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1.
Dev Psychol ; 57(12): 2250-2264, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928672

RESUMEN

Adolescent marijuana use has become increasingly more problematic compared with the past; thus, understanding developmental processes that increase the liability of marijuana use is essential. Two developmental pathways to adolescent substance use have been proposed: an externalizing pathway that emphasizes the expression of aggressive and delinquent behavior, and an internalizing pathway that emphasizes the role of depressive symptoms and negative affect. In this study, we aimed to examine the synergistic role of impulsiveness and sensation seeking in the two risk pathways to determine whether both high and low levels of the traits are risk factors for marijuana use. Our study included 343 adolescents (52% were girls, 78% identified as Hispanic) that oversampled high-risk youth (78% had a family history of substance use disorder), assessed biannually between the ages of 13-16 years old. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that high levels of sensation seeking indirectly predicted marijuana use through higher mean levels of externalizing behavior. The positive relationship between sensation seeking and externalizing behavior was only significant at high levels of impulsiveness. Conversely, low levels of sensation seeking indirectly predicted marijuana use through higher mean levels of internalizing behavior. The negative relationship between sensation seeking and internalizing behavior was only significant at low levels of impulsiveness. Collectively, these results demonstrate that high and low levels of both impulsiveness and sensation seeking confer increased risk of marijuana use, albeit through different mechanisms. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Cognición , Femenino , Humanos , Sensación
2.
J Control Release ; 330: 1095-1105, 2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188827

RESUMEN

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly malignant disease, where even surgical resection and aggressive chemotherapy produce dismal outcomes. Immunotherapy is a promising alternative to conventional treatments, possessing the ability to elicit T cell-mediated killing of tumor cells and prevent disease recurrence. Immunotherapeutic approaches thus far have seen limited success in PDAC due to a poorly immunogenic and exceedingly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, which is enriched with dysfunctional and immunosuppressed antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We developed a highly potent immunostimulatory nanoparticle (immuno-NP) to activate and expand APCs in the tumor and induce local secretion of interferon ß (IFNß), which is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a major role in APC recruitment. The effectiveness of the immuno-NP stems from its dual cargo of two synergistic immune modulators consisting of an agonist of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway and an agonist of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway. We show the functional synergy of the dual-agonist cargo can be tweaked by adjusting the ratio of the two agonists loaded in the immuno-NP, leading to an increase in IFNß production (11-fold) compared to any single agonist immuno-NP variant. Using the orthotopic murine Panc02 model of PDAC, we show that systemic administration allowed immuno-NPs to deposit into the perivascular regions of the tumor, which coincided with the APC-rich tumor areas leading to predominant uptake of immuno-NPs by APCs. The immuno-NPs were effectively taken up by a significant portion of dendritic cells in the tumor (>56%). This led to a significant expansion of APCs, resulting in an 11.5-fold increase of dendritic cells and infiltration of lymphocytes throughout the pancreatic tumor compared to untreated animals.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Animales , Células Presentadoras de Antígenos , Inmunización , Inmunoterapia , Ratones , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(13): 132505, 2018 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694189

RESUMEN

We report on the first observation of γ rays emitted from an sd-shell hypernucleus, _{Λ}^{19}F. The energy spacing between the ground state doublet, 1/2^{+} and 3/2^{+} states, of _{Λ}^{19}F is determined to be 315.5±0.4(stat)_{-0.5}^{+0.6}(syst) keV by measuring the γ-ray energy of the M1(3/2^{+}→1/2^{+}) transition. In addition, three γ-ray peaks are observed and assigned as E2(5/2^{+}→1/2^{+}), E1(1/2^{-}→1/2^{+}), and E1(1/2^{-}→3/2^{+}) transitions. The excitation energies of the 5/2^{+} and 1/2^{-} states are determined to be 895.2±0.3(stat)±0.5(syst) and 1265.6±1.2(stat)_{-0.5}^{+0.7}(syst) keV, respectively. It is found that the ground state doublet spacing is well described by theoretical models based on existing s- and p-shell hypernuclear data.

4.
Biophys J ; 81(2): 767-84, 2001 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11463624

RESUMEN

When a dielectric object is placed between two opposed, nonfocused laser beams, the total force acting on the object is zero but the surface forces are additive, thus leading to a stretching of the object along the axis of the beams. Using this principle, we have constructed a device, called an optical stretcher, that can be used to measure the viscoelastic properties of dielectric materials, including biologic materials such as cells, with the sensitivity necessary to distinguish even between different individual cytoskeletal phenotypes. We have successfully used the optical stretcher to deform human erythrocytes and mouse fibroblasts. In the optical stretcher, no focusing is required, thus radiation damage is minimized and the surface forces are not limited by the light power. The magnitude of the deforming forces in the optical stretcher thus bridges the gap between optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy for the study of biologic materials.


Asunto(s)
Eritrocitos/citología , Eritrocitos/efectos de la radiación , Fibroblastos/citología , Fibroblastos/efectos de la radiación , Rayos Láser , Células 3T3 , Algoritmos , Animales , Tamaño de la Célula/efectos de la radiación , Citoesqueleto/efectos de la radiación , Elasticidad/efectos de la radiación , Humanos , Ratones , Microscopía de Contraste de Fase , Microesferas , Dióxido de Silicio , Viscosidad/efectos de la radiación
5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 84(23): 5451-4, 2000 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10990966

RESUMEN

Two counterpropagating laser beams were used to significantly stretch soft dielectrics such as cells. The deforming forces act on the surface between the object and the surrounding medium and are considerably higher than the trapping forces on the object. Radiation damage is avoided since a double-beam trap does not require focusing for stable trapping. Ray optics was used to describe the stress profile on the surface of the trapped object. Measuring the total forces and deformations of well-defined elastic objects validated this approach.


Asunto(s)
Eritrocitos/citología , Eritrocitos/efectos de la radiación , Rayos Láser , Animales , Tamaño de la Célula/efectos de la radiación , Elasticidad/efectos de la radiación , Estrés Mecánico
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