbuthylazine are applicable, substance-specific reference values could not be derived for metabolites LM3 and LM6. The applied threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) approach has shown that metabolites LM3 and LM6 are of potential concern for consumer health, since at least one representative groundwater leaching scenario results in exposure above the relevant threshold. Moreover, other sources of exposure to LM3 and LM6 could not be excluded with certainty. It is therefore recommended to address the specific toxicities of metabolites LM3 and LM6.

14.
EFSA J ; 17(7): e05758, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626374

RESUMEN

Bats are an important group of mammals, frequently foraging in farmland and potentially exposed to pesticides. This statement considers whether the current risk assessment performed for birds and ground dwelling mammals exposed to pesticides is also protective of bats. Three main issues were addressed. Firstly, whether bats are toxicologically more or less sensitive than the most sensitive birds and mammals. Secondly, whether oral exposure of bats to pesticides is greater or lower than in ground dwelling mammals and birds. Thirdly, whether there are other important exposure routes relevant to bats. A large variation in toxicological sensitivity and no relationship between sensitivity of bats and bird or mammal test-species to pesticides could be found. In addition, bats have unique traits, such as echolocation and torpor which can be adversely affected by exposure to pesticides and which are not covered by the endpoints currently selected for wild mammal risk assessment. The current exposure assessment methodology was used for oral exposure and adapted to bats using bat-specific parameters. For oral exposure, it was concluded that for most standard risk assessment scenarios the current approach did not cover exposure of bats to pesticide residues in food. Calculations of potential dermal exposure for bats foraging during spraying operations suggest that this may be a very important exposure route. Dermal routes of exposure should be combined with inhalation and oral exposure. Based on the evidence compiled, the Panel concludes that bats are not adequately covered by the current risk assessment approach, and that there is a need to develop a bat-specific risk assessment scheme. In general, there was scarcity of data to assess the risks for bat exposed to pesticides. Recommendations for research are made, including identification of alternatives to laboratory testing of bats to assess toxicological effects.

15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199354

RESUMEN

In order to assess the air quality in some Lebanese regions, a biomonitoring study based on honey as biomonitor candidate was conducted. For this, 18 samples of honey collected from four regions in Lebanon, were analyzed for their contamination by 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Samples were first extracted using a multi-residue extraction method based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction method (QuEChERS) followed by a concentration step using Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) procedures. The extraction was then followed by chromatographic analysis by gas chromatography-ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). After PAHs samples assessment, different ratios of founded PAHs were calculated in order to estimate the sources of the pollution by these compounds. The obtained results showed that the four analyzed regions were contaminated with PAHs originated from both pyro and petro genic sources while none of them was found to be contaminated by any of the 22 assessed PCBs. The results of this study show that honey can be used as potential biomonitor candidate allowing the assessment of the pollution statement of a given environment.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Miel/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Animales , Abejas , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Líbano , Vigilancia de Guardia , Microextracción en Fase Sólida , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(18): 17781-17788, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675817

RESUMEN

We studied the combined acute effect (i.e., after 48 h) of deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) and malathion (an organophosphate insecticide) on Daphnia magna. Two approaches were used to examine the potential interaction effects of eight mixtures of deltamethrin and malathion: (i) calculation of mixture toxicity index (MTI) and safety factor index (SFI) and (ii) response surface methodology coupled with isobole-based statistical model (using generalized linear model). According to the calculation of MTI and SFI, one tested mixture was found additive while the two other tested mixtures were found no additive (MTI) or antagonistic (SFI), but these differences between index responses are only due to differences in terminology related to these two indexes. Through the surface response approach and isobologram analysis, we concluded that there was a significant antagonistic effect of the binary mixtures of deltamethrin and malathion that occurs on D. magna immobilization, after 48 h of exposure. Index approaches and surface response approach with isobologram analysis are complementary. Calculation of mixture toxicity index and safety factor index allows identifying punctually the type of interaction for several tested mixtures, while the surface response approach with isobologram analysis integrates all the data providing a global outcome about the type of interactive effect. Only the surface response approach and isobologram analysis allowed the statistical assessment of the ecotoxicological interaction. Nevertheless, we recommend the use of both approaches (i) to identify the combined effects of contaminants and (ii) to improve risk assessment and environmental management.


Asunto(s)
Daphnia/efectos de los fármacos , Insecticidas/toxicidad , Malatión/toxicidad , Nitrilos/toxicidad , Piretrinas/toxicidad , Animales , Cladóceros , Análisis de Datos , Insecticidas/química , Malatión/química , Nitrilos/química , Piretrinas/química
18.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 410(7): 1955-1963, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353429

RESUMEN

Monitoring the levels of aliphatic and aromatic amines (AA) in indoor air is important to protect human health because of exposure to these compounds through diet and inhalation. A sampling and analytical method using XAD-2 cartridges and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry used for assessing 25 AA in different smoking and non-smoking indoor environment was developed. After sampling and delivering 1 m3 of air (6-8 h sampling), an adsorbent was ultrasonically extracted with acetonitrile, concentrated to 1 mL and diluted in 25 mL of water (pH = 9; 5% NaCl), and then extracted for 40 min at 80 °C using a divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber and injected in a GC/MS system. With this method, 22 of the 25 AA can be analyzed with detection limits up to five times lower than that of classic liquid injection. Benzylamine, 3-aminophenol, and 4-aminophenol were not detected with the solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) method. It can be assumed that aminophenols required a derivatization step for their analysis by GC as these molecules were not detected regardless of the injection mode used. Graphical abstract Analysis of aromatic amines in indoor air by SPME-GC/MS.

19.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 409(21): 5157-5169, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28681076

RESUMEN

An optimized analytical method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 90 pesticides, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls. The method was based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction using acetonitrile followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup using primary-secondary amine and octadecyl (C18). The extract obtained was concentrated by evaporation and then reconstituted with acetonitrile to prepare it for chromatographic analysis by liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry, which was preceded by a preconcentration step using solid-phase microextraction with appropriate fibers. The combination of the two extraction steps ensured efficient extract cleanup. The use of the two analytical instruments allowed the analysis of a large number of pollutants with a high reliability rate. The method developed was validated for linearity, which was studied with use of matrix-matched calibration curves in the concentration range between 10 and 3000 ng g-1. The correlation coefficient (R 2) obtained was higher than 0.98 for most of the target compounds, with a relative standard deviation lower than 20% for repeatability and reproducibility. The limits of detection and quantification were lower than 20 and 60 ng g-1 respectively for the compounds analyzed, and the recoveries were between 60% and 103% for most compounds. Finally, the method was tested for its efficiency on real samples by the analysis of three honey samples in which seven pesticides and nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.


Asunto(s)
Miel/análisis , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Microextracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Límite de Detección , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos
20.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 52(7): 458-465, 2017 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28353395

RESUMEN

XAD-2® passive samplers (PAS) have been exposed simultaneously for 14 days on two sites, one rural and one urban, situated in Alsace (East of France) during intensive pesticides application in agriculture (between March and September). PAS have been extracted and analyzed for current-used pesticides and lindane with an analytical method coupling accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC/MS/MS. Results show the detection of pesticides is linked to the period of application and spatial and temporal variabilities can be observed with these PAS during the selected sampling period. The spatial and temporal variability is comparable to the one previously observed by comparing data obtained with PAS with data from Hi.-Vol. samplers in an urban area. Sampling rates were calculated for some pesticides and values are comparable to the data already available in the literature. From these sampling rates, concentrations in ng m-3 of pesticides in PAS have been calculated and are in the same order of magnitude as those obtained with Hi.Vol. sampling during the same period of time.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/instrumentación , Plaguicidas/análisis , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Francia , Microextracción en Fase Sólida , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
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