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1.
Zookeys ; 1198: 295-340, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708380

RESUMEN

The current study presents an annotated checklist of the land snail species in the vicinity of the limestone hill of Gua (= cave) Rumbang, an outcrop located at the district of Padawan, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The sampling was conducted at the surrounding areas and near the cave's entrance. A total of 62 species, involving 19 families and 38 genera, were recorded. Comparison with previous surveys made in the Bau limestone hills revealed similarities with respect to the species-rich families Diplommatinidae and Cyclophoridae, and the genera Kaliella and Diplommatina, highlighting the regional consistency of the land snail diversity of the Bau-Padawan-Serian cluster. Possibly because of its smaller size, Gua Rumbang is home to two endemic species, while there are eight endemic species in the Bau limestone karsts. This suggests a potential for a significant species diversity within the areas of the limestone ranges that remain to be explored. Nonetheless, the occurrence of endemic species in Gua Rumbang highlights the need to conserve certain areas within the Padawan limestone range since hitherto no protected areas have been proposed in this region. In this checklist, a new species for science is also described, namely, Diplommatinarumbangensissp. nov.

3.
Ecology ; : e4299, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650359

RESUMEN

Information on tropical Asian vertebrates has traditionally been sparse, particularly when it comes to cryptic species inhabiting the dense forests of the region. Vertebrate populations are declining globally due to land-use change and hunting, the latter frequently referred as "defaunation." This is especially true in tropical Asia where there is extensive land-use change and high human densities. Robust monitoring requires that large volumes of vertebrate population data be made available for use by the scientific and applied communities. Camera traps have emerged as an effective, non-invasive, widespread, and common approach to surveying vertebrates in their natural habitats. However, camera-derived datasets remain scattered across a wide array of sources, including published scientific literature, gray literature, and unpublished works, making it challenging for researchers to harness the full potential of cameras for ecology, conservation, and management. In response, we collated and standardized observations from 239 camera trap studies conducted in tropical Asia. There were 278,260 independent records of 371 distinct species, comprising 232 mammals, 132 birds, and seven reptiles. The total trapping effort accumulated in this data paper consisted of 876,606 trap nights, distributed among Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Bhutan, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Nepal, and far eastern India. The relatively standardized deployment methods in the region provide a consistent, reliable, and rich count data set relative to other large-scale pressence-only data sets, such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) or citizen science repositories (e.g., iNaturalist), and is thus most similar to eBird. To facilitate the use of these data, we also provide mammalian species trait information and 13 environmental covariates calculated at three spatial scales around the camera survey centroids (within 10-, 20-, and 30-km buffers). We will update the dataset to include broader coverage of temperate Asia and add newer surveys and covariates as they become available. This dataset unlocks immense opportunities for single-species ecological or conservation studies as well as applied ecology, community ecology, and macroecology investigations. The data are fully available to the public for utilization and research. Please cite this data paper when utilizing the data.

5.
Conserv Biol ; : e14221, 2023 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37937455

RESUMEN

Reliable maps of species distributions are fundamental for biodiversity research and conservation. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) range maps are widely recognized as authoritative representations of species' geographic limits, yet they might not always align with actual occurrence data. In recent area of habitat (AOH) maps, areas that are not habitat have been removed from IUCN ranges to reduce commission errors, but their concordance with actual species occurrence also remains untested. We tested concordance between occurrences recorded in camera trap surveys and predicted occurrences from the IUCN and AOH maps for 510 medium- to large-bodied mammalian species in 80 camera trap sampling areas. Across all areas, cameras detected only 39% of species expected to occur based on IUCN ranges and AOH maps; 85% of the IUCN only mismatches occurred within 200 km of range edges. Only 4% of species occurrences were detected by cameras outside IUCN ranges. The probability of mismatches between cameras and the IUCN range was significantly higher for smaller-bodied mammals and habitat specialists in the Neotropics and Indomalaya and in areas with shorter canopy forests. Our findings suggest that range and AOH maps rarely underrepresent areas where species occur, but they may more often overrepresent ranges by including areas where a species may be absent, particularly at range edges. We suggest that combining range maps with data from ground-based biodiversity sensors, such as camera traps, provides a richer knowledge base for conservation mapping and planning.


Combinación de censos con fototrampas y mapas de extensión de la UICN para incrementar el conocimiento sobre la distribución de las especies Resumen Los mapas confiables de la distribución de las especies son fundamentales para la investigación y conservación de la biodiversidad. Los mapas de distribución de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN) están reconocidos como representaciones de autoridad de los límites geográficos de las especies, aunque no siempre se alinean con los datos actuales de su presencia. En los mapas recientes de área de hábitat (ADH), las áreas que no son hábitat han sido eliminadas de la distribución de la UICN para reducir los errores de comisión, pero su concordancia con la presencia actual de las especies tampoco ha sido analizada. Analizamos la concordancia entre la presencia registrada por los censos de fototrampas y pronosticamos la presencia a partir de los mapas de la UICN y de ADH de 510 especies de mamíferos de talla mediana a grande en 80 áreas de muestreo de fototrampas. Las cámaras detectaron sólo el 39% de las especies esperadas con base en la distribución de la UICN y los mapas de ADH en todas las áreas; el 85% de las disparidades con la UICN ocurrieron dentro de los 200 km a partir del borde de la distribución. Sólo el 4% de la presencia de las especies fue detectada por las cámaras ubicadas fuera de la distribución de la UICN. La probabilidad de disparidad entre las cámaras y la UICN fue significativamente mayor para los mamíferos de talla pequeña y para los especialistas de hábitat en las regiones Neotropical e Indomalaya y en áreas con doseles forestales más bajos. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que los mapas de distribución y ADH pocas veces subrepresentan las áreas con presencia de las especies, pero con frecuencia pueden sobrerrepresentar la distribución al incluir áreas en donde las especies pueden estar ausentes, en particular los bordes de la distribución. Sugerimos que la combinación de los mapas de distribución con los sensores de biodiversidad en tierra, como las fototrampas, proporciona una base más rica de conocimiento para el mapeo y la planeación de la conservación.

6.
Nature ; 620(7975): 807-812, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37612395

RESUMEN

The United Nations recently agreed to major expansions of global protected areas (PAs) to slow biodiversity declines1. However, although reserves often reduce habitat loss, their efficacy at preserving animal diversity and their influence on biodiversity in surrounding unprotected areas remain unclear2-5. Unregulated hunting can empty PAs of large animals6, illegal tree felling can degrade habitat quality7, and parks can simply displace disturbances such as logging and hunting to unprotected areas of the landscape8 (a phenomenon called leakage). Alternatively, well-functioning PAs could enhance animal diversity within reserves as well as in nearby unprotected sites9 (an effect called spillover). Here we test whether PAs across mega-diverse Southeast Asia contribute to vertebrate conservation inside and outside their boundaries. Reserves increased all facets of bird diversity. Large reserves were also associated with substantially enhanced mammal diversity in the adjacent unprotected landscape. Rather than PAs generating leakage that deteriorated ecological conditions elsewhere, our results are consistent with PAs inducing spillover that benefits biodiversity in surrounding areas. These findings support the United Nations goal of achieving 30% PA coverage by 2030 by demonstrating that PAs are associated with higher vertebrate diversity both inside their boundaries and in the broader landscape.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Objetivos , Clima Tropical , Naciones Unidas , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/tendencias , Mamíferos , Agricultura Forestal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Agricultura Forestal/métodos , Agricultura Forestal/tendencias
7.
Microb Genom ; 9(2)2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36757789

RESUMEN

Tick-borne diseases have recently been considered a potential emerging public health threat in Malaysia; however, fundamental studies into tick-borne pathogens and microbiome appear limited. In this study, six tick species (Ixodes granulatus, Haemaphysalis hystricis, Haemaphysalis shimoga, Dermacentor compactus, Dermacentor steini and Dermacentor atrosignatus) collected from two primary forests and an oil palm plantation in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, were used for microbiome analysis targeting bacterial 16S rDNA using next-generation sequencing (NGS). In addition, bacterial species were further characterized in conventional PCRs to identify potential pathogens. Sequences generated from NGS were first filtered with the Decontam package in R before subsequent microbial diversity analyses. Alpha and beta analyses revealed that the genus Dermacentor had the highest microbial diversity, and H. shimoga significantly differed in microbial composition from other tick species. Alpha and beta diversities were also significantly different between developmental stages of H. shimoga. Furthermore, we observed that some bacterial groups were significantly more abundant in certain tick species and developmental stages of H. shimoga. We tested the relative abundances using pairwise linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe), which also revealed significant microbial composition differences between Borrelia-positive and Borrelia-negative I. granulatus ticks. Finally, pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria circulating in different tick species, such as Rickettsia heilongjiangensis, Ehrlichia sp., Anaplasma sp. and Bartonella spp. were characterized by PCR and sequencing. Moreover, Coxiella and Francisella-like potential symbionts were identified from H. shimoga and D. steini, respectively. More studies are required to unravel the factors associated with the variations observed in this study.


Asunto(s)
Ixodes , Ixodidae , Microbiota , Animales , Ixodidae/microbiología , Malasia , Borneo , Microbiota/genética
8.
Trop Life Sci Res ; 33(3): 195-225, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36545059

RESUMEN

Flying foxes are threatened throughout their geographic range, and there are large gaps in the understanding of their landscape-scale habitat use. This study identified potential habitats in Limbang, Sarawak and informed potential distribution based on dispersal and interview surveys. Here, biological surveys were combined with interviews of local communities in Limbang Mangrove National Park (LMNP), Sarawak to illustrate distribution and the communities' perception on the protected flying fox (Pteropus vampyrus). Mangrove forest areas were surveyed for for the presence of flying foxes and villagers were interviewed regarding the use by flying foxes of agricultural areas and instances of conflict. Boat and questionnaire surveys were conducted for nine days from 18 to 27 February 2021. The surveys did not record any flying fox roosting sites within the national park and was instead observed to fly from Menunggul Island, Brunei into the national park in the evenings and back to Brunei in the mornings. A total of 27 flying foxes were recorded during the boat survey. Flying foxes were detected from 8/154 survey points and their spatial distribution appeared to be concentrated along Sungai Limpaku Pinang. Most respondents were aware of the species while some have directly observed them in fruit orchards, mangroves, rivers and mixed dipterocarp forests. Eleven perception-based questions were presented, and results showed that locality and income were the most influential parameters exhibiting conservation awareness through Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) analysis. Most respondents believe that flying foxes can uplift the local economy through ecotourism opportunities. However, these findings need to be carefully interpreted as the species has a large home range. Hence, long-term monitoring should be established to generate a larger dataset for stronger analysis to better represent the distribution and occurrence of this species in LMNP.


Keluang adalah spesies terancam di seluruh kawasan taburan mereka, dan terdapat jurang yang besar dalam pemahaman penggunaan habitat berskala landskap spesies ini. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti habitat berpotensi untuk keluang di Limbang, Sarawak serta menyelami persepsi masyarakat terhadap spesies ini. Gabungan tinjauan bot dan soal selidik di Limbang dapat menggambarkan taburan dan persepsi masyarakat terhadap keluang di Limbang, Sarawak. Tinjauan terhadap keluang di kawasan hutan bakau di Limbang telah dilakukan dan penduduk kampung tempatan di sekitar Taman Negara Bakau Limbang (TNBL) telah disoal selidik selama sembilan hari dari 18 hingga 27 Februari 2021. Tinjauan tidak merekodkan kawasan sarang keluang di dalam taman negara. Namun, keluang kelihatan terbang dari Pulau Menunggul, Brunei ke taman negara tersebut pada waktu petang dan kembali ke Brunei pada waktu pagi. Sebanyak 27 ekor keluang telah direkodkan melalui tinjauan bot. Keluang dikesan dari 8/154 tempat tinjauan dan taburannya didapati tertumpu di sepanjang Sungai Limpaku Pinang. Kebanyakan responden mengenali spesies tersebut manakala ada yang memerhati secara langsung di kebun buah-buahan, bakau, sungai dan hutan dipterokarp. Sebelas soalan berasaskan persepsi telah dikemukakan dan keputusan menunjukkan lokaliti dan pendapatan merupakan parameter yang paling berpengaruh melalui analisis Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). Kebanyakan responden percaya bahawa keluang mampu meningkatkan ekonomi tempatan melalui peluang eko-pelancongan. Walau bagaimanapun, hasil soal selidik ini perlu ditafsirkan dengan teliti kerana spesies ini mempunyai kawasan taburan yang luas. Oleh demikian, pemantauan jangka panjang harus dijalankan bagi menjana set data yang lebih besar untuk analisis yang lebih kukuh untuk mewakili pengedaran dan kejadian spesies ini dengan teliti dalam TNBL.

9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(11): 1469-1473, 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123016

RESUMEN

In this study, Babesia screening was conducted in 55 rodents and 160 tick samples collected from primary forests and an oil palm plantation in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal DNA revealed the presence of Babesia spp. DNA detected in two questing male Haemaphysalis shimoga ticks collected from the oil palm plantation. Sequence analysis revealed that both sequences were identical and had 98.6% identity to a Babesia macropus sequence obtained from Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) in Australia. Phylogenetic tree revealed clustering with marsupial-associated Babesia spp. in the Babesia sensu stricto clade. Whether or not H. shimoga is the competent vector and the importance of the Babesia sp. detected in this study warrants more investigation.


Asunto(s)
Babesia , Ixodidae , Animales , Babesia/genética , Filogenia , Macropodidae , Malasia , Borneo , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética , Genotipo
10.
Zookeys ; 1035: 1-113, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958931

RESUMEN

This study presents a list of land snails and slugs found on limestone hills in the District of Bau, the state of Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo. Systematic and random sampling for land snails was conducted at eight limestone outcrops, namely, Gunung Stulang, Padang Pan, Gunung Kapor, Gunung Lobang Angin, Gunung Doya, Gunung Batu, Bukit Sekunyit and Gunung Sebayat. A total of 122 land snail species was documented with photographs of each species. Of the 122 species collected, 13 are new to science, namely, Acmella bauensis sp. nov., Japonia bauensis sp. nov., Plectostoma margaretchanae sp. nov., Microcystina arabii sp. nov., Microcystina atoni sp. nov., Microcystina paripari sp. nov., Microcystina lirata sp. nov., Microcystina oswaldbrakeni sp. nov., Microcystina kilat sp. nov., Philalanka jambusanensis sp. nov., Everettia microrhytida sp. nov., Everettia minuta sp. nov., and Paralaoma sarawakensis sp. nov.

11.
Pathogens ; 9(10)2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076567

RESUMEN

Members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) complex are etiological agents of Lyme disease (LD), and Borrelia miyamotoi is one of the relapsing fever Borrelia (RFB). Despite the serological evidence of LD in Malaysia, there has been no report from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Thus, this study aimed to detect and characterize Borrelia in rodents and Ixodes ticks from primary forests and an oil palm (OP) plantation in Sarawak. Borrelia yangtzensis (a member of the Bbsl complex) was detected in 43.8% (14/32) of Ixodes granulatus; most of the positive ticks were from the OP plantation (13/14). Out of 56 rodents, B. yangtzensis was detected in four Rattus spp. from the OP plantation and B. miyamotoi was detected in one rodent, Sundamys muelleri, from the primary forest. Further, the positive samples of B. yangtzensis were randomly selected for multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The MLSA results of successfully amplified tick samples revealed a clustering with the sequences isolated from Japan and China. This study is the first evidence of B. miyamotoi, a known human pathogen in Malaysia, and B. yangtzensis, which is circulating in ticks and rodents in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, and presenting a new geographical record of the Borrelia spp.

12.
PeerJ ; 8: e9416, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714659

RESUMEN

Borneo has gone through dramatic changes in geology and topography from the early Eocene until the early Pliocene and experienced climatic cycling during the Pleistocene. However, how these changes have shaped the present-day patterns of high diversity and complex distribution are still poorly understood. In this study, we use integrative approaches by estimating phylogenetic relationships, divergence time, and current and past niche suitability for the Bornean endemic land snail genus Everettia to provide additional insight into the evolutionary history of this genus in northern Borneo in the light of the geological vicariance events and climatic fluctuations in the Pleistocene. Our results show that northern Borneo Everettia species belong to two deeply divergent lineages: one contains the species that inhabit high elevation at the central mountain range, while the other contains lowland species. Species diversification in these lineages has taken place before the Pliocene. Climate changes during the Pleistocene did not play a significant role in species diversification but could have shaped contemporary species distribution patterns. Our results also show that the species-rich highland habitats have acted as interglacial refugia for highland species. This study of a relatively sedentary invertebrate supports and enhances the growing understanding of the evolutionary history of Borneo. Species diversification in Everettia is caused by geological vicariance events between the early Miocene and the Pliocene, and the distribution patterns were subsequently determined by climatic fluctuations in the Pleistocene.

13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 284(1847)2017 01 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100818

RESUMEN

The responses of lowland tropical communities to climate change will critically influence global biodiversity but remain poorly understood. If species in these systems are unable to tolerate warming, the communities-currently the most diverse on Earth-may become depauperate ('biotic attrition'). In response to temperature changes, animals can adjust their distribution in space or their activity in time, but these two components of the niche are seldom considered together. We assessed the spatio-temporal niches of rainforest mammal species in Borneo across gradients in elevation and temperature. Most species are not predicted to experience changes in spatio-temporal niche availability, even under pessimistic warming scenarios. Responses to temperature are not predictable by phylogeny but do appear to be trait-based, being much more variable in smaller-bodied taxa. General circulation models and weather station data suggest unprecedentedly high midday temperatures later in the century; predicted responses to this warming among small-bodied species range from 9% losses to 6% gains in spatio-temporal niche availability, while larger species have close to 0% predicted change. Body mass may therefore be a key ecological trait influencing the identity of climate change winners and losers. Mammal species composition will probably change in some areas as temperatures rise, but full-scale biotic attrition this century appears unlikely.


Asunto(s)
Tamaño Corporal , Cambio Climático , Mamíferos , Animales , Biodiversidad , Borneo , Bosque Lluvioso , Temperatura
14.
Ecology ; 97(7): 1658-1667, 2016 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859156

RESUMEN

Elucidating how dispersal and landscape connectivity influence metacommunity stability will shed light on natural processes structuring ecosystems and help prioritize conservation actions in an increasingly fragmented world. Much of the theoretical and mathematical development of the metacommunity concept has been based on simplified experimental systems or simulated data. We still have limited understanding of how variation in the habitat matrix and species-specific differences in dispersal ability contribute to metacommunity dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes. We model a metacommunity of rainforest mammals in Borneo, a tropical biodiversity hotspot, where protected areas are increasingly isolated by ongoing habitat disturbance and loss. We employ a combination of hierarchical models of local abundance, circuit-theory-based dispersal analysis, and metapopulation models. Our goal was to understand which landscape links were the most important to metapopulation persistence and metacommunity stability. Links were particularly important if they were short and connected two large patches. This was partly because only the very shortest links could be traversed by poorly dispersing species, including small herbivores such as chevrotains (Tragulus spp.) and porcupines. Links that join large patches into a "super-patch" may also promote island-mainland rather than Levins-type metapopulation dynamics for good dispersers, particularly large carnivores such as clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) and sun bears (Helarctos malayanus), reducing metapopulation extinction risk and thereby enhancing metacommunity stability. Link importance to metacommunity stability was highly correlated between heterogeneous and homogeneous landscapes. But link importance to metapopulation capacity varied strongly across species, and the correlation between heterogeneous and homogeneous landscape matrix scenarios was low for poorly dispersing taxa. This suggests that the environmental conditions in the area between habitat patches, the landscape matrix, is important for assessing certain individual species but less so for understanding the stability of the entire metacommunity.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Animales , Biodiversidad , Borneo , Mamíferos , Modelos Biológicos , Dinámica Poblacional , Bosque Lluvioso
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 9: 242, 2016 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27125995

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonotic pathogen, transmitted among macaques and to humans by anopheline mosquitoes. Information on P. knowlesi malaria is lacking in most regions so the first step to understand the geographical distribution of disease risk is to define the distributions of the reservoir and vector species. METHODS: We used macaque and mosquito species presence data, background data that captured sampling bias in the presence data, a boosted regression tree model and environmental datasets, including annual data for land classes, to predict the distributions of each vector and host species. We then compared the predicted distribution of each species with cover of each land class. RESULTS: Fine-scale distribution maps were generated for three macaque host species (Macaca fascicularis, M. nemestrina and M. leonina) and two mosquito vector complexes (the Dirus Complex and the Leucosphyrus Complex). The Leucosphyrus Complex was predicted to occur in areas with disturbed, but not intact, forest cover (> 60% tree cover) whereas the Dirus Complex was predicted to occur in areas with 10-100% tree cover as well as vegetation mosaics and cropland. Of the macaque species, M. nemestrina was mainly predicted to occur in forested areas whereas M. fascicularis was predicted to occur in vegetation mosaics, cropland, wetland and urban areas in addition to forested areas. CONCLUSIONS: The predicted M. fascicularis distribution encompassed a wide range of habitats where humans are found. This is of most significance in the northern part of its range where members of the Dirus Complex are the main P. knowlesi vectors because these mosquitoes were also predicted to occur in a wider range of habitats. Our results support the hypothesis that conversion of intact forest into disturbed forest (for example plantations or timber concessions), or the creation of vegetation mosaics, will increase the probability that members of the Leucosphyrus Complex occur at these locations, as well as bringing humans into these areas. An explicit analysis of disease risk itself using infection data is required to explore this further. The species distributions generated here can now be included in future analyses of P. knowlesi infection risk.


Asunto(s)
Culicidae/fisiología , Macaca , Malaria/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Monos/parasitología , Plasmodium knowlesi/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Asia Sudoriental/epidemiología , Culicidae/parasitología , Bosques , Malaria/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Monos/epidemiología
16.
Conserv Biol ; 29(1): 122-32, 2015 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25065425

RESUMEN

Habitat corridors are important tools for maintaining connectivity in increasingly fragmented landscapes, but generally they have been considered in single-species approaches. Corridors intended to facilitate the movement of multiple species could increase persistence of entire communities, but at the likely cost of being less efficient for any given species than a corridor intended specifically for that species. There have been few tests of the trade-offs between single- and multispecies corridor approaches. We assessed single-species and multispecies habitat corridors for 5 threatened mammal species in tropical forests of Borneo. We generated maps of the cost of movement across the landscape for each species based on the species' local abundance as estimated through hierarchical modeling of camera-trap data with biophysical and anthropogenic covariates. Elevation influenced local abundance of banded civets (Hemigalus derbyanus) and sun bears (Helarctos malayanus). Increased road density was associated with lower local abundance of Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) and higher local abundance of sambar deer (Rusa unicolor). Pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) local abundance was lower in recently logged areas. An all-species-combined connectivity scenario with least-cost paths and 1 km buffers generated total movement costs that were 27% and 23% higher for banded civets and clouded leopards, respectively, than the connectivity scenarios for those species individually. A carnivore multispecies connectivity scenario, however, increased movement cost by 2% for banded civets and clouded leopards. Likewise, an herbivore multispecies scenario provided more effective connectivity than the all-species-combined scenario for sambar and macaques. We suggest that multispecies habitat connectivity plans be tailored to groups of ecologically similar, disturbance-sensitive species to maximize their effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Mamíferos/fisiología , Animales , Borneo , Malasia , Bosque Lluvioso
17.
Conserv Biol ; 29(1): 110-21, 2015 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25196079

RESUMEN

Humans influence tropical rainforest animals directly via exploitation and indirectly via habitat disturbance. Bushmeat hunting and logging occur extensively in tropical forests and have large effects on particular species. But how they alter animal diversity across landscape scales and whether their impacts are correlated across species remain less known. We used spatially widespread measurements of mammal occurrence across Malaysian Borneo and recently developed multispecies hierarchical models to assess the species richness of medium- to large-bodied terrestrial mammals while accounting for imperfect detection of all species. Hunting was associated with 31% lower species richness. Moreover, hunting remained high even where richness was very low, highlighting that hunting pressure persisted even in chronically overhunted areas. Newly logged sites had 11% lower species richness than unlogged sites, but sites logged >10 years previously had richness levels similar to those in old-growth forest. Hunting was a more serious long-term threat than logging for 91% of primate and ungulate species. Hunting and logging impacts across species were not correlated across taxa. Negative impacts of hunting were the greatest for common mammalian species, but commonness versus rarity was not related to species-specific impacts of logging. Direct human impacts appeared highly persistent and lead to defaunation of certain areas. These impacts were particularly severe for species of ecological importance as seed dispersers and herbivores. Indirect impacts were also strong but appeared to attenuate more rapidly than previously thought. The lack of correlation between direct and indirect impacts across species highlights that multifaceted conservation strategies may be needed for mammal conservation in tropical rainforests, Earth's most biodiverse ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agricultura Forestal , Mamíferos/fisiología , Animales , Borneo , Actividades Humanas , Malasia , Densidad de Población , Bosque Lluvioso , Especificidad de la Especie
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