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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849963

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Enzalutamide is a second-generation androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor which has improved overall survival (OS) in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, nearly all patients develop resistance. We designed a phase 2 multicenter study of enzalutamide in metastatic CRPC incorporating tissue and blood biomarkers to dissect mechanisms driving resistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eligible patients with metastatic CRPC underwent a baseline metastasis biopsy and then initiated enzalutamide 160 mg daily. A repeat metastasis biopsy was obtained at radiographic progression from the same site when possible. Blood for circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis was collected at baseline and progression. The primary objective was to analyze mechanisms of resistance in serial biopsies. Whole exome sequencing was performed on tissue biopsies. CTC samples underwent RNA sequencing. RESULTS: 65 patients initiated treatment, of whom 22 (33.8%) had received prior abiraterone. Baseline biopsies were enriched for alterations in AR (mutations, amplifications) and tumor suppression genes (PTEN, RB1, and TP53) which were observed in 73.1% and 92.3% of baseline biopsies, respectively. Progression biopsies revealed increased AR amplifications (64.7% at progression versus 53.9% at baseline) and BRCA2 alterations (64.7% at progression versus 38.5% at baseline). Genomic analysis of baseline and progression CTC samples demonstrated increased AR splice variants, AR regulated-genes, and neuroendocrine markers at progression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that a large proportion of enzalutamide-treated patients have baseline and progression alterations in the AR pathway and tumor suppressor genes. We demonstrate an increased number of BRCA2 alterations post-enzalutamide highlighting importance of serial tumor sampling in CRPC.

2.
Prostate ; 81(7): 418-426, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755225

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Localized prostate cancers (PCs) may resist neoadjuvant androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies as a result of persistent intraprostatic androgens arising through upregulation of steroidogenic enzymes. Therefore, we sought to evaluate clinical effects of neoadjuvant indomethacin (Indo), which inhibits the steroidogenic enzyme AKR1C3, in addition to combinatorial anti-androgen blockade, in men with high-risk PC undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: This was an open label, single-site, Phase II neoadjuvant trial in men with high to very-high-risk PC, as defined by NCCN criteria. Patients received 12 weeks of apalutamide (Apa), abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AAP), degarelix, and Indo followed by RP. Primary objective was to determine the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate. Secondary objectives included minimal residual disease (MRD) rate, defined as residual cancer burden (RCB) ≤ 0.25cm3 (tumor volume multiplied by tumor cellularity) and elucidation of molecular features of resistance. RESULTS: Twenty patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint. Baseline median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 10.1 ng/ml, 4 (20%) patients had Gleason grade group (GG) 4 disease and 16 had GG 5 disease. At RP, 1 (5%) patient had pCR and 6 (30%) had MRD. Therapy was well tolerated. Over a median follow-up of 23.8 months, 1 of 7 (14%) men with pathologic response and 6 of 13 (46%) men without pathologic response had a PSA relapse. There was no association between prostate hormone levels or HSD3B1 genotype with pathologic response. CONCLUSIONS: In men with high-risk PC, pCR rates remained low even with combinatorial AR-directed therapy, although rates of MRD were higher. Ongoing follow-up is needed to validate clinical outcomes of men who achieve MRD.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4609, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633154

RESUMEN

Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent cancers worldwide. Currently, few bladder cancer models have undergone thorough characterization to assess their fidelity to patient tumors, especially upon propagation in the laboratory. Here, we establish and molecularly characterize CoCaB 1, an aggressive cisplatin-resistant muscle-invasive bladder cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and companion organoid system. CoCaB 1 was a subcutaneous PDX model reliably transplanted in vivo and demonstrated an acceleration in growth upon serial transplantation, which was reflected in organoid and 2D cell culture systems. Transcriptome analysis revealed progression towards an increasingly proliferative and stem-like expression profile. Gene expression differences between organoid and PDX models reflected expected differences in cellular composition, with organoids enriched in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism genes and deprived of extracellular components observed in PDXs. Both PDX and organoid models maintained the histological fidelity and mutational heterogeneity of their parental tumor. This study establishes the CoCaB 1 PDX and organoid system as companion representative tumor models for the development of novel bladder cancer therapies.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(8): 2340-2351, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542074

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Although enzalutamide (ENZ) has been widely used to treat de novo or castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer, resistance develops and disease progression is ultimately inevitable. There are currently no approved targeted drugs to specifically delay or overcome ENZ resistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We selected several ENZ-resistant cell lines that replicated clinical characteristics of the majority of patients with ENZ-resistant disease. A high-throughput pharmacologic screen was utilized to identify compounds with greater cytotoxic effect for ENZ-resistant cell lines, compared with parental ENZ-sensitive cells. We validated the potential hits in vitro and in vivo, and used knockdown and overexpression assays to study the dependencies in ENZ-resistant prostate cancer. RESULTS: ABT199 (BCL-2 inhibitor) and IMD0354 (IKKB inhibitor) were identified as potent and selective inhibitors of cell viability in ENZ-resistant cell lines in vitro and in vivo which were further validated using loss-of-function assays of BCL-2 and IKKB. Notably, we observed that overexpression of BCL-2 and IKKB in ENZ-sensitive cell lines was sufficient for the emergence of ENZ resistance. In addition, we confirmed that BCL-2 or IKKB inhibitors suppressed the development of ENZ resistance in xenografts. However, validation of both BCL-2 and IKKB in matched castration-sensitive/resistant clinical samples showed that, concurrent with the development of ENZ/abiraterone resistance in patients, only the protein levels of IKKB were increased. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify BCL-2 and IKKB dependencies in clinically relevant ENZ-resistant prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, but indicate that IKKB upregulation appears to have greater relevance to the progression of human castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

5.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151258

RESUMEN

Importance: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing is increasingly used in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) can interfere with cfDNA testing and cause incorrect interpretation of results. There is an urgent need to better understand this problem following recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of poly(ADP) ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) for metastatic prostate cancer based on variants in DNA repair genes that can be affected by CHIP. Objective: To determine the prevalence of clinically relevant CHIP interference in prostate cancer cfDNA testing. Design, Setting, and Participants: We report a case series of 69 patients with advanced prostate cancer (metastatic disease or with rising PSA following localized therapy) who had cfDNA variant testing with a large panel cancer next generation sequencing assay (UW-OncoPlexCT). To determine the source of variants in plasma, we tested paired cfDNA and whole blood control samples. The study was carried out in an academic medical center system reference laboratory. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence and gene spectrum of CHIP interference in patients with prostate cancer undergoing cfDNA testing. Results: We detected CHIP variants at 2% or more variant fraction in cfDNA from 13 of 69 men with prostate cancer (19%; 95% CI, 10%-30%). Seven men (10%; 95% CI, 4%-20%) had CHIP variants in DNA repair genes used to determine PARPi candidacy, including ATM (n = 5), BRCA2 (n = 1), and CHEK2 (n = 1). Overall, CHIP variants accounted for almost half of the somatic DNA repair gene variants detected. Participant CHIP variants were exponentially correlated with older age (R2 = 0.82). CHIP interference variants could be distinguished from prostate cancer variants using a paired whole-blood control. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series, approximately 10% of men with advanced prostate cancer had CHIP interference in plasma cfDNA in DNA repair genes that are used for eligibility of PARPi therapy, most frequently in ATM. Clinical cfDNA testing should include a paired whole-blood control to exclude CHIP variants and avoid misdiagnosis.

6.
Fed Pract ; 37(Suppl 4): S48-S53, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908353

RESUMEN

Background: The promise of precision oncology only can be realized when genetic alterations are identified that can be lever-aged to improve response and minimize toxicity. Identifying those alterations as efficiently as possible and then giving patients access to targeted therapy and clinical study requires a comprehensive strategy across health care systems. Observations: The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Prostate Cancer Foundation have established a network of VA centers to help develop best practices for precision oncology for the treatment of veterans with advanced prostate cancer. This article describes the genesis and structure of this network and its potential for contributing to care and research in the VA and the health care system as a whole. Conclusions: The Precision Oncology Program for Cancer of the Prostate network and its partnership with VA clinical and research efforts is anticipated to provide important insights into barriers and solutions to the implementation of precision oncology for prostate cancer across the VA.

7.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(9): 1150-1155, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886903

RESUMEN

With the promise and potential of clinical next-generation sequencing for tumor and germline testing to impact treatment and outcomes of patients with cancer, there are also risks of oversimplification, misinterpretation, and missed opportunities. These issues risk limiting clinical benefit and, at worst, perpetuating false conclusions that could lead to inappropriate treatment selection, avoidable toxicity, and harm to patients. This report presents 5 case studies illustrating challenges and opportunities in clinical next-generation sequencing interpretation and clinical application in solid tumor oncologic care. First is a case that dissects the origin of an ATM mutation as originating from a hematopoietic clone rather than the tumor. Second is a case illustrating the potential for tumor sequencing to suggest germline variants associated with a hereditary cancer syndrome. Third are 2 cases showing the potential for variant reclassification of a germline variant of uncertain significance when considered alongside family history and tumor sequencing results. Finally, we describe a case illustrating challenges with using microsatellite instability for predicting tumor response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The common theme of the case studies is the importance of examining clinical context alongside expert review and interpretation, which together highlight an expanding role for contextual examination and multidisciplinary expert review through molecular tumor boards.

8.
J Clin Invest ; 130(6): 3287-3298, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478682

RESUMEN

Despite widespread use of taxanes, mechanisms of action and resistance in vivo remain to be established, and there is no way of predicting who will respond to therapy. This study examined prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts and patient samples to identify in vivo mechanisms of taxane action and resistance. Docetaxel drug-target engagement was assessed by confocal anti-tubulin immunofluorescence to quantify microtubule bundling in interphase cells and aberrant mitoses. Tumor biopsies from metastatic PCa patients obtained 2 to 5 days after their first dose of docetaxel or cabazitaxel were processed to assess microtubule bundling, which correlated with clinical response. Microtubule bundling was evident in PCa xenografts 2 to 3 days after docetaxel treatment but was decreased or lost with acquired resistance. Biopsies after treatment with leuprolide plus docetaxel showed extensive microtubule bundling as did biopsies obtained 2 to 3 days after initiation of docetaxel or cabazitaxel in 2 patients with castration-resistant PCa with clinical responses. In contrast, microtubule bundling in biopsies 2 to 3 days after the first dose of docetaxel was markedly lower in 4 nonresponding patients. These findings indicate that taxanes target both mitotic and interphase cells in vivo and that resistance is through mechanisms that impair drug-target engagement. Moreover, the findings suggest that microtubule bundling after initial taxane treatment may be a predictive biomarker for clinical response.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233260, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453797

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While response rates to anti-PD1 therapy are low in unselected metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients, those with inactivating mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes (i.e. MMR deficiency; MMRd) or microsatellite instability (MSI) are thought likely to respond favorably. To date, there is limited published data on this biologically distinct and clinically relevant subgroup's natural history and response to treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients at two academic institutions who had MMRd/MSI-high metastatic prostate cancer (PC). Clinical and pathologic characteristics at the time of diagnosis as well as response to standard therapies and immune checkpoint therapy were abstracted. Descriptive statistics, including PSA50 response (≥50% decline in PSA from baseline) and clinical/radiographic progression free survival (PFS), are reported. RESULTS: 27 men with MMRd and/or MSI-high metastatic PC were identified. 13 (48%) men had M1 disease at diagnosis and 19 of 24 (79%) men that underwent prostate biopsy had a Gleason score ≥8. Median overall survival from time of metastasis was not reached (95% CI: 33.6-NR mos) after a median follow up of 33.6 mos (95% CI: 23.8-50.5 mos). Seventeen men received pembrolizumab, of which 15 had PSA response data available. PSA50 responses to pembrolizumab occurred in 8 (53%) men. Median PFS was not reached (95% CI: 1.87-NR mos) and the estimated PFS at 6 months was 64.1% (95% CI: 33.7%-83.4%). Of those who achieved a PSA50 response, 7 (87.5%) remain on treatment without evidence of progression at a median follow up of 12 months (range 3-20 months). CONCLUSIONS: MMRd PC is associated with high Gleason score and advanced disease at presentation. Response rates to standard therapies are comparable to those reported in unselected patients and response rate to checkpoint blockade is high. Our study is limited by small sample size, and more research is needed to identify additional factors that may predict response to immunotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata/terapia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias Colorrectales , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Metástasis de la Neoplasia/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicos Hereditarios , Receptor de Muerte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inhibidores , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis de Supervivencia
10.
Cell Rep ; 31(8): 107669, 2020 05 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460015

RESUMEN

Prostate cancers (PCs) with loss of the potent tumor suppressors TP53 and RB1 exhibit poor outcomes. TP53 and RB1 also influence cell plasticity and are frequently lost in PCs with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Therapeutic strategies that address these aggressive variant PCs are urgently needed. Using deep genomic profiling of 410 metastatic biopsies, we determine the relationships between combined TP53 and RB1 loss and PC phenotypes. Notably, 40% of TP53/RB1-deficient tumors are classified as AR-active adenocarcinomas, indicating that NE differentiation is not an obligate consequence of TP53/RB1 inactivation. A gene expression signature reflecting TP53/RB1 loss is associated with diminished responses to AR antagonists and reduced survival. These tumors exhibit high proliferation rates and evidence of elevated DNA repair processes. While tumor cells lacking TP53/RB1 are highly resistant to all single-agent therapeutics tested, the combination of PARP and ATR inhibition is found to produce significant responses, reflecting a clinically exploitable vulnerability resulting from replication stress.

11.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 263-286, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914645

RESUMEN

The newly recognized sensory role of bladder urothelium has generated intense interest in identifying its novel sensory molecules. Sensory receptor TRPV4 may serve such function. However, specific and physiologically relevant tissue actions of TRPV4, stretch-independent responses, and underlying mechanisms are unknown and its role in human conditions has not been examined. Here we showed TRPV4 expression in guinea-pig urothelium, suburothelium, and bladder smooth muscle, with urothelial predominance. Selective TRPV4 activation without stretch evoked significant ATP release-key urothelial sensory process, from live mucosa tissue, full-thickness bladder but not smooth muscle, and sustained muscle contractions. ATP release was mediated by Ca2+-dependent, pannexin/connexin-conductive pathway involving protein tyrosine kinase, but independent from vesicular transport and chloride channels. TRPV4 activation generated greater Ca2+ rise than purinergic activation in urothelial cells. There was intrinsic TRPV4 activity without exogeneous stimulus, causing ATP release. TRPV4 contributed to 50% stretch-induced ATP release. TRPV4 activation also triggered superoxide release. TRPV4 expression was increased with aging. Human bladder mucosa presented similarities to guinea pigs. Overactive bladders exhibited greater TRPV4-induced ATP release with age dependence. These data provide the first evidence in humans for the key functional role of TRPV4 in urothelium with specific mechanisms and identify TRPV4 up-regulation in aging and overactive bladders.


Asunto(s)
Contracción Muscular , Músculo Liso , Canales Catiónicos TRPV/metabolismo , Vejiga Urinaria/fisiología , Urotelio/fisiología , Animales , Calcio/metabolismo , Cobayas , Humanos , Canales Catiónicos TRPV/genética
13.
Eur Urol ; 77(3): 333-341, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640893

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) loss occurs in 3-7% of metastatic prostate cancer patients and is characterized by a genomic instability signature, but the clinical implications of CDK12 loss are not well established. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical course of patients with CDK12 mutant advanced prostate cancer compared with other genomic subtypes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective analysis of data from three academic medical centers, including 317 patients with advanced prostate cancer and prior next-generation sequencing from tumor tissue (n = 172) or circulating tumor DNA (n = 145), was performed. Forty-six patients had CDK12 mutations; 34 had biallelic CDK12 loss (79%). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Patients were stratified by mutation status (CDK12, homologous recombination deficiency [HRD; BRCA1/2 and ATM], TP53, and other cohort). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate time to event outcomes: time to development of metastatic disease, time to development of castration resistance, and time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression after first-line androgen receptor pathway inhibitor (ARPI) therapy in a patient subset. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median follow-up was 66.6 mo. Patients with CDK12 mutant prostate cancer exhibited shorter time to metastasis (median = 34.9 mo, p =  0.004) and development of castration-resistant disease (median = 32.7 mo, p <  0.001), compared with other genomic subtypes, with shorter time to PSA progression on first-line ARPI treatment of metastatic castration-resistant disease (median = 3.6 mo, p =  0.0219). CDK12 mutant patients did not have overall shorter time on treatment compared with other mutation subgroups, and CDK12 status did not demonstrate statistical significance in multivariate analysis. Limitations include variable center-dependent practice patterns and heterogeneity due to combining tumor and liquid biopsy data. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that advanced prostate cancers harboring CDK12 mutations display aggressive clinical behavior, underscoring the need to fully delineate the molecular and clinical characteristics, and appropriate therapeutic approaches for distinct subtypes of advanced prostate cancers. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with prostate cancer and CDK12 mutation in their tumors. These patients seem to have more aggressive disease, with more high-grade Gleason ≥8 cancers and shorter time to developing metastatic cancer. Cases of advanced CDK12-mutated prostate cancer may warrant consideration of therapy intensification or combination approaches.

14.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 3(3): 262-269, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411968

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prostate biopsy guided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to obtain tissue from men with suspected prostate cancer (PC). OBJECTIVE: To report a multicentre series of image-fusion transperineal prostate biopsies and compare the diagnostic yield of clinically significant PC (csPC) between targeted and nontargeted biopsies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included 640 consecutive patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) presenting for first biopsy or following a previous negative transrectal biopsy under the care of 13 urologists in 11 centres in the UK (April 2014-June 2017). INTERVENTION: Multiparametric MRI was carried out in 61 approved prostate MRI centres with transperineal targeted alone (n=283) or targeted plus nontargeted (n=357) transperineal rigid image-fusion targeted biopsy (MIM-Symphony-DX). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Rates of csPC and insignificant cancer detection in targeted and nontargeted biopsies were measured using a number of thresholds to define clinical significance. The primary definition was Gleason≥4+3 or any grade ≥6mm. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The mean age, median PSA, and median prostate volume for the cohort were 63.8yr (standard deviation [SD] 8.4), 6.3 ng/ml (SD 5.8), and 42.0cm3 (SD 24.7), respectively. Overall, 276/640 men (43.1%) were diagnosed with csPC. csPC was detected from targeted biopsies alone in 263/640 cases (41.1%). Of the 357 men who underwent nontargeted biopsies, three (0.8%) had csPC exclusively in nontargeted cores, with no evidence of cancer in targeted cores. Overall, 32/357 (9.0%) had csPC in nontargeted biopsies regardless of the targeted biopsy findings. Clinically insignificant disease in nontargeted biopsies was detected in 93/357 men (26.1%). Our findings were consistent across all other thresholds of clinical significance. Limitations include the lack of nontargeted biopsies in all men. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multicentre series, nontargeted prostate biopsy cores had a low yield of csPC and a high yield of clinically insignificant PC. An image-fusion targeted-biopsy-only approach maintains high detection for csPC and low detection of clinically insignificant cancers. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we found that following prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and targeted transperineal biopsies of suspicious areas, the clinical value of performing additional extensive unguided biopsies of nonsuspicious areas is limited and can often find insignificant cancers that do not need treatment.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 129(10): 4492-4505, 2019 07 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361600

RESUMEN

Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a heterogeneous disease with diverse drivers of disease progression and mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. We conducted deep phenotypic characterization of CRPC metastases and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines using whole genome RNA sequencing, gene set enrichment analysis and immunohistochemistry. Our analyses revealed five mCRPC phenotypes based on the expression of well-characterized androgen receptor (AR) or neuroendocrine (NE) genes: (i) AR-high tumors (ARPC), (ii) AR-low tumors (ARLPC), (iii) amphicrine tumors composed of cells co-expressing AR and NE genes (AMPC), (iv) double-negative tumors (i.e. AR-/NE-; DNPC) and (v) tumors with small cell or NE gene expression without AR activity (SCNPC). RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) activity, which suppresses NE gene expression, was lost in AMPC and SCNPC PDX models. However, knockdown of REST in cell lines revealed that attenuated REST activity drives the AMPC phenotype but is not sufficient for SCNPC conversion. We also identified a subtype of DNPC tumors with squamous differentiation and generated an encompassing 26-gene transcriptional signature that distinguished the five mCRPC phenotypes. Together, our data highlight the central role of AR and REST in classifying treatment-resistant mCRPC phenotypes. These molecular classifications could potentially guide future therapeutic studies and clinical trial design.


Asunto(s)
Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración , Transcripción Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biosíntesis , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/clasificación , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/patología
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(11): 923-931, 2019 04 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811282

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Patients with locally advanced prostate cancer have an increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality. In this phase II trial, we evaluate neoadjuvant enzalutamide and leuprolide (EL) with or without abiraterone and prednisone (ELAP) before radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with locally advanced prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had a biopsy Gleason score of 4 + 3 = 7 or greater, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) greater than 20 ng/mL, or T3 disease (by prostate magnetic resonance imaging). Lymph nodes were required to be smaller than 20 mm. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to ELAP or EL for 24 weeks followed by RP. All specimens underwent central pathology review. The primary end point was pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease (residual tumor ≤ 5 mm). Secondary end points were PSA, surgical staging, positive margins, and safety. Biomarkers associated with pathologic outcomes were explored. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were enrolled at four centers. Most patients had high-risk disease by National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria (n = 65; 87%). The pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease rate was 30% (n = 15 of 50) in ELAP-treated patients and 16% (n = four of 25) in EL-treated patients (two-sided P = .263). Rates of ypT3 disease, positive margins, and positive lymph nodes were similar between arms. Treatment was well-tolerated. Residual tumors in the two arms showed comparable levels of ERG, PTEN, androgen receptor PSA, and glucocorticoid receptor expression. Tumor ERG positivity and PTEN loss were associated with more extensive residual tumors at RP. CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant hormone therapy followed by RP in locally advanced prostate cancer resulted in favorable pathologic responses in some patients, with a trend toward improved pathologic outcomes with ELAP. Longer follow-up is necessary to evaluate the impact of therapy on recurrence rates. The potential association of ERG and PTEN alterations with worse outcomes warrants additional investigation.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Antagonistas de Andrógenos/administración & dosificación , Androstenos/administración & dosificación , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Leuprolida/administración & dosificación , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Feniltiohidantoína/análogos & derivados , Prostatectomía , Neoplasias de la Próstata/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/sangre , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anciano , Antagonistas de Andrógenos/efectos adversos , Androstenos/efectos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangre , Leuprolida/efectos adversos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Neoadyuvante/efectos adversos , Clasificación del Tumor , Neoplasia Residual , Feniltiohidantoína/administración & dosificación , Feniltiohidantoína/efectos adversos , Prednisona/administración & dosificación , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangre , Prostatectomía/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/sangre , Neoplasias de la Próstata/diagnóstico , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos
19.
ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 2(6): 453-467, 2019 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259077

RESUMEN

Inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Ralaniten (formally EPI-002) prevents AR transcriptional activity by binding to its N-terminal domain (NTD) which is essential for transcriptional activity. Ralaniten acetate (EPI-506) the triacetate pro-drug of ralaniten, remains the only AR-NTD inhibitor to have entered clinical trials (NCT02606123). While well tolerated, the trial was ultimately terminated due to poor pharmacokinetic properties and resulting pill burden. Here we discovered that ralaniten was glucuronidated which resulted in decreased potency. Long-term treatment of prostate cancer cells with ralaniten results in upregulation of UGT2B enzymes with concomitant loss of potency. This has proven to be a useful model with which to facilitate the development of more potent second-generation AR-NTD inhibitors. Glucuronidated metabolites of ralaniten were also detected in the serum of patients in Phase 1 clinical trials. Therefore, we tested an analogue of ralaniten (EPI-045) which was resistant to glucuronidation and demonstrated superiority to ralaniten in our resistant model. These data support that analogues of ralaniten designed to mitigate glucuronidation may optimize clinical responses to AR-NTD inhibitors.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(1): 43-51, 2019 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232224

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is an aggressive variant of prostate cancer that may develop de novo or as a mechanism of treatment resistance. N-myc is capable of driving NEPC progression. Alisertib inhibits the interaction between N-myc and its stabilizing factor Aurora-A, inhibiting N-myc signaling, and suppressing tumor growth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty men were treated with alisertib 50 mg twice daily for 7 days every 21 days. Eligibility included metastatic prostate cancer and at least one: small-cell neuroendocrine morphology; ≥50% neuroendocrine marker expression; new liver metastases without PSA progression; or elevated serum neuroendocrine markers. The primary endpoint was 6-month radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS). Pretreatment biopsies were evaluated by whole exome and RNA-seq and patient-derived organoids were developed. RESULTS: Median PSA was 1.13 ng/mL (0.01-514.2), number of prior therapies was 3, and 68% had visceral metastases. Genomic alterations involved RB1 (55%), TP53 (46%), PTEN (29%), BRCA2 (29%), and AR (27%), and there was a range of androgen receptor signaling and NEPC marker expression. Six-month rPFS was 13.4% and median overall survival was 9.5 months (7.3-13). Exceptional responders were identified, including complete resolution of liver metastases and prolonged stable disease, with tumors suggestive of N-myc and Aurora-A overactivity. Patient organoids exhibited concordant responses to alisertib and allowed for the dynamic testing of Aurora-N-myc complex disruption. CONCLUSIONS: Although the study did not meet its primary endpoint, a subset of patients with advanced prostate cancer and molecular features supporting Aurora-A and N-myc activation achieved significant clinical benefit from single-agent alisertib.


Asunto(s)
Aurora Quinasa A/genética , Azepinas/administración & dosificación , Carcinoma Neuroendocrino/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteína Proto-Oncogénica N-Myc/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/tratamiento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/administración & dosificación , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Aurora Quinasa A/antagonistas & inhibidores , Azepinas/efectos adversos , Carcinoma Neuroendocrino/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendocrino/patología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Orquiectomía , Próstata/patología , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/patología , Pirimidinas/efectos adversos , Receptores Androgénicos/genética , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos
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