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1.
Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii ; 25(5): 552-561, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595377

RESUMEN

A terrible disease of the cardiovascular system, atherosclerosis, develops in the areas of bends and branches of arteries, where the direction and modulus of the blood flow velocity vector change, and consequently so does the mechanical effect on endothelial cells in contact with the blood flow. The review focuses on topical research studies on the development of atherosclerosis - mechanobiochemical events that transform the proatherogenic mechanical stimulus of blood flow - low and low/oscillatory arterial wall shear stress in the chains of biochemical reactions in endothelial cells, leading to the expression of specific proteins that cause the progression of the pathological process. The stages of atherogenesis, systemic risk factors for atherogenesis and its important hemodynamic factor, low and low/oscillatory wall shear stress exerted by blood flow on the endothelial cells lining the arterial walls, have been described. The interactions of cell adhesion molecules responsible for the development of atherosclerosis under low and low/oscillating shear stress conditions have been demonstrated. The activation of the regulator of the expression of cell adhesion molecules, the transcription factor NF-κB, and the factors regulating its activation under these conditions have been described. Mechanosensitive signaling pathways leading to the expression of NF-κB in endothelial cells have been described. Studies of the mechanobiochemical signaling pathways and interactions involved in the progression of atherosclerosis provide valuable information for the development of approaches that delay or block the development of this disease. Key words: atherogenesis; shear stress; transcription factor NF-κB; RelA expression; mechanosensitive receptors; cell adhesion molecules; signaling pathways; mechanotransduction.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5756, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188210

RESUMEN

In quantizing magnetic fields, graphene superlattices exhibit a complex fractal spectrum often referred to as the Hofstadter butterfly. It can be viewed as a collection of Landau levels that arise from quantization of Brown-Zak minibands recurring at rational (p/q) fractions of the magnetic flux quantum per superlattice unit cell. Here we show that, in graphene-on-boron-nitride superlattices, Brown-Zak fermions can exhibit mobilities above 106 cm2 V-1 s-1 and the mean free path exceeding several micrometers. The exceptional quality of our devices allows us to show that Brown-Zak minibands are 4q times degenerate and all the degeneracies (spin, valley and mini-valley) can be lifted by exchange interactions below 1 K. We also found negative bend resistance at 1/q fractions for electrical probes placed as far as several micrometers apart. The latter observation highlights the fact that Brown-Zak fermions are Bloch quasiparticles propagating in high fields along straight trajectories, just like electrons in zero field.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11426, 2020 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651413

RESUMEN

Doped antiferromagnets host a vast array of physical properties and learning how to control them is one of the biggest challenges of condensed matter physics. [Formula: see text] (LSNO) is a classic example of such a material. At low temperatures holes introduced via substitution of La by Sr segregate into lines to form boundaries between magnetically ordered domains in the form of stripes. The stripes become dynamic at high temperatures, but LSNO remains insulating presumably because an interplay between magnetic correlations and electron-phonon coupling localizes charge carriers. Magnetic degrees of freedom have been extensively investigated in this system, but phonons are almost completely unexplored. We searched for electron-phonon anomalies in LSNO by inelastic neutron scattering. Giant renormalization of plane Ni-O bond-stretching modes that modulate the volume around Ni appears on entering the dynamic charge stripe phase. Other phonons are a lot less sensitive to stripe melting. Dramatic overdamping of the breathing modes indicates that dynamic stripe phase may host small polarons. We argue that this feature sets electron-phonon coupling in nickelates apart from that in cuprates where breathing phonons are not overdamped and point out remarkable similarities with the colossal magnetoresistance manganites.

4.
Nano Lett ; 20(3): 1869-1875, 2020 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069058

RESUMEN

Indirect excitons (IX) in semiconductor heterostructures are bosons, which can cool below the temperature of quantum degeneracy and can be effectively controlled by voltage and light. IX quantum Bose gases and IX devices were explored in GaAs heterostructures where an IX range of existence is limited to low temperatures due to low IX binding energies. IXs in van der Waals transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterostructures are characterized by large binding energies giving the opportunity for exploring excitonic quantum gases and for creating excitonic devices at high temperatures. TMD heterostructures also offer a new platform for studying single-exciton phenomena and few-particle complexes. In this work, we present studies of IXs in MoSe2/WSe2 heterostructures and report on two IX luminescence lines whose energy splitting and temperature dependence identify them as neutral and charged IXs. The experimentally found binding energy of the indirect charged excitons, that is, indirect trions, is close to the calculated binding energy of 28 meV for negative indirect trions in TMD heterostructures [Deilmann, T.; Thygesen, K. S. Nano Lett. 2018, 18, 1460]. We also report on the realization of IXs with a luminescence line width reaching 4 meV at low temperatures. An enhancement of IX luminescence intensity and the narrow line width are observed in localized spots.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(4): 046401, 2019 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491257

RESUMEN

In condensed matter physics many features can be understood in terms of their topological properties. Here we report evidence of a topological quantum transition driven by the charge-phonon coupling in the spinless Haldane model on a honeycomb lattice, a well-known prototypical model of the Chern insulator. Starting from parameters describing the topological phase in the bare Haldane model, we show that increasing the strength of the charge lattice coupling drives the system towards a trivial insulator. The average number of fermions in the Dirac point, characterized by the lowest gap, exhibits a finite discontinuity at the transition point and can be used as a direct indicator of the topological quantum transition. Numerical simulations show, also, that the renormalized phonon propagator exhibits a two peak structure across the quantum transition, whereas, in the absence of the mass term in the bare Haldane model, there is indication of a complete softening of the effective vibrational mode, signaling a charge density wave instability.

6.
Sci Adv ; 5(12): eaay8897, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064323

RESUMEN

When two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals are brought into close proximity to form a van der Waals heterostructure, neighbouring crystals may influence each other's properties. Of particular interest is when the two crystals closely match and a moiré pattern forms, resulting in modified electronic and excitonic spectra, crystal reconstruction, and more. Thus, moiré patterns are a viable tool for controlling the properties of 2D materials. However, the difference in periodicity of the two crystals limits the reconstruction and, thus, is a barrier to the low-energy regime. Here, we present a route to spectrum reconstruction at all energies. By using graphene which is aligned to two hexagonal boron nitride layers, one can make electrons scatter in the differential moiré pattern which results in spectral changes at arbitrarily low energies. Further, we demonstrate that the strength of this potential relies crucially on the atomic reconstruction of graphene within the differential moiré super cell.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(20): 5135-5139, 2018 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29712870

RESUMEN

Graphene superlattices were shown to exhibit high-temperature quantum oscillations due to periodic emergence of delocalized Bloch states in high magnetic fields such that unit fractions of the flux quantum pierce a superlattice unit cell. Under these conditions, semiclassical electron trajectories become straight again, similar to the case of zero magnetic field. Here, we report magnetotransport measurements that reveal second-, third-, and fourth-order magnetic Bloch states at high electron densities and temperatures above 100 K. The recurrence of these states creates a fractal pattern intimately related to the origin of Hofstadter butterflies. The hierarchy of the fractal states is determined by the width of magnetic minibands, in qualitative agreement with our band-structure calculations.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1895, 2018 05 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760404

RESUMEN

Indirect excitons (IXs) are explored both for studying quantum Bose gases in semiconductor materials and for the development of excitonic devices. IXs were extensively studied in III-V and II-VI semiconductor heterostructures where IX range of existence has been limited to low temperatures. Here, we present the observation of IXs at room temperature in van der Waals transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterostructures. This is achieved in TMD heterostructures based on monolayers of MoS2 separated by atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride. The IXs we realize in the TMD heterostructure have lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than lifetimes of direct excitons in single-layer TMD and their energy is gate controlled. The realization of IXs at room temperature establishes the TMD heterostructures as a material platform both for a field of high-temperature quantum Bose gases of IXs and for a field of high-temperature excitonic devices.

9.
Nano Lett ; 18(4): 2623-2629, 2018 04 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529377

RESUMEN

It is well-known that superconductivity in thin films is generally suppressed with decreasing thickness. This suppression is normally governed by either disorder-induced localization of Cooper pairs, weakening of Coulomb screening, or generation and unbinding of vortex-antivortex pairs as described by the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory. Defying general expectations, few-layer NbSe2, an archetypal example of ultrathin superconductors, has been found to remain superconducting down to monolayer thickness. Here, we report measurements of both the superconducting energy gap Δ and critical temperature TC in high-quality monocrystals of few-layer NbSe2, using planar-junction tunneling spectroscopy and lateral transport. We observe a fully developed gap that rapidly reduces for devices with the number of layers N ≤ 5, as does their TC. We show that the observed reduction cannot be explained by disorder, and the BKT mechanism is also excluded by measuring its transition temperature that for all N remains very close to TC. We attribute the observed behavior to changes in the electronic band structure predicted for mono- and bi- layer NbSe2 combined with inevitable suppression of the Cooper pair density at the superconductor-vacuum interface. Our experimental results for N > 2 are in good agreement with the dependences of Δ and TC expected in the latter case while the effect of band-structure reconstruction is evidenced by a stronger suppression of Δ and the disappearance of its anisotropy for N = 2. The spatial scale involved in the surface suppression of the density of states is only a few angstroms but cannot be ignored for atomically thin superconductors.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(15): 157701, 2017 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29077458

RESUMEN

We report on a "giant" quantum Hall effect plateau in a graphene-based field-effect transistor where graphene is capped by a layer of the van der Waals crystal InSe. The giant quantum Hall effect plateau arises from the close alignment of the conduction band edge of InSe with the Dirac point of graphene. This feature enables the magnetic-field- and electric-field-effect-induced transfer of charge carriers between InSe and the degenerate Landau level states of the adjacent graphene layer, which is coupled by a van der Waals heterointerface to the InSe.

11.
Science ; 357(6347): 181-184, 2017 07 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706067

RESUMEN

Cyclotron motion of charge carriers in metals and semiconductors leads to Landau quantization and magneto-oscillatory behavior in their properties. Cryogenic temperatures are usually required to observe these oscillations. We show that graphene superlattices support a different type of quantum oscillation that does not rely on Landau quantization. The oscillations are extremely robust and persist well above room temperature in magnetic fields of only a few tesla. We attribute this phenomenon to repetitive changes in the electronic structure of superlattices such that charge carriers experience effectively no magnetic field at simple fractions of the flux quantum per superlattice unit cell. Our work hints at unexplored physics in Hofstadter butterfly systems at high temperatures.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14777, 2017 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28300133

RESUMEN

Anomalous Hall effect, a manifestation of Hall effect occurring in systems without time-reversal symmetry, has been mostly observed in ferromagnetically ordered materials. However, its realization in high-mobility two-dimensional electron system remains elusive, as the incorporation of magnetic moments deteriorates the device performance compared to non-doped structure. Here we observe systematic emergence of anomalous Hall effect in various MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures that exhibit quantum Hall effect. At low temperatures, our nominally non-magnetic heterostructures display an anomalous Hall effect response similar to that of a clean ferromagnetic metal, while keeping a large anomalous Hall effect angle θAHE≈20°. Such a behaviour is consistent with Giovannini-Kondo model in which the anomalous Hall effect arises from the skew scattering of electrons by localized paramagnetic centres. Our study unveils a new aspect of many-body interactions in two-dimensional electron systems and shows how the anomalous Hall effect can emerge in a non-magnetic system.

13.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14552, 2017 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28211517

RESUMEN

An energy gap can be opened in the spectrum of graphene reaching values as large as 0.2 eV in the case of bilayers. However, such gaps rarely lead to the highly insulating state expected at low temperatures. This long-standing puzzle is usually explained by charge inhomogeneity. Here we revisit the issue by investigating proximity-induced superconductivity in gapped graphene and comparing normal-state measurements in the Hall bar and Corbino geometries. We find that the supercurrent at the charge neutrality point in gapped graphene propagates along narrow channels near the edges. This observation is corroborated by using the edgeless Corbino geometry in which case resistivity at the neutrality point increases exponentially with increasing the gap, as expected for an ordinary semiconductor. In contrast, resistivity in the Hall bar geometry saturates to values of about a few resistance quanta. We attribute the metallic-like edge conductance to a nontrivial topology of gapped Dirac spectra.

14.
Nature ; 538(7624): 222-225, 2016 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27602512

RESUMEN

Nanometre-scale pores and capillaries have long been studied because of their importance in many natural phenomena and their use in numerous applications. A more recent development is the ability to fabricate artificial capillaries with nanometre dimensions, which has enabled new research on molecular transport and led to the emergence of nanofluidics. But surface roughness in particular makes it challenging to produce capillaries with precisely controlled dimensions at this spatial scale. Here we report the fabrication of narrow and smooth capillaries through van der Waals assembly, with atomically flat sheets at the top and bottom separated by spacers made of two-dimensional crystals with a precisely controlled number of layers. We use graphene and its multilayers as archetypal two-dimensional materials to demonstrate this technology, which produces structures that can be viewed as if individual atomic planes had been removed from a bulk crystal to leave behind flat voids of a height chosen with atomic-scale precision. Water transport through the channels, ranging in height from one to several dozen atomic planes, is characterized by unexpectedly fast flow (up to 1 metre per second) that we attribute to high capillary pressures (about 1,000 bar) and large slip lengths. For channels that accommodate only a few layers of water, the flow exhibits a marked enhancement that we associate with an increased structural order in nanoconfined water. Our work opens up an avenue to making capillaries and cavities with sizes tunable to ångström precision, and with permeation properties further controlled through a wide choice of atomically flat materials available for channel walls.

15.
Science ; 353(6299): 575-9, 2016 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27493182

RESUMEN

Chirality is a fundamental property of electrons with the relativistic spectrum found in graphene and topological insulators. It plays a crucial role in relativistic phenomena, such as Klein tunneling, but it is difficult to visualize directly. Here, we report the direct observation and manipulation of chirality and pseudospin polarization in the tunneling of electrons between two almost perfectly aligned graphene crystals. We use a strong in-plane magnetic field as a tool to resolve the contributions of the chiral electronic states that have a phase difference between the two components of their vector wave function. Our experiments not only shed light on chirality, but also demonstrate a technique for preparing graphene's Dirac electrons in a particular quantum chiral state in a selected valley.

16.
Science ; 353(6298): aac9439, 2016 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27471306

RESUMEN

The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.

17.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11622, 2016 05 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27181484

RESUMEN

Second-order continuous phase transitions are characterized by symmetry breaking with order parameters. Topological orders of electrons, characterized by the topological index defined in momentum space, provide a distinct perspective for phase transitions, which are categorized as quantum phase transitions not being accompanied by symmetry breaking. However, there are still limited observations of counterparts in real space. Here we show a real-space topological phase transition in a chiral magnet MnGe, hosting a periodic array of hedgehog and antihedgehog topological spin singularities. This transition is driven by the pair annihilation of the hedgehogs and antihedgehogs acting as monopoles and antimonopoles of the emergent electromagnetic field. Observed anomalies in the magnetoresistivity and phonon softening are consistent with the theoretical prediction of critical phenomena associated with enhanced fluctuations of emergent field near the transition. This finding reveals a vital role of topology of the spins in strongly correlated systems.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(18): 186603, 2016 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27203338

RESUMEN

We observe a series of sharp resonant features in the differential conductance of graphene-hexagonal boron nitride-graphene tunnel transistors over a wide range of bias voltages between 10 and 200 mV. We attribute them to electron tunneling assisted by the emission of phonons of well-defined energy. The bias voltages at which they occur are insensitive to the applied gate voltage and hence independent of the carrier densities in the graphene electrodes, so plasmonic effects can be ruled out. The phonon energies corresponding to the resonances are compared with the lattice dispersion curves of graphene-boron nitride heterostructures and are close to peaks in the single phonon density of states.

19.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10800, 2016 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26960435

RESUMEN

Microelectromechanical systems, which can be moved or rotated with nanometre precision, already find applications in such fields as radio-frequency electronics, micro-attenuators, sensors and many others. Especially interesting are those which allow fine control over the motion on the atomic scale because of self-alignment mechanisms and forces acting on the atomic level. Such machines can produce well-controlled movements as a reaction to small changes of the external parameters. Here we demonstrate that, for the system of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride, the interplay between the van der Waals and elastic energies results in graphene mechanically self-rotating towards the hexagonal boron nitride crystallographic directions. Such rotation is macroscopic (for graphene flakes of tens of micrometres the tangential movement can be on hundreds of nanometres) and can be used for reproducible manufacturing of aligned van der Waals heterostructures.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Boro/química , Grafito/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Cristalización , Elasticidad , Microscopía de Fuerza Atómica , Nanoestructuras/ultraestructura , Rotación , Termodinámica
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