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2.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(8): 1056-1063, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486162

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Poor sleep may increase obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in youth. We explored whether subjective sleep duration, sleep quality, or risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are associated with glycemia, body mass index (BMI), or blood pressure (BP) in overweight/obese youth. METHODS: Two-hundred and fourteen overweight/obese youth of 10 to 19 years of age at risk for or recently diagnosed with T2D who were screened for the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Study had a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and completed a Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness questionnaire and a Sleep Disturbances Scale questionnaire. Independent associations between sleep variables and measures of glycemia, BMI, and BP were evaluated with regression models. RESULTS: The multiethnic cohort was 67% female, 14.1 ± 2.1 years, and BMI 35.9 ± 6.5 kg/m2 . Habitual sleep duration <8 hours was reported in 74%. Daytime sleepiness was reported in 51%, poor sleep quality in 26%, and 30% had high obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) risk. Daytime sleepiness was associated with higher HbA1c (0.2%, P = .02) and 2-hour glucose (13.6 mg/dL, P < .05). Sleep duration, sleep quality, and OSA risk were not associated with the evaluated outcomes. Poor sleep quality and OSA risk were associated with higher BMI (2.9 kg/m2 , P = .004 and 2.83 kg/m2 , P < .003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In overweight/obese youth with or at risk for T2D, daytime sleepiness was associated with higher HbA1c. In addition, poor sleep quality and OSA risk were associated with higher BMI. These findings support intervention studies aimed at improving sleep quality in obese youth.

3.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(3): e6-e24, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368798

RESUMEN

Background: The purpose of this guideline is to optimize evaluation and management of patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS).Methods: A multidisciplinary panel identified and prioritized five clinical questions. The panel performed systematic reviews of available studies (up to July 2018) and followed the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation evidence-to-decision framework to develop recommendations. All panel members discussed and approved the recommendations.Recommendations: After considering the overall very low quality of the evidence, the panel made five conditional recommendations. We suggest that: 1) clinicians use a serum bicarbonate level <27 mmol/L to exclude the diagnosis of OHS in obese patients with sleep-disordered breathing when suspicion for OHS is not very high (<20%) but to measure arterial blood gases in patients strongly suspected of having OHS, 2) stable ambulatory patients with OHS receive positive airway pressure (PAP), 3) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) rather than noninvasive ventilation be offered as the first-line treatment to stable ambulatory patients with OHS and coexistent severe obstructive sleep apnea, 4) patients hospitalized with respiratory failure and suspected of having OHS be discharged with noninvasive ventilation until they undergo outpatient diagnostic procedures and PAP titration in the sleep laboratory (ideally within 2-3 mo), and 5) patients with OHS use weight-loss interventions that produce sustained weight loss of 25% to 30% of body weight to achieve resolution of OHS (which is more likely to be obtained with bariatric surgery).Conclusions: Clinicians may use these recommendations, on the basis of the best available evidence, to guide management and improve outcomes among patients with OHS.

4.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(10): 1295-1303, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365842

RESUMEN

Rationale: Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is an undesirable consequence of obesity. Treatment consists of weight loss and positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. However, the preferred mode of PAP is uncertain.Objectives: To perform a systematic review to determine whether PAP therapy should be initiated as noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous PAP (CPAP) in ambulatory patients with OHS.Methods: This systematic review informed an international, multidisciplinary panel of experts who had converged to develop a clinical practice guideline on OHS for the American Thoracic Society. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched from January 1946 to March 2019 for studies that compared initial treatment with NIV to CPAP in OHS. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach was used to appraise the quality of evidence.Results: The search identified 2,994 potentially relevant articles, the full text of 21 articles was reviewed, and five articles were selected. The five articles included three randomized trials (one reported as two articles) and an observational study. The sample size ranged from 36 to 225 subjects. The evidence showed no differences in mortality, cardiovascular events, and healthcare resource use between patients with OHS treated with NIV or CPAP. Both PAP modalities were similarly effective in improving gas exchange, the need for supplemental oxygen, daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, quality of life, dyspnea, and sleep-disordered breathing. There was also no significant difference in adherence to NIV or CPAP therapy. Certainty in the estimated effects was low or very low for some outcomes. Therefore, the conditional recommendation was based on very low-quality evidence.Conclusions: The panel made a conditional (i.e., weak) recommendation that CPAP rather than NIV be offered as the first-line treatment to stable ambulatory patients with OHS and coexistent severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The effectiveness of CPAP is similar to that of NIV, but NIV is more costly and requires more resources than CPAP. Given that approximately 70% of patients with OHS have coexistent severe OSA, this recommendation applies to the great majority of patients with stable OHS, but it should not be extrapolated to patients with OHS without severe OSA. Patients of advanced age, with poor lung function, or with greater or recent acute ventilatory failure may not respond adequately to CPAP.

5.
Sleep ; 42(11)2019 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310317

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Although sleep disturbance is common in acutely ill patients during and after a hospitalization, how hospitalization affects sleep in general medicine patients has not been well characterized. We describe how sleep and activity patterns vary during and after hospitalization in a small population of older, predominately African American general medicine patients. METHODS: Patients wore a wrist accelerometer during hospitalization and post-discharge to provide objective measurements of sleep duration, efficiency, and physical activity. Random effects linear regression models clustered by subject were used to test associations between sleep and activity parameters across study days from hospitalization through post-discharge. RESULTS: We recorded 404 nights and 384 days from 54 patients. Neither nighttime sleep duration nor sleep efficiency increased from hospitalization through post-discharge (320.2 vs. 320.2 min, p = 0.99; 74.0% vs. 71.7%, p = 0.24). Daytime sleep duration also showed no significant change (26.3 vs. 25.8 min/day, p = 0.5). Daytime physical activity was significantly less in-hospital compared to post-discharge (128.6 vs. 173.2 counts/min, p < 0.01) and increased 23.3 counts/min (95% CI = 16.5 to 30.6, p < 0.01) per hospital day. A study day and post-discharge period interaction was observed demonstrating slowed recovery of activity post-discharge (ß 3 = -20.8, 95% CI = -28.8 to -12.8, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Nighttime sleep duration and efficiency and daytime sleep duration were similar in-hospital and post-discharge. Daytime physical activity, however, was greater post-discharge and increased more rapidly during hospitalization than post-discharge. Interventions, both in hospital and at home, to restore patient sleep and sustain activity improvements may improve patient recovery from illness.

6.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 317(2): H315-H322, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149842

RESUMEN

Our laboratory has previously reported that total sleep deprivation (TSD) modifies muscle sympathetic neural activity (MSNA) differently in young men and women. Because postmenopausal women are among the highest risk for hypertension, this study compares MSNA responses with TSD in older men and women. We hypothesized that TSD would alter MSNA in older adults, with greater sympathoexcitation in postmenopausal women. Twenty-seven participants (14 men and 13 women) between the ages of 55 and 75 yr were tested twice, once after 24-h TSD and once after normal sleep (randomized, crossover design). Our primary outcome measure of MSNA (microneurography) was successful across both conditions in 20 participants (10 men and 10 women). Secondary outcome measures included seated blood pressure, heart rate, and fasting plasma testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone. Age (60 ± 1 vs. 61 ± 2 yr) and BMI (27 ± 1 vs. 26 ± 1 kg/m2) were not different between groups. TSD increased systolic blood pressure in both men (124 ± 5 to 130 ± 4 mmHg) and women (107 ± 5 to 116 ± 4 mmHg), but the increases were not different between groups (condition, P = 0.014; condition × sex, P > 0.05). In contrast, TSD elicited divergent MSNA responses in older men and women. Specifically, MSNA burst frequency increased in postmenopausal women (28 ± 3 to 34 ± 3 burst/min), but not older men (38 ± 3 to 35 ± 3 bursts/min; condition × sex, P = 0.032). In conclusion, TSD elicited sympathoexcitation in postmenopausal women but not age-matched men. These findings provide new mechanistic insight into reported links between sleep deprivation and hypertension.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Epidemiological studies report that sleep deprivation is more strongly associated with hypertension in women than in men. In the present study, 24-h total sleep deprivation (TSD) increased blood pressure in postmenopausal women and age-matched men. In contrast, only women demonstrated increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity after TSD. The sympathoexcitation observed in postmenopausal women suggests a potential contributing mechanism for epidemiological observations and advances our understanding of the complex relations between sleep, sex, and hypertension.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1521-1529, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177181

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between habitual daily physical activity and measures of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and ß-cell responses in adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or drug-naive, recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants included 230 adults (mean ± SD age 54.5 ± 8.5 years, BMI 35 ± 5.5 kg/m2; 42.6% women) who underwent a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperglycemic clamp. Wrist accelerometers worn for 7 consecutive days measured total physical activity counts (TAC) (daily mean 233,460 [∼50th percentile for age]). We evaluated whether TAC was associated with fasting plasma glucose, OGTT 2-h plasma glucose or glucose incremental area under the curve (G-iAUC), hyperglycemic clamp measures of insulin sensitivity (steady-state glucose infusion rate/insulin [M/I]) and ß-cell responses (acute C-peptide response to glucose, steady-state C-peptide, and maximal ß-cell response), and OGTT C-peptide index (ΔC-peptide0-30/Δglucose0-30). RESULTS: After adjustments for confounders, there was no association of TAC with fasting plasma glucose, 2-h glucose, or G-iAUC. Higher TAC was associated with higher insulin sensitivity (M/I). After adjusting for M/I, higher TAC was not associated with measures of ß-cell response. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with IGT or drug-naive, recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, higher levels of habitual physical activity are associated with higher insulin sensitivity. Further studies are needed to understand why higher levels of physical activity are not associated with better ß-cell response.

8.
Diabetes Care ; 42(7): 1326-1332, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048411

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances and circadian misalignment (social jet lag, late chronotype, or shift work) have been associated with worse glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether these findings apply to adults with prediabetes is yet unexplored. We hypothesized that self-reported short sleep, poor sleep quality, and/or circadian misalignment are associated with higher glycemia, BMI, and blood pressure (BP) in adults with prediabetes or recently diagnosed, untreated T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Our cohort included 962 overweight/obese adults ages 20-65 years with prediabetes or recently diagnosed, untreated T2D who completed a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test and validated sleep questionnaires. Independent associations of sleep and circadian variables with glycemia, BMI, and BP were evaluated with regression models. RESULTS: The multiethnic cohort was 55% men, with mean ± SD age 52.2 ± 9.5 years and BMI 34.7 ± 5.5 kg/m2. Mean sleep duration was 6.6 ± 1.3 h. Poor sleep quality was reported by 54% and high risk for obstructive sleep apnea by 64%. HbA1c was significantly higher in those reporting <5 or >8 h sleep per night. Sleep duration >8 h was also associated with higher fasting glucose and <6 h with higher BMI. Shift work was also associated with higher BMI. Social jet lag and delayed chronotype were associated with higher BP. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, self-reported short and long sleep were both associated with adverse measures of glycemia, and short sleep and shift work were associated with higher BMI. Further research using objective measures of sleep is needed to better delineate the relationship between sleep and glycemia in adults with prediabetes or T2D.

9.
Lancet ; 393(10182): 1721-1732, 2019 04 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935737

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is commonly treated with continuous positive airway pressure or non-invasive ventilation during sleep. Non-invasive ventilation is more complex and costly than continuous positive airway pressure but might be advantageous because it provides ventilatory support. To date there have been no long-term trials comparing these treatment modalities. We therefore aimed to determine the long-term comparative effectiveness of both treatment modalities. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial at 16 clinical sites in Spain. We included patients aged 15-80 years with untreated obesity hypoventilation syndrome and an apnoea-hypopnoea index of 30 or more events per h. We randomly assigned patients, using simple randomisation through an electronic database, to receive treatment with either non-invasive ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure. Both investigators and patients were aware of the treatment allocation. The research team was not involved in deciding hospital treatment, duration of treatment in the hospital, and adjustment of medications, as well as adjudicating cardiovascular events or cause of mortality. Treating clinicians from the routine care team were not aware of the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was the number of hospitalisation days per year. The analysis was done according to the intention-to-treat principle. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01405976. FINDINGS: From May 4, 2009, to March 25, 2013, 100 patients were randomly assigned to the non-invasive ventilation group and 115 to the continuous positive airway pressure group, of which 97 patients in the non-invasive ventilation group and 107 in the continuous positive airway pressure group were included in the analysis. The median follow-up was 5·44 years (IQR 4·45-6·37) for all patients, 5·37 years (4·36-6·32) in the continuous positive airway pressure group, and 5·55 years (4·53-6·50) in the non-invasive ventilation group. The mean hospitalisation days per patient-year were 1·63 (SD 3·74) in the continuous positive airway pressure group and 1·44 (3·07) in the non-invasive ventilation group (adjusted rate ratio 0·78, 95% CI 0·34-1·77; p=0·561). Adverse events were similar between both groups. INTERPRETATION: In stable patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome and severe obstructive sleep apnoea, non-invasive ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure have similar long-term effectiveness. Given that continuous positive airway pressure has lower complexity and cost, continuous positive airway pressure might be the preferred first-line positive airway pressure treatment modality until more studies become available. FUNDING: Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spanish Respiratory Foundation, and Air Liquide Spain.


Asunto(s)
Presión de las Vías Aéreas Positiva Contínua/métodos , Ventilación no Invasiva/métodos , Síndrome de Hipoventilación por Obesidad/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Presión de las Vías Aéreas Positiva Contínua/mortalidad , Femenino , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado/fisiología , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ventilación no Invasiva/mortalidad , Síndrome de Hipoventilación por Obesidad/mortalidad , Síndrome de Hipoventilación por Obesidad/fisiopatología , España/epidemiología , Análisis de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Capacidad Vital/fisiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Eur Respir Rev ; 28(151)2019 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872398

RESUMEN

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is defined as a combination of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg·m-2), daytime hypercapnia (arterial carbon dioxide tension ≥45 mmHg) and sleep disordered breathing, after ruling out other disorders that may cause alveolar hypoventilation. OHS prevalence has been estimated to be ∼0.4% of the adult population. OHS is typically diagnosed during an episode of acute-on-chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure or when symptoms lead to pulmonary or sleep consultation in stable conditions. The diagnosis is firmly established after arterial blood gases and a sleep study. The presence of daytime hypercapnia is explained by several co-existing mechanisms such as obesity-related changes in the respiratory system, alterations in respiratory drive and breathing abnormalities during sleep. The most frequent comorbidities are metabolic and cardiovascular, mainly heart failure, coronary disease and pulmonary hypertension. Both continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) improve clinical symptoms, quality of life, gas exchange, and sleep disordered breathing. CPAP is considered the first-line treatment modality for OHS phenotype with concomitant severe obstructive sleep apnoea, whereas NIV is preferred in the minority of OHS patients with hypoventilation during sleep with no or milder forms of obstructive sleep apnoea (approximately <30% of OHS patients). Acute-on-chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure is habitually treated with NIV. Appropriate management of comorbidities including medications and rehabilitation programmes are key issues for improving prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Presión de las Vías Aéreas Positiva Contínua , Pulmón/fisiopatología , Ventilación no Invasiva , Síndrome de Hipoventilación por Obesidad/terapia , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Ventilación Pulmonar , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Hipercapnia/epidemiología , Hipercapnia/fisiopatología , Hipercapnia/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/epidemiología , Síndrome de Hipoventilación por Obesidad/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Hipoventilación por Obesidad/epidemiología , Síndrome de Hipoventilación por Obesidad/fisiopatología , Calidad de Vida , Recuperación de la Función , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
J Hosp Med ; 14(1): 38-41, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667409

RESUMEN

We created Sleep for Inpatients: Empowering Staff to Act (SIESTA), which combines electronic "nudges" to forgo nocturnal vitals and medications with interprofessional education on improving patient sleep. In one "SIESTAenhanced unit," nurses received coaching and integrated SIESTA into daily huddles; a standard unit did not. Six months pre- and post-SIESTA, sleep-friendly orders rose in both units (foregoing vital signs: SIESTA unit, 4% to 34%; standard, 3% to 22%, P < .001 both; sleeppromoting VTE prophylaxis: SIESTA, 15% to 42%; standard, 12% to 28%, P < .001 both). In the SIESTAenhanced unit, nighttime room entries dropped by 44% (-6.3 disruptions/room, P < .001), and patients were more likely to report no disruptions for nighttime vital signs (70% vs 41%, P = .05) or medications (84% vs 57%, P = .031) than those in the standard unit. The standard unit was not changed. Although sleep-friendly orders were adopted in both units, a unit-based nursing empowerment approach was associated with fewer nighttime room entries and improved patient experience.

12.
Chest ; 2018 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392792

RESUMEN

This manuscript provides a detailed list of the sleep-related curricular competencies for fellows in pulmonary or combined pulmonary and critical care programs. The list was developed through a formal Delphi process, incorporating representatives from the American College of Chest Physicians, the Association of Pulmonary and Critical Care Program Directors, and the American Thoracic Society. The consensus process was also informed by data collected regarding the current scope of practice from both program directors and recent fellowship graduates. Moving forward, these curricular competencies could serve as a framework for program design by fellowships.

13.
Chest ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359618

RESUMEN

In the surgical setting, OSA is associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications. At present, risk stratification using OSA-associated parameters derived from polysomnography (PSG) or overnight oximetry to predict postoperative complications has not been established. The objective of this narrative review is to evaluate the literature to determine the association between parameters extracted from in-laboratory PSG, portable PSG, or overnight oximetry and postoperative adverse events. We obtained pertinent articles from Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Embase (2008 to December 2017). The search included studies with adult patients undergoing surgery who had OSA diagnosed with portable PSG, in-laboratory PSG, or overnight oximetry that reported on specific sleep parameters and at least one adverse outcome. The search was restricted to English-language articles. The search yielded 1,810 articles, of which 21 were included in the review. Preoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and measurements of nocturnal hypoxemia such as oxygen desaturation index (ODI), cumulative sleep time percentage with oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) < 90% (CT90), minimum SpO2, mean SpO2, and longest apnea duration were associated with postoperative complications. OSA is associated with postoperative complications in the population undergoing surgery. Significant association between AHI and postoperative adverse events exists. Complications may be more likely to occur in the category of moderate to severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15). Other parameters from PSG or overnight oximetry such as ODI, CT90, mean and minimal SpO2, and longest apnea duration can be associated with postoperative complications and may provide additional value in risk stratification and minimization.

15.
Sleep Breath ; 2018 Sep 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232681

RESUMEN

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was discovered nearly 60 years ago. This stage of sleep accounts for approximately a quarter of total sleep time in healthy adults, and it is mostly concentrated in the second half of the sleep period. The majority of research on REM sleep has focused on neurocognition. More recently, however, there has been a growing interest in understanding whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during the two main stages of sleep (REM and non-REM sleep) leads to different cardiometabolic and neurocognitive risk. In this review, we discuss the growing evidence indicating that OSA during REM sleep is a prevalent disorder that is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive outcomes. From a therapeutic standpoint, we discuss limitations of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy given that 3 or 4 h of CPAP use from the beginning of the sleep period would leave 75% or 60% of obstructive events during REM sleep untreated. We also review potential pharmacologic approaches to treating OSA during REM sleep. Undoubtedly, further research is needed to establish best treatment strategies in order to effectively treat REM OSA. Moreover, it is critical to understand whether treatment of REM OSA will translate into better patient outcomes.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050500

RESUMEN

Background: Slow-wave activity (SWA) in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, obtained by spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram, is a marker of the depth or intensity of NREM sleep. Higher levels of SWA are associated with lower arousability during NREM sleep and protect against sleep fragmentation. Multiple studies have documented that SWA levels are higher in lean women, compared to age-matched lean men, but whether these differences persist in obese subjects is unclear. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a condition associated with obesity, is more prevalent in men than in women. Sex differences in SWA could therefore be one of the factors predisposing men to OSA. Furthermore, we hypothesized that higher levels of testosterone may be associated with lower levels of SWA. Objective: The aim of the current study was to identify sex differences in the determinants of SWA in young and middle-aged overweight and obese adults. Methods: We enrolled 101 overweight and obese but otherwise healthy participants from the community (44 men, 57 women) in this cross-sectional study. Participants underwent an overnight in-laboratory polysomnogram. The recordings were submitted to sleep staging and spectral analysis. Sex differences and the potential contribution of testosterone levels were evaluated after adjusting for age, body mass index and race/ethnicity. Results: OSA was present in 66% of men and in 44% of women. After adjustment for differences in age, race/ethnicity and BMI, the odds ratio for OSA in men vs. women was 3.17 (95% CI 1.14-9.43, p = 0.027). There was a graded inverse relationship between the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and SWA in men (ß = -0.21, p = 0.018) but not in women (ß = 0.10, p = 0.207). In a multivariate regression model, higher testosterone levels were independently associated with lower SWA in men after controlling for age, race/ethnicity and apnea-hypopnea index (ß = -0.56, p = 0.025). Conclusion: Increasing severity of OSA was associated with significant decrease in sleep intensity in men but not in women. Higher testosterone levels were associated with lower sleep intensity in men. Men with higher testosterone levels may therefore have lower arousal thresholds and higher ventilatory instability in NREM sleep, and be at greater risk of OSA.

18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042734

RESUMEN

Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more prevalent in men and is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We aimed to determine if there are sex differences in the impact of OSA on glucose metabolism in nondiabetic overweight and obese adults. Methods: One hundred and forty-five men and women (age 33.4 ± 0.6, BMI 37.2 ± 0.7, 70.3% blacks) from the community underwent in-laboratory polysomnography. Severity of OSA was assessed by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Glucose tolerance was assessed using fasting glucose, 1-h glucose, 2-h glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) during the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Fasting insulin resistance was assessed by HOMA-IR, and insulin sensitivity during the OGTT was assessed by the Matsuda Index. Pancreatic beta-cell function was assessed by fasting HOMA-%B and by AUCinsulin/glucose, insulinogenic index, and oral disposition index (DIoral) during the OGTT. All comparisons were adjusted for age, BMI, race and severity of OSA. Results: There were no significant demographic differences between men and women without OSA. Men and women with OSA were similar in age, BMI, and severity of OSA, but there were more black women with OSA. Compared to women with OSA, men with OSA had significantly higher fasting glucose, 1-h glucose levels, AUCglucose, and AUC for insulin secretion rate (AUCISR) but similar 2-h glucose levels. These differences persisted in adjusted analyses. Men with OSA secreted significantly more insulin than women with OSA in order to achieve similar glucose levels. Men with OSA had significantly worse beta cell function as measured by the DIoral than women with OSA. In contrast, there were no significant sex differences in measures of glucose tolerance and beta-cell function in participants without OSA. Conclusion: Men with OSA secreted more insulin compared to women with OSA in order to maintain glucose homeostasis. The adverse impact of OSA on beta-cell responsiveness was larger in men, which may result in an overall greater risk of type 2 diabetes compared to women.

20.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 14(5): 797-807, 2018 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734990

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal studies support the usage of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to improve cardiovascular disease. However, the anticipated benefit is not ubiquitous. In this study, we elucidate whether PAP therapy leads to immediate improvements on endothelial function, a subclinical marker of cardiovascular status, by examining the effect of circulating exosomes, isolated from patients before and after PAP therapy, on naive endothelial cells. METHODS: We isolated plasma-derived circulating exosomes from 12 patients with severe OSA and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) before and after 6 weeks of PAP therapy, and examined their effect on cultured endothelial cells using several in vitro reporter assays. RESULTS: We found that circulating exosomes contributed to the induction and propagation of OSA/OHS-related endothelial dysfunction (ie, increased permeability and disruption of tight junctions along with increased adhesion molecule expression, and reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression), and promoted increased monocyte adherence. Further, when comparing exosomes isolated before and after PAP therapy, the disturbances in endothelial cell function were attenuated with treatment, including an overall cumulative decrease in endothelial permeability in all 12 subjects by 10.8% (P = .035), as well as detection of a subset of 4 differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs, even in the absence of parallel changes in systemic blood pressure or metabolic function. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating exosomes facilitate important intercellular signals that modify endothelial phenotype, and thus emerge as potential fundamental contributors in the context of OSA/OHS-related endothelial dysfunction. Exosomes may not only provide candidate biomarkers, but are also a likely and plausible mechanism toward OSA/OHS-induced cardiovascular disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, Title: AVAPS-AE Efficacy Study, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01368614, Identifier: NCT01368614.

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