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1.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696516

RESUMEN

The first detection of a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus in Bulgaria dates back to December 2016. Since then, many outbreaks caused by HPAI H5 viruses from clade 2.3.4.4B have been reported in both domestic and wild birds in different regions of the country. In this study, we characterized the complete genome of sixteen H5 viruses collected in Bulgaria between 2019 and 2021. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a persistent circulation of the H5N8 strain for four consecutive years (December 2016-June 2020) and the emergence in 2020 of a novel reassortant H5N2 subtype, likely in a duck farm. Estimation of the time to the most recent common ancestor indicates that this reassortment event may have occurred between May 2019 and January 2020. At the beginning of 2021, Bulgaria experienced a new virus introduction in the poultry sector, namely a HPAI H5N8 that had been circulating in Europe since October 2020. The periodical identification in domestic birds of H5 viruses related to the 2016 epidemic as well as a reassortant strain might indicate undetected circulation of the virus in resident wild birds or in the poultry sector. To avoid the concealed circulation and evolution of viruses, and the risk of emergence of strains with pandemic potential, the implementation of control measures is of utmost importance, particularly in duck farms where birds display no clinical signs.

2.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452311

RESUMEN

Since 2006, multiple outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) have been reported in Nigeria involving different subtypes. Surveillance and molecular epidemiology have revealed the vital role of live bird markets (LBMs) in the dissemination of AI virus to commercial poultry farms. To better understand the ecology and epidemiology of AI in Nigeria, we performed whole-genome sequencing of nineteen H9N2 viruses recovered, from apparently healthy poultry species, during active surveillance conducted in nine LBMs across Nigeria in 2019. Analyses of the HA gene segment of these viruses showed that the H9N2 strains belong to the G1 lineage, which has zoonotic potential, and are clustered with contemporary H9N2 identified in Africa between 2016 and 2020. We observed two distinct clusters of H9N2 viruses in Nigeria, suggesting different introductions into the country. In view of the zoonotic potential of H9N2 and the co-circulation of multiple subtypes of AI virus in Nigeria, continuous monitoring of the LBMs across the country and molecular characterization of AIVs identified is advocated to mitigate economic losses and public health threats.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205893

RESUMEN

Despite the reported increase in SARS-CoV-2-infected pets, the description of the clinical features from natural infection and the medical follow up in symptomatic pets is still not sufficiently documented. This study reports the case of an indoor cat that displayed respiratory signs and a gastrointestinal syndrome, following the COVID-19 diagnosis of his owners. Thoracic radiographies were suggestive of bronchial pneumonia, while blood tests were indicative of a mild inflammatory process. Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs tested positive through RT-qPCR assays targeting SARS-CoV-2 genes 14 days after his owners tested positive for the virus. Nasal swabs persisted to be RT-qPCR positive after 31 days. Serology confirmed the presence of antibodies through ELISA, electrochemiluminescence analysis and plaque reduction neutralization test, recording a high antibody titre after 31 days. The cat improved after medical treatment and clinically recovered. This study suggests that exposure to SARS-CoV-2 could lead to a natural infection with bronchial pneumonia in cats along with a possible prolonged persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the upper airways, albeit at a low level. The cat developed neutralizing antibodies, reaching a high titre after 31 days. Further descriptions of SARS-CoV-2 naturally infected pets, their medical management and diagnostic findings would be useful to enhance knowledge about COVID-19 in susceptible animals.

4.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498495

RESUMEN

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly transmissible and devastating disease that affects poultry and wild birds worldwide. Comprehensive knowledge regarding the characteristics and epidemiological factors of the ND virus (NDV) is critical for the control and prevention of ND. Effective vaccinations can prevent and control the spread of the NDV in poultry populations. For decades, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has reported the impacts of ND on commercial and traditional poultry farming systems. The reports were preliminary clinical observations, and few cases were confirmed in the laboratory. However, data on the phylogenetic, genetic, and virological characteristics of NDVs circulating in the DRC are not available. In this study, the whole-genome sequences of three NDV isolates obtained using the next-generation sequencing method revealed two isolates that were a new variant of NDV, and one isolate that was clustered in the subgenotype VII.2. All DRC isolates were velogenic and were antigenically closely related to the vaccine strains. Our findings reveal that despite the circulation of the new variant, ND can be controlled in the DRC using the current vaccine. However, epidemiological studies should be conducted to elucidate the endemicity of the disease so that better control strategies can be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Newcastle/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Newcastle/virología , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle/clasificación , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle/genética , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Animales , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Genotipo , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , Aves de Corral/virología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , ARN Viral/genética , Proteínas Virales/genética , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480188

RESUMEN

Among recurrent sanitary emergencies able to spread rapidly worldwide, avian influenza is one of the main constraints for animal health and food security. In West Africa, Nigeria has been experiencing repeated outbreaks of different strains of avian influenza virus (AIV) since 2006 and is also recognized as a hot spot in the region for the introduction of emerging strains by migratory wild birds. Here, we generated complete genomes of 20 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses collected during active surveillance in Nigerian live bird markets (LBM) and from outbreaks reported in the country between 2016 and 2019. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the Nigerian viruses cluster into four separate genetic groups within HPAI H5 clade 2.3.4.4b. The first group includes 2016-2017 Nigerian viruses with high genetic similarity to H5N8 viruses detected in Central African countries, while the second includes Nigerian viruses collected both in LBM and poultry farms (2018-2019), as well as in Cameroon, Egypt and Siberia. A natural reassortant strain identified in 2019 represents the third group: H5N8 viruses with the same gene constellation were identified in 2018 in South Africa. Finally, the fourth introduction represents the first detection in the African continent of the H5N6 subtype, which is related to European viruses. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses confirmed that the four introductions originated from different sources and provide evidence of the virus spread within Nigeria, as well as diffusion beyond its borders. The multiple epidemiological links between Nigeria, Central and Southern African countries highlight the need for harmonized and coordinated surveillance system to control AIV impact. Improved surveillance at the Wetlands, LBMs and early warning of outbreaks are crucial for prevention and control of AIV, which can be potentially zoonotic and be a threat to human health.

6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(1): 152-167, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613724

RESUMEN

Comprehensive understanding of the patterns and drivers of avian influenza outbreaks is pivotal to inform surveillance systems and heighten nations' ability to quickly detect and respond to the emergence of novel viruses. Starting in early 2017, the Italian poultry sector has been involved in the massive H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic that spread in the majority of the European countries in 2016/2017. Eighty-three outbreaks were recorded in north-eastern Italy, where a densely populated poultry area stretches along the Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna and Veneto regions. The confirmed cases, affecting both the rural and industrial sectors, depicted two distinct epidemic waves. We adopted a combination of multivariate statistics techniques and multi-model regression selection and inference, to investigate how environmental factors relate to the pattern of outbreaks diversity with respect to their spatiotemporal and genetic diversity. Results showed that a combination of eco-climatic and host density predictors were associated with the outbreaks pattern, and variation along gradients was noticeable among genetically and geographically distinct groups of avian influenza cases. These regional contrasts may be indicative of a different mechanism driving the introduction and spreading routes of the influenza virus in the domestic poultry population. This methodological approach may be extended to different spatiotemporal scale to foster site-specific, ecologically informed risk mitigating strategies.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/fisiología , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Animales , Pollos , Patos , Gansos , Variación Genética , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Gripe Aviar/virología , Italia/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Pavos
7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(1): 37-50, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788978

RESUMEN

Effective control of avian diseases in domestic populations requires understanding of the transmission dynamics facilitating viral emergence and spread. In 2016-17, Italy experienced a significant avian influenza epidemic caused by a highly pathogenic A(H5N8) virus, which affected domestic premises housing around 2.7 million birds, primarily in the north-eastern regions with the highest density of poultry farms (Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna and Veneto). We perform integrated analyses of genetic, spatiotemporal and host data within a Bayesian phylogenetic framework. Using continuous and discrete phylogeography, we estimate the locations of movements responsible for the spread and persistence of the epidemic. The information derived from these analyses on rates of transmission between regions through time can be used to assess the success of control measures. Using an approach based on phylogenetic-temporal distances between domestic cases, we infer the presence of cryptic wild bird-mediated transmission, information that can be used to complement existing epidemiological methods for distinguishing transmission within the domestic population from incursions across the wildlife-domestic interface, a common challenge in veterinary epidemiology. Spatiotemporal reconstruction of the epidemic reveals a highly skewed distribution of virus movements with a high proportion of shorter distance local movements interspersed with occasional long-distance dispersal events associated with wild birds. We also show how such inference be used to identify possible instances of human-mediated movements where distances between phylogenetically linked domestic cases are unusually high.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Patos , Epidemias/veterinaria , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/fisiología , Gripe Aviar/transmisión , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/transmisión , Pavos , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Gripe Aviar/virología , Italia/epidemiología , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 248: 108820, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891950

RESUMEN

In December 2018, suspected outbreaks of equine influenza (EI) were observed in donkeys in Sokoto State, in the extreme northwest of Nigeria bordering the Republic of the Niger. Equine influenza virus (EIV) subtype H3N8 was the etiologic agent identified in the outbreaks using real-time RT-qPCR and sequencing of both the partial haemagglutinin (HA) gene and the complete genome. Since then the H3N8 virus spread to 7 of the 19 northern states of Nigeria, where it affected both donkeys and horses. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial and complete HA gene revealed the closest nucleotide similarity (99.7%) with EIVs belonging to the Florida clade 1 (Fc-1) of the American lineage isolated in 2018 from Argentina and Chile. In total, 80 amino acid substitutions were observed in the viral proteins when compared to the OIE-recommended Fc-1 vaccine strains. The HA and neuraminidase proteins respectively had 13 and 16 amino acid substitutions. This study represents the first reported outbreak of EI caused by an Fc-1 virus in Nigeria and in the West Africa sub-region. Based on this report, extensive disease surveillance in equids is required to establish the circulating lineages and design an effective control strategy to protect the considerable population of horses and donkeys in the country.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1136, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523585

RESUMEN

Bovine is considered the main reservoir of influenza D virus (IDV), however, low levels of seropositivity in other farmed species suggest a wide range of potential hosts. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether this scenario is the result of rare spillover events upon contact with bovines, or a lack of adaptation of IDV to these hosts. Among these species, sheep represents a crucial component of the rural economy in many developing countries, but little is known about its role in the ecology of the disease. To evaluate the susceptibility of sheep to IDV viruses of different origin, we used ovine respiratory tissues as an ex vivo model and investigated the infective phenotype of two IDV strains isolated from either bovine (IDV-BOV) or swine (IDV-SW). For translatability purposes, we included a parainfluenza type 3 virus, as positive control, given its known respiratory tropism in sheep. We performed a timed evaluation of the viral infectivity, cell tropism and the associated histopathology, by means of tissue culture infectious dose assays on supernatants and histological/immunohistochemical analyses on explanted tissues, respectively. To further investigate differences in the phenotype of these two strains and to identify the potential targets of replication in the most commonly land-based farmed mammalian species, we carried out virus binding assays on histological sections of the respiratory tract of bovine, caprine, ovine, horse and swine. Our results demonstrated that IDV successfully replicates in nasal, tracheal and lung ovine tissues, suggesting a moderate susceptibility of this species to IDV infection. Interestingly, despite the high genetic identity of these strains, IDV- BOV consistently replicated to higher titers than IDV-SW in all respiratory tracts, suggesting IDV viruses might display considerable levels of variability in their phenotype when crossing the species barrier. Virus binding assays confirmed a superior affinity of the IDV viruses for the bovine upper respiratory tract, and a preference for the pharyngeal epithelium of small ruminants, indicating possible targets to improve the sensitivity of virological sampling for diagnostic and post-mortem purposes. Further pathogenesis and cross-species transmission studies will be necessary to elucidate the ecology of IDV and eventually allow the design of cost-effective surveillance strategies.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8441, 2020 05 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439885

RESUMEN

Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are negative sense RNA viruses posing a major threat to the poultry industry worldwide, with the potential to spread to mammals, including humans; hence, an accurate and rapid AIV diagnosis is essential. To date AIV detection relies on molecular methods, mainly RT-qPCR directed against AIV M gene segment. The evolution of AIV represents a relevant issue in diagnostic RT-qPCR due to possible mispriming and/or probe-binding failures resulting in false negative results. Consequently, RT-qPCR for AIV detection should be periodically re-assessed both in silico and in vitro. To this end, a specific workflow was developed to evaluate in silico the complementarity of primers and probes of four published RT-qPCR protocols to their target regions. The four assays and one commercially available kit for AIV detection were evaluated both for their analytical sensitivity using eight different viral dilution panels and for their diagnostic performances against clinical specimens of known infectious status. Differences were observed among the tests under evaluation, both in terms of analytical sensitivity and of diagnostic performances. This finding confirms the importance of continuously monitoring the primers and probes complementarity to their binding regions.


Asunto(s)
Simulación por Computador , Variación Genética , Virus de la Influenza A/clasificación , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Gripe Aviar/diagnóstico , ARN Viral/análisis , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , Proteínas Virales/genética , Animales , Aves , Técnicas In Vitro , Virus de la Influenza A/aislamiento & purificación , Gripe Aviar/genética , Gripe Aviar/virología , ARN Viral/genética , Curva ROC
11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2775-2788, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438523

RESUMEN

Avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV), are economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. IBV is responsible for causing severe losses to the commercial poultry sector globally. The objectives of this study were to identify the viruses that were causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in chickens in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) and to characterize the strains. Swab samples were collected from birds showing severe respiratory signs in five farms on the island of Trinidad. Samples were tested for the presence of IBV, as well as avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). All samples from the five farms tested negative for AIV, NDV and aMPV; however, samples from clinically affected birds in all five of the farms tested positive for IBV. Genetic data revealed the presence of TCoV in chickens on two of the farms. Interestingly, these two farms had never reared turkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IBV S1 sequences formed two distinct clusters. Two sequences grouped with vaccine strains within the GI-1 lineage, whereas three sequences grouped together, but separately from other defined lineages, forming a likely new lineage of IBV. Pairwise comparison revealed that the three unique variant strains within the distinct lineage of IBV were significantly different in their S1 nucleotide coding regions from viruses in the closest lineage (16% difference) and locally used vaccine strains (>20% difference). Results also suggested that one of the samples was a recombinant virus, generated from a recombination event between a Trinidad virus of the GI-1 lineage and a Trinidad virus of the newly defined lineage. Many amino acid differences were also observed between the S1 coding regions of the circulating field and vaccine strains, indicating that the IBV vaccines may not be protective. Vaccine-challenge studies are however needed to prove this.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Pollos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Patos , Gansos , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/clasificación , Filogenia , Codorniz , ARN Viral , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/veterinaria , Trinidad y Tobago , Pavos , Vacunación/veterinaria
12.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104359, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407794

RESUMEN

Canine distemper virus (CDV) represents an important threat for both wild and domestic carnivores. Since 2006, the North-Eastern regions in Italy have been experiencing severe and widespread recurring outbreaks of CDV affecting the wild carnivore population. In this study we performed an extensive phylogeographic analysis of CDV strains belonging to the Wildlife-Europe genetic group identified between 2006 and 2018 in Veneto, Trentino Alto Adige and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions. Our analysis revealed that viruses from the first (2006-2009) and the second (2011-2018) epidemic wave cluster separately, suggesting the introduction of two distinct genetic variants. These two events were characterized by different diffusion rates and spatial distribution, thus suggesting the existence of a connection between infection spread and host population dynamics. We also report the first spillover event of this strain to a non-vaccinated dog in a rural area of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The increasing prevalence of the infection in wildlife population, the broad host range of CDV circulating in the Alpine wildlife and the first reported transmission of a wild-adapted strain to a domestic dog in this region raise concerns over the vulnerability of wildlife species and the exposure of our pets to new threatening strains. Understanding the dynamic of CDV epidemics will also improve preparedness for re-emerging diseases affecting carnivore species.

13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 851-854, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403984

RESUMEN

A second case of a novel rabies variant described once in a capuchin monkey from Mato Grosso, Brazil, was discovered in a rabid wild kinkajou from the same region, indicating a public health risk following exposure to either of the two animals.


Asunto(s)
Cebus/virología , Procyonidae/virología , Virus de la Rabia/aislamiento & purificación , Rabia/transmisión , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Genes Virales , Filogenia , Salud Pública , Virus de la Rabia/genética
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322405

RESUMEN

Norovirus (NoV) has emerged as one of the major causative agents of non-bacterial, food- and water-borne gastroenteritis in humans, with the main genogroup involved in human outbreaks (GII), which has been detected worldwide in different animal species including swine. A four-month investigation at the slaughterhouse aiming to examine the presence of NoV in the swine in North-Eastern Italy, enabled the detection of two divergent Noroviruses (NoVs) (GII.P11) in two swine farms. This represents the first study in the swine population of North-Eastern Italy, which has paved the way for future integrated virological and epidemiological investigations on swine NoVs.

15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 83: 104342, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348876

RESUMEN

Since 2005, H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the Goose/Guangdong (Gs/GD) lineage have spread worldwide, affecting poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe, Africa and North America. So far, the role of Western Asia and the Middle East in the diffusion dynamics of this virus has been poorly explored. In order to investigate the genetic diversity and the role of Iran in the transmission dynamics of the Gs/GD lineage, we sequenced the complete genome of twenty-eight H5Nx viruses which were circulating in the country between 2016 and 2018. We reported the first characterization of the HPAI H5N6 subtype of clade 2.3.4.4B in Iran and gave evidence of the high propensity of the Gs/GD H5 AIVs to reassort, describing six novel H5N8 genotypes of clade 2.3.4.4B, some of them likely generated in this area, and one H5N1 reassortant virus of clade 2.3.2.1c. Our spatial analyses demonstrated that the viruses resulted from different viral introductions from Asia and Europe and provided evidence of virus spread from Iran to the Middle East. Therefore, Iran may represent a hot-spot for virus introduction, dissemination and for the generation of new genetic variability. Increasing surveillance efforts in this high-risk area is of utmost importance for the early detection of novel emerging strains with zoonotic potential.

16.
Bioinformatics ; 36(7): 2098-2104, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790143

RESUMEN

MOTIVATION: The potentially low precision associated with the geographic origin of sampled sequences represents an important limitation for spatially explicit (i.e. continuous) phylogeographic inference of fast-evolving pathogens such as RNA viruses. A substantial proportion of publicly available sequences is geo-referenced at broad spatial scale such as the administrative unit of origin, rather than more precise locations (e.g. geographic coordinates). Most frequently, such sequences are either discarded prior to continuous phylogeographic inference or arbitrarily assigned to the geographic coordinates of the centroid of their administrative area of origin for lack of a better alternative. RESULTS: We here implement and describe a new approach that allows to incorporate heterogeneous prior sampling probabilities over a geographic area. External data, such as outbreak locations, are used to specify these prior sampling probabilities over a collection of sub-polygons. We apply this new method to the analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 clade data in the Mekong region. Our method allows to properly include, in continuous phylogeographic analyses, H5N1 sequences that are only associated with large administrative areas of origin and assign them with more accurate locations. Finally, we use continuous phylogeographic reconstructions to analyse the dispersal dynamics of different H5N1 clades and investigate the impact of environmental factors on lineage dispersal velocities. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Our new method allowing heterogeneous sampling priors for continuous phylogeographic inference is implemented in the open-source multi-platform software package BEAST 1.10. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H5N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Aviar , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Filogenia , Filogeografía , Probabilidad
17.
Arch Virol ; 165(1): 87-96, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707455

RESUMEN

In May 2017, high mortality of chickens and Muscovy ducks due to the H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was reported in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). In this study, we assessed the molecular, antigenic, and pathogenic features in poultry of the H5N8 HPAIV from the 2017 Congolese outbreaks. Phylogenetic analysis of the eight viral gene segments revealed that all 12 DR Congo isolates clustered in clade 2.3.4.4B together with other H5N8 HPAIVs isolated in Africa and Eurasia, suggesting a possible common origin of these viruses. Antigenically, a slight difference was observed between the Congolese isolates and a representative virus from group C in the same clade. After intranasal inoculation with a representative DR Congo virus, high pathogenicity was observed in chickens and Muscovy ducks but not in Pekin ducks. Viral replication was higher in chickens than in Muscovy duck and Pekin duck organs; however, neurotropism was pronounced in Muscovy ducks. Our data confirmed the high pathogenicity of the DR Congo virus in chickens and Muscovy ducks, as observed in the field. National awareness and strengthening surveillance in the region are needed to better control HPAIVs.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos Virales/metabolismo , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/clasificación , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/patogenicidad , Gripe Aviar/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , África , Animales , Asia , Pollos , República Democrática del Congo , Patos/clasificación , Patos/virología , Europa (Continente) , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/aislamiento & purificación , Gripe Aviar/virología , Filogenia , Filogeografía , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/inmunología , Especificidad de la Especie , Replicación Viral
18.
Viruses ; 11(12)2019 11 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801277

RESUMEN

Influenza D virus (IDV) has been increasingly reported all over the world. Cattle are considered the major viral reservoir. Based on the hemagglutinin-esterase (HEF) gene, three main genetic and antigenic clusters have been identified: D/OK distributed worldwide, D/660 detected only in the USA and D/Japan in Japan. Up to 2017, all the Italian IDV isolates belonged to the D/OK genetic cluster. From January 2018 to May 2019, we performed virological surveillance for IDV from respiratory outbreaks in 725 bovine farms in Northern Italy by RT-PCR. Seventy-four farms were positive for IDV. A full or partial genome sequence was obtained from 29 samples. Unexpectedly, a phylogenetic analysis of the HEF gene showed the presence of 12 strains belonging to the D/660 cluster, previously unreported in Europe. The earliest D/660 strain was collected in March 2018 from cattle imported from France. Moreover, we detected one viral strain with a reassortant genetic pattern (PB2, PB1, P42, HEF and NP segments in the D/660 cluster, whilst P3 and NS segments in the D/OK cluster). These results confirm the circulation of IDV in the Italian cattle population and highlight the need to monitor the development of the spreading of this influenza virus in order to get more information about the epidemiology and the ecology of IDV viruses.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Virus Reordenados , Thogotovirus/clasificación , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Geografía , Italia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Thogotovirus/genética , Thogotovirus/aislamiento & purificación
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5310, 2019 11 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757953

RESUMEN

The role of Africa in the dynamics of the global spread of a zoonotic and economically-important virus, such as the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5Nx of the Gs/GD lineage, remains unexplored. Here we characterise the spatiotemporal patterns of virus diffusion during three HPAI H5Nx intercontinental epidemic waves and demonstrate that Africa mainly acted as an ecological sink of the HPAI H5Nx viruses. A joint analysis of host dynamics and continuous spatial diffusion indicates that poultry trade as well as wild bird migrations have contributed to the virus spreading into Africa, with West Africa acting as a crucial hotspot for virus introduction and dissemination into the continent. We demonstrate varying paths of avian influenza incursions into Africa as well as virus spread within Africa over time, which reveal that virus expansion is a complex phenomenon, shaped by an intricate interplay between avian host ecology, virus characteristics and environmental variables.


Asunto(s)
Gripe Aviar/transmisión , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/transmisión , África , África Occidental , Animales , Humanos , Subtipo H5N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H5N8 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Gripe Aviar/economía , Gripe Aviar/epidemiología , Gripe Aviar/virología , Gripe Humana/economía , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología , Filogenia , Aves de Corral , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/economía , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología
20.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(41)2019 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601657

RESUMEN

Rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK) was discovered in the genome of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In our study, we present three complete genome sequences of RELIK viruses generated using a target amplification approach performed on the RNA of commercial rabbits from Italy.

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