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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2022 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36448525

RESUMEN

We report a high-throughput first-principles characterization of the structural, mechanical, electronic, and vibrational properties of tetragonal single-layer transition metal Xenes (t-TMXs). Our calculations revealed 22 dynamically, mechanically and chemically stable structures among the 96 possible free-standing layers present in the t-TMX family. As a fingerprint for their structural identification, we identified four characteristic Raman active phonon modes, namely three in-plane and one out-of-plane optical branches, with various intensities and frequencies depending on the material in question. Spin-polarized electronic calculations demonstrated that anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) metals, ferromagnetic (FM) metals, AFM semiconductors, and non-magnetic semiconductor materials exist within this family, evidencing the potential of t-TMXs for further use in multifunctional heterostructures.

2.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(22)2022 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432329

RESUMEN

Understanding the behaviour of vortices under nanoscale confinement in superconducting circuits is important for the development of superconducting electronics and quantum technologies. Using numerical simulations based on the Ginzburg-Landau theory for non-homogeneous superconductivity in the presence of magnetic fields, we detail how lateral confinement organises vortices in a long superconducting nanostripe, presenting a phase diagram of vortex configurations as a function of the stripe width and magnetic field. We discuss why the average vortex density is reduced and reveal that confinement influences vortex dynamics in the dissipative regime under sourced electrical current, mapping out transitions between asynchronous and synchronous vortex rows crossing the nanostripe as the current is varied. Synchronous crossings are of particular interest, since they cause single-mode modulations in the voltage drop along the stripe in a high (typically GHz to THz) frequency range.

3.
Nano Lett ; 22(15): 6268-6275, 2022 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857927

RESUMEN

Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures continue to attract intense interest as a route of designing materials with novel properties that cannot be found in nature. Unfortunately, this approach is currently limited to only a few layers that can be stacked on top of each other. Here, we report a bulk vdW material consisting of superconducting 1H TaS2 monolayers interlayered with 1T TaS2 monolayers displaying charge density waves (CDW). This bulk vdW heterostructure is created by phase transition of 1T-TaS2 to 6R at 800 °C in an inert atmosphere. Its superconducting transition (Tc) is found at 2.6 K, exceeding the Tc of the bulk 2H phase. Using first-principles calculations, we argue that the coexistence of superconductivity and CDW within 6R-TaS2 stems from amalgamation of the properties of adjacent 1H and 1T monolayers, where the former dominates the superconducting state and the latter the CDW behavior.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(30): 34946-34954, 2022 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872649

RESUMEN

Over the past decade, graphene oxide (GO) has emerged as a promising membrane material with superior separation performance and intriguing mechanical/chemical stability. However, its practical implementation remains very challenging primarily because of its undesirable swelling in an aqueous environment. Here, we demonstrated that dissociation of water molecules into H3O+ and OH- ions inside the interlayer gallery of a layered GO membrane can strongly affect its stability and performance. We reveal that H3O+ and OH- ions form clusters inside the GO laminates that impede the permeance of water and salt ions through the membrane. Dynamics of those clusters is sensitive to an external ac electric field, which can be used to tailor the membrane performance. The presence of H3O+ and OH- ions also leads to increased stability of the hydrogen bond (H-bond) network among the water molecules and the GO layers, which further reduces water permeance through the membrane, while crucially imparting stability to the layered GO membrane against undesirable swelling.

5.
Nanoscale ; 14(27): 9918-9924, 2022 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781316

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) are an emerging class of atomically-thin superconductors, whose characteristics are highly prone to tailoring by surface functionalization. Here we explore the use of hydrogen adatoms to enhance phonon-mediated superconductivity in MXenes, based on first-principles calculations combined with Eliashberg theory. We first demonstrate the stability of three different structural models of hydrogenated Mo- and W-based MXenes. Particularly high critical temperatures of over 30 K are obtained for hydrogenated Mo2N and W2N. Several mechanisms responsible for the enhanced electron-phonon coupling are uncovered, namely (i) hydrogen-induced changes in the phonon spectrum of the host MXene, (ii) emerging hydrogen-based phonon modes, and (iii) charge transfer from hydrogen to the MXene layer, boosting the density of states at the Fermi level. Finally, we demonstrate that hydrogen adatoms are moreover able to induce superconductivity in MXenes that are not superconducting in pristine form, such as Nb2C.

6.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684945

RESUMEN

We report morpho-structural properties and charge conduction mechanisms of a foamy "graphene sponge", having a density as low as ≈0.07 kg/m3 and a carbon to oxygen ratio C:O ≃ 13:1. The spongy texture analysed by scanning electron microscopy is made of irregularly-shaped millimetres-sized small flakes, containing small crystallites with a typical size of ≃16.3 nm. A defect density as high as ≃2.6 × 1011 cm-2 has been estimated by the Raman intensity of D and G peaks, dominating the spectrum from room temperature down to ≃153 K. Despite the high C:O ratio, the graphene sponge exhibits an insulating electrical behavior, with a raise of the resistance value at ≃6 K up to 5 orders of magnitude with respect to the room temperature value. A variable range hopping (VRH) conduction, with a strong 2D character, dominates the charge carriers transport, from 300 K down to 20 K. At T < 20 K, graphene sponge resistance tends to saturate, suggesting a temperature-independent quantum tunnelling. The 2D-VRH conduction originates from structural disorder and is consistent with hopping of charge carriers between sp2 defects in the plane, where sp3 clusters related to oxygen functional groups act as potential barriers.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2703, 2021 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976211

RESUMEN

A superconducting diode is an electronic device that conducts supercurrent and exhibits zero resistance primarily for one direction of applied current. Such a dissipationless diode is a desirable unit for constructing electronic circuits with ultralow power consumption. However, realizing a superconducting diode is fundamentally and technologically challenging, as it usually requires a material structure without a centre of inversion, which is scarce among superconducting materials. Here, we demonstrate a superconducting diode achieved in a conventional superconducting film patterned with a conformal array of nanoscale holes, which breaks the spatial inversion symmetry. We showcase the superconducting diode effect through switchable and reversible rectification signals, which can be three orders of magnitude larger than that from a flux-quantum diode. The introduction of conformal potential landscapes for creating a superconducting diode is thereby proven as a convenient, tunable, yet vastly advantageous tool for superconducting electronics. This could be readily applicable to any superconducting materials, including cuprates and iron-based superconductors that have higher transition temperatures and are desirable in device applications.

8.
Nanoscale ; 12(33): 17354-17361, 2020 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789416

RESUMEN

MXenes are an emerging class of two-dimensional materials, which in their thinnest limit consist of a monolayer of carbon or nitrogen (X) sandwiched between two transition metal (M) layers. We have systematically searched for superconductivity among MXenes for a range of transition metal elements, based on a full first-principles characterization in combination with the Eliashberg formalism. Thus, we identified six superconducting MXenes: three carbides (Mo2C, W2C and Sc2C) and three nitrides (Mo2N, W2N and Ta2N). The highest critical temperature of ∼16 K is found in Mo2N, for which a successful synthesis method has been established [Urbankowski et al., Nanoscale, 2017, 9, 17722-17730]. Moreover, W2N presents a novel case of competing superconducting and charge density wave phases.

9.
Nano Lett ; 20(5): 3808-3818, 2020 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310666

RESUMEN

When approaching the atomically thin limit, defects and disorder play an increasingly important role in the properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials. While defects are generally thought to negatively affect superconductivity in 2D materials, here we demonstrate the contrary in the case of oxygenation of ultrathin tantalum disulfide (TaS2). Our first-principles calculations show that incorporation of oxygen into the TaS2 crystal lattice is energetically favorable and effectively heals sulfur vacancies typically present in these crystals, thus restoring the electronic band structure and the carrier density to the intrinsic characteristics of TaS2. Strikingly, this leads to a strong enhancement of the electron-phonon coupling, by up to 80% in the highly oxygenated limit. Using transport measurements on fresh and aged (oxygenated) few-layer TaS2, we found a marked increase of the superconducting critical temperature (Tc) upon aging, in agreement with our theory, while concurrent electron microscopy and electron-energy loss spectroscopy confirmed the presence of sulfur vacancies in freshly prepared TaS2 and incorporation of oxygen into the crystal lattice with time. Our work thus reveals the mechanism by which certain atomic-scale defects can be beneficial to superconductivity and opens a new route to engineer Tc in ultrathin materials.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12386, 2019 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455848

RESUMEN

Under high-enough values of perpendicularly-applied magnetic field and current, a type-II superconductor presents a finite resistance caused by the vortex motion driven by the Lorentz force. To recover the dissipation-free conduction state, strategies for minimizing vortex motion have been intensely studied in the last decades. However, the non-local vortex motion, arising in areas depleted of current, has been scarcely investigated despite its potential application for logic devices. Here, we propose a route to transfer vortices carried by non-local motion through long distances (up to 10 micrometers) in 50 nm-wide superconducting WC nanowires grown by Ga+ Focused Ion Beam Induced Deposition. A giant non-local electrical resistance of 36 Ω has been measured at 2 K in 3 µm-long nanowires, which is 40 times higher than signals reported for wider wires of other superconductors. This giant effect is accounted for by the existence of a strong edge confinement potential that hampers transversal vortex displacements, allowing the long-range coherent displacement of a single vortex row along the superconducting channel. Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of vortex dynamics based on the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. Our results pave the way for future developments on information technologies built upon single vortex manipulation in nano-superconductors.

11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4710, 2018 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549273

RESUMEN

Superconducting and normal state properties of Niobium nanofilms have been systematically investigated as a function of film thickness, on different substrates. The width of the superconducting-to-normal transition for all films is remarkably narrow, confirming their high quality. The superconducting critical current density exhibits a pronounced maximum for thickness around 25 nm, marking the 3D-to-2D crossover. The magnetic penetration depth shows a sizeable enhancement for the thinnest films. Additional amplification effects of the superconducting properties have been obtained with sapphire substrates or squeezing the lateral size of the nanofilms. For thickness close to 20 nm we measured a doubled perpendicular critical magnetic field compared to its large thickness value, indicating shortening of the correlation length and the formation of small Cooper pairs. Our data analysis indicates an exciting interplay between quantum-size and proximity effects together with strong-coupling effects and the importance of disorder in the thinnest films, placing these nanofilms close to the BCS-BEC crossover regime.

12.
Nanoscale ; 10(4): 1987-1996, 2018 Jan 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319073

RESUMEN

We demonstrate the in situ engineering of superconducting nanocircuitry by targeted modulation of material properties through high applied current densities. We show that the sequential repetition of such customized electro-annealing in a niobium (Nb) nanoconstriction can broadly tune the superconducting critical temperature Tc and the normal-state resistance Rn in the targeted area. Once a sizable Rn is reached, clear magneto-resistance oscillations are detected along with a Fraunhofer-like field dependence of the critical current, indicating the formation of a weak link but with further adjustable characteristics. Advanced Ginzburg-Landau simulations fully corroborate this picture, employing the detailed parametrization from the electrical characterization and high resolution electron microscope images of the region within the constriction where the material has undergone amorphization by electro-annealing.

13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13481, 2017 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044124

RESUMEN

We show that a carbon nanotube decorated with different types of charged metallic nanoparticles exhibits unusual two-dimensional vibrations when actuated by applied electric field. Such vibrations and diverse possible trajectories are not only fundamentally important but also have minimum two characteristic frequencies that can be directly linked back to the properties of the constituents in the considered nanoresonator. Namely, those frequencies and the maximal deflection during vibrations are very distinctively dependent on the geometry of the nanotube, the shape, element, mass and charge of the nanoparticle, and are vastly tunable by the applied electric field, revealing the unique sensing ability of devices made of molecular filaments and metallic nanoparticles.

14.
PLoS One ; 9(12): e115262, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25542025

RESUMEN

In recent decades multifractal analysis has been successfully applied to characterize the complex temporal and spatial organization of such diverse natural phenomena as heartbeat dynamics, the dendritic shape of neurons, retinal vessels, rock fractures, and intricately shaped volcanic ash particles. The characterization of multifractal properties of closed contours has remained elusive because applying traditional methods to their quasi-one-dimensional nature yields ambiguous answers. Here we show that multifractal analysis can reveal meaningful and sometimes unexpected information about natural structures with a perimeter well-defined by a closed contour. To this end, we demonstrate how to apply multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis, originally developed for the analysis of time series, to an arbitrary shape of a given study object. In particular, we show the application of the method to fish otoliths, calcareous concretions located in fish's inner ear. Frequently referred to as the fish's "black box", they contain a wealth of information about the fish's life history and thus have recently attracted increasing attention. As an illustrative example, we show that a multifractal approach can uncover unexpected relationships between otolith contours and size and age of fish at maturity.


Asunto(s)
Peces/anatomía & histología , Modelos Biológicos , Membrana Otolítica/fisiología , Algoritmos , Animales , Simulación por Computador , Femenino , Peces/fisiología , Masculino , Membrana Otolítica/anatomía & histología
15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(19): 197003, 2012 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23215418

RESUMEN

We describe investigations of the largely unexplored field of mesoscopic type-I superconductors. Micromagnetometry and 3D Ginzburg-Landau simulations of our single crystal ß-tin samples in this regime reveal size- and temperature-dependent supercritical fields whose behavior is radically different from the bulk critical field H(c)(B). We find that complete suppression of the intermediate state in medium-size samples can result in a surprising reduction of the critical field significantly below H(c)(B). We also reveal an evolution of the superconducting-to-normal phase transition from the expected irreversible first order at low temperatures through the previously unobserved reversible first-order to a second-order transition close to T(c), where the critical field can be many times larger than H(c)(B). Finally, we have identified striking correlations between the mesoscopic H(c3) for nucleation of surface superconductivity and the thermodynamic H(c) near T(c). All these observations are entirely unexpected in the conventional type-I picture.

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