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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 647832, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936067

RESUMEN

Leprosy is a disease with a clinical spectrum of presentations that is also manifested in diverse histological features. At one pole, lepromatous lesions (L-pole) have phagocytic foamy macrophages heavily parasitized with freely multiplying intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. At the other pole, the presence of epithelioid giant cells and granulomatous formation in tuberculoid lesions (T-pole) lead to the control of M. leprae replication and the containment of its spread. The mechanism that triggers this polarization is unknown, but macrophages are central in this process. Over the past few years, leprosy has been studied using large scale techniques to shed light on the basic pathways that, upon infection, rewire the host cellular metabolism and gene expression. M. leprae is particularly peculiar as it invades Schwann cells in the nerves, reprogramming their gene expression leading to a stem-like cell phenotype. This modulatory behavior exerted by M. leprae is also observed in skin macrophages. Here, we used live M. leprae to infect (10:1 multiplicity of infection) monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) for 48 h and analyzed the whole gene expression profile using microarrays. In this model, we observe an intense upregulation of genes consistent with a cellular immune response, with enriched pathways including peptide and protein secretion, leukocyte activation, inflammation, and cellular divalent inorganic cation homeostasis. Among the most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are CCL5/RANTES and CYP27B1, and several members of the metallothionein and metalloproteinase families. This is consistent with a proinflammatory state that would resemble macrophage rewiring toward granulomatous formation observed at the T-pole. Furthermore, a comparison with a dataset retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus of M. leprae-infected Schwann cells (MOI 100:1) showed that the patterns among the DEGs are highly distinct, as the Schwann cells under these conditions had a scavenging and phagocytic gene profile similar to M2-like macrophages, with enriched pathways rearrangements in the cytoskeleton, lipid and cholesterol metabolism and upregulated genes including MVK, MSMO1, and LACC1/FAMIN. In summary, macrophages may have a central role in defining the paradigmatic cellular (T-pole) vs. humoral (L-pole) responses and it is likely that the multiplicity of infection and genetic polymorphisms in key genes are gearing this polarization.

2.
Immunol Rev ; 301(1): 193-208, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913182

RESUMEN

Leprosy is a much-feared incapacitating infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae or M lepromatosis, annually affecting roughly 200,000 people worldwide. During host-pathogen interaction, M leprae subverts the immune response, leading to development of disease. Throughout the last few decades, the impact of energy metabolism on the control of intracellular pathogens and leukocytic differentiation has become more evident. Mitochondria play a key role in regulating newly-discovered immune signaling pathways by controlling redox metabolism and the flow of energy besides activating inflammasome, xenophagy, and apoptosis. Likewise, this organelle, whose origin is probably an alphaproteobacterium, directly controls the intracellular pathogens attempting to invade its niche, a feature conquered at the expense of billions of years of coevolution. In the present review, we discuss the role of reduced host cell mitochondrial activity during M leprae infection and the consequential fates of M leprae and host innate immunity. Conceivably, inhibition of mitochondrial energy metabolism emerges as an overlooked and novel mechanism developed by M leprae to evade xenophagy and the host immune response.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681915

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Leprosy recurrence is the reappearance of the disease after treatment with current schemes and discharged for cure and may have variable incubation periods. METHODS: This is a descriptive observational study of leprosy recurrence in Espírito Santo diagnosed between January 2018 and January 2020. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-two cases were available, of which 30 were diagnosed with leprosy recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In 25 cases, the incubation period was 5-15 years after the first treatment, favoring bacillary persistence. In the remaining 5 cases, the disease had recurred after 15 years, pointing to reinfection as none of them exhibited drug resistance.


Asunto(s)
Lepra , Brasil , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Humanos , Lepra/tratamiento farmacológico , Recurrencia , Centros de Atención Terciaria
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009214, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690671

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leprosy continues to be a public health problem in Brazil. Furthermore, detection rates in elderly people have increased, particularly those of multibacillary (L-Lep) patients, who are responsible for transmitting M. leprae. Part of the decline in physiological function during aging is due to increased oxidative damage and change in T cell subpopulations, which are critical in defense against the disease. It is not still clear how age-related changes like those related to oxidation affect elderly people with leprosy. The aim of this work was to verify whether the elderly leprosy patients have higher ROS production and how it can impact the evolution of leprosy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 87 leprosy patients, grouped according to age range and clinical form of leprosy, and 25 healthy volunteers were analyzed. Gene expression analysis of antioxidant and oxidative burst enzymes were performed in whole blood using Biomark's microfluidic-based qPCR. The same genes were evaluated in skin lesion samples by RT-qPCR. The presence of oxidative damage markers (carbonylated proteins and 4-hydroxynonenal) was analyzed by a DNPH colorimetric assay and immunofluorescence. Carbonylated protein content was significantly higher in elderly compared to young patients. One year after multidrug therapy (MDT) discharge and M. leprae clearance, oxidative damage increased in young L-Lep patients but not in elderly ones. Both elderly T and L-Lep patients present higher 4-HNE in cutaneous lesions than the young, mainly surrounding memory CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, young L-Lep demonstrated greater ability to neutralize ROS compared to elderly L-Lep patients, who presented lower gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, mainly glutathione peroxidase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that elderly patients present exacerbated oxidative damage both in blood and in skin lesions and that age-related changes can be an important factor in leprosy immunopathogenesis. Ultimately, elderly patients could benefit from co-supplementation of antioxidants concomitant to MDT, to avoid worsening of the disease.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 647385, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777045

RESUMEN

Leprosy is an infectious disease that remains endemic in approximately 100 developing countries, where about 200,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. Moreover, multibacillary leprosy, the most contagious form of the disease, has been detected at continuously higher rates among Brazilian elderly people. Due to the so-called immunosenescence, characterized by several alterations in the quality of the immune response during aging, this group is more susceptible to infectious diseases. In view of such data, the purpose of our work was to investigate if age-related alterations in the immune response could influence the pathogenesis of leprosy. As such, we studied 87 individuals, 62 newly diagnosed and untreated leprosy patients distributed according to the age range and to the clinical forms of the disease and 25 healthy volunteers, who were studied as controls. The frequency of senescent and memory CD8+ leukocytes was assessed by immunofluorescence of biopsies from cutaneous lesions, while the serum levels of IgG anti-CMV antibodies were analyzed by chemiluminescence and the gene expression of T cell receptors' inhibitors by RT-qPCR. We noted an accumulation of memory CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as reduced CD8+CD28+ cell expression in skin lesions from elderly patients, when compared to younger people. Alterations in LAG3 and PDCD1 gene expression in cutaneous lesions of young MB patients were also observed, when compared to elderly patients. Such data suggest that the age-related alterations of T lymphocyte subsets can facilitate the onset of leprosy in elderly patients, not to mention other chronic inflammatory diseases.

6.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445752

RESUMEN

The yellow fever vaccine (YF17DD) is highly effective with a single injection conferring protection for at least 10 years. The YF17DD induces polyvalent responses, with a TH1/TH2 CD4+ profile, robust T CD8+ responses, and synthesis of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), culminating in high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, C-type lectin domain containing 5A (CLEC5A) has been implicated in innate outcomes in other flaviviral infections. Here, we conducted a follow-up study in volunteers immunized with YF17DD, investigating the humoral response, cellular phenotypes, gene expression, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IFNG and CLEC5A, to clarify the role of these factors in early response after vaccination. Activation of CLEC5A+ monocytes occurred five days after vaccination (DAV). Following, seven DAV data showed activation of CD4+ and CD8+T cells together with early positive correlations between type II IFN and genes of innate antiviral response (STAT1, STAT2, IRF7, IRF9, OAS1, and RNASEL) as well as antibody levels. Furthermore, individuals with genotypes rs2430561 AT/AA, rs2069718 AG/AA (IFNG), and rs13237944 AC/AA (CLEC5A), exhibited higher expression of IFNG and CLEC5A, respectively. Together, we demonstrated that early IFN-γ and CLEC5A responses, associated with rs2430561, rs2069718, and rs13237944 genotypes, may be key mechanisms in the long-lasting immunity elicited by YF17DD.


Asunto(s)
Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Inmunidad , Interferón gamma/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Receptores de Superficie Celular/genética , Vacunación , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/etiología , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Adulto , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo Genético , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Linfocitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1947, 2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479421

RESUMEN

Reduction in incidence has been associated with the introduction of novel approaches, like chemo/immune-prophylaxis. Incidence determined through follow-up cohort studies can evaluate the implementation of these innovative policies towards control and prevention. We have assessed the incidence in our contacts cohort over past 33 years, considering the effect of demographic and clinical variables. Survival analysis was used to estimate the risk of leprosy. A total of 9024 contacts were evaluated, of which 192 developed leprosy, resulting in an overall incidence of 1.4/1000 person-years. The multivariate analysis showed that the major risk factors were (i) contact from MB index cases and (ii) consanguinity (iii) intra household contact. Lower risk was detected for contacts with BCG scar who were revaccinated. There was a significant decrease in accumulated risk between the 2011-2019 period compared with 1987, probably linked to the improvement in laboratory tools to monitor contacts, thereby providing early diagnosis of contacts at intake and reduction of transmission. Our findings suggest that a combination of contact surveillance and tracing, adequate neurodermatological examination, and availability of molecular tools is highly effective in supporting early diagnosis, while a second dose of the BCG vaccination can exert extra protection.

8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0009044, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513145

RESUMEN

Snakebite envenoming affects close to 2.7 million people globally every year. In Brazil, snakebites are reported to the Ministry of Health surveillance system and cases receive antivenom free of charge. There is an urgent need to identify higher risk areas for antivenom distribution, and to develop prevention activities. The objective of this study is to provide an overview of the epidemiological situation of snakebite envenoming in Brazil and explore possible drivers; as well as to create a flowchart tool to support decision-makers identify higher risk areas. An ecological-type study was carried out using data by municipality (2013-2017). Study parts: 1) Create a geocoded database and perform a descriptive and cluster analysis; 2) Statistical analysis to measure the association of snakebite and possible environmental and socioeconomic drivers; 3) Develop a flowchart to support decision-makers and the application of this tool in one state (Rio Grande do Sul) as an example. An average of 27,120 snakebite cases per year were reported at the country level. Clusters of municipalities with high numbers of snakebites are mostly found in the Amazon Legal Region. The negative binomial regression model showed association with the snakebite case count: the type of major habitat, tropical or non-tropical; temperature; percentage of urbanization; precipitation; elevation; GDP per capita; a weaker relation with forest loss; and with venomous snake richness. The state where the instrument was applied reported 4,227 snakebites in the period. Most municipalities were considered as medium risk and 56/496 as high risk according to the tool created. Snakebite cases are distributed across the entire country with the highest concentration in the Legal Amazon Region. This creates a complex situation both for better understanding of the association of environmental and socioeconomic factors with snakebites and for the distribution and maintenance of antivenom to remote areas. Research into types of antivenom with a longer shelf life without the need for refrigeration is needed.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras de Serpientes/epidemiología , Animales , Antivenenos , Brasil/epidemiología , Toma de Decisiones , Mapeo Geográfico , Humanos , Incidencia , Medición de Riesgo , Serpientes , Factores Socioeconómicos
9.
s.l; s.n; 2021. 10 p.
No convencional en Inglés | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1146801

RESUMEN

Leprosy is a prevalent disease in Brazil, which ranks as the country with the second highest number of cases in the world. The disease manifests in a spectrum of forms, and genetic differences in the host can help to elucidate the immunopathogenesis. For a better understanding of MICA association with leprosy, we performed a case­control and a family­based study in two endemic populations in Brazil. MICA and HLA­B alleles were evaluated in 409 leprosy patients and in 419 healthy contacts by PCR­SSOP­Luminex­based technology. In the familial study, analysis of 46 families was completed by direct sequencing of all exons and 3'/5'untranslated regions, using the Ilumina MiSeq platform. All data were collected between 2006 and 2009. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi­square or Fisher's exact test together with a multivariate analysis. Family­based association was assessed by transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) software FBAT 2.0.4. We found associations between the haplotype MICA*002­HLA­B*35 with leprosy in both the per se and the multibacillary (MB) forms when compared to healthy contacts. The MICA allele *008 was associated with the clinical forms of paucibacillary (PB). Additionally, MICA*029 was associated with the clinical forms of MB. The association of MICA*029 allele (MICA­A4 variant) with the susceptibility to the MB form suggests this variant for the transmembrane domain of the MICA molecule may be a risk factor for leprosy. Two MICA and nine HLA­B variants were found associated with leprosy per se in the Colônia do Prata population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) between HLA­B markers rs2596498 and rs2507992, and high LD (R2 = .92) between these and the marker rs2442718. This familial study demonstrates that MICA association signals are not independent from those observed for HLA­B. Our findings contribute the knowledge pool of the immunogenetics of Hansen's disease and reveals a new association of the MICA*029 allele(AU).


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidad Clase I , Antígenos HLA-B , Lepra/genética , Lepra/inmunología , Polimorfismo Genético , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Factores de Riesgo , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Alelos , Lepra/transmisión
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0375-2020, 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155553

RESUMEN

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leprosy recurrence is the reappearance of the disease after treatment with current schemes and discharged for cure and may have variable incubation periods. METHODS: This is a descriptive observational study of leprosy recurrence in Espírito Santo diagnosed between January 2018 and January 2020. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-two cases were available, of which 30 were diagnosed with leprosy recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In 25 cases, the incubation period was 5-15 years after the first treatment, favoring bacillary persistence. In the remaining 5 cases, the disease had recurred after 15 years, pointing to reinfection as none of them exhibited drug resistance.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Lepra/tratamiento farmacológico , Recurrencia , Brasil , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Centros de Atención Terciaria
12.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 167, 2020 Dec 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341111

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease classified into two subgroups for therapeutic purposes: paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB), closely related to the host immune responses. In this context it is noteworthy looking for immunological biomarkers applicable as complementary diagnostic tools as well as a laboratorial strategy to follow-up leprosy household contacts. METHODS: The cross-sectional study enrolled 49 participants, including 19 patients and 30 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and incubated in the presence of Mycobacterium leprae bacilli. The cells were prepared for surface (CD4+ and CD8+) and intracytoplasmic cytokine staining (IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10). Multiple comparisons amongst groups were carried out by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Student T or Mann-Whitney test. Comparative analysis of categorical variables was performed by Chi-square. Functional biomarker signature analysis was conducted using the global median values for each biomarker index as the cut-off edge to identify the proportion of subjects with high biomarker levels. RESULTS: The cytokine signature analysis demonstrated that leprosy patients presented a polyfunctional profile of T-cells subsets, with increased frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cell subsets along with IL-10+ and IL-4+ from CD4+ T-cells, as compared to health Controls (Venn diagram report). Moreover, statistical analysis was carried out using parametric or non-parametric variance analysis followed by pairwise multiple comparisons, according to the data normality distribution. L(PB) displayed a polyfunctional profile characterized by enhanced percentage of IFN-γ+, IL-10+ and IL-4+ produced by most T-cell subsets, as compared to L(MB) that presented a more restricted cytokine functional profile mediated by IL-10+ and IL-4+ T-cells with minor contribution of IFN-γ produced by CD4+ T-cells. Noteworthy was that HHC(MB) exhibited enhanced frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cells, contrasting with HHC(PB) that presented a cytokine profile limited to IL-10 and IL-4. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that L(PB) displayed enhanced percentage of IFN-γ+, IL-10+ and IL-4+ as compared to L(MB) that presented functional profile mediated by IL-10+ and IL-4+ T-cells and HHC(MB) exhibited enhanced frequency of IFN-γ+ T-cells, contrasting with HHC(PB). Together, our findings provide additional immunological features associated with leprosy and household contacts. These data provide evidence that biomarkers of immune response can be useful complementary diagnostic/prognostic tools as well as insights that household contacts should be monitored to access putative subclinical infection.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/sangre , Lepra/inmunología , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Células Cultivadas , Niño , Trazado de Contacto , Estudios Transversales , Citocinas/inmunología , Salud de la Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Lepra/clasificación , Leucocitos Mononucleares/inmunología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium lepraemurium/inmunología , Adulto Joven
13.
Int J Immunogenet ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151039

RESUMEN

Leprosy is a prevalent disease in Brazil, which ranks as the country with the second highest number of cases in the world. The disease manifests in a spectrum of forms, and genetic differences in the host can help to elucidate the immunopathogenesis. For a better understanding of MICA association with leprosy, we performed a case-control and a family-based study in two endemic populations in Brazil. MICA and HLA-B alleles were evaluated in 409 leprosy patients and in 419 healthy contacts by PCR-SSOP-Luminex-based technology. In the familial study, analysis of 46 families was completed by direct sequencing of all exons and 3'/5'untranslated regions, using the Ilumina MiSeq platform. All data were collected between 2006 and 2009. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test together with a multivariate analysis. Family-based association was assessed by transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) software FBAT 2.0.4. We found associations between the haplotype MICA*002-HLA-B*35 with leprosy in both the per se and the multibacillary (MB) forms when compared to healthy contacts. The MICA allele *008 was associated with the clinical forms of paucibacillary (PB). Additionally, MICA*029 was associated with the clinical forms of MB. The association of MICA*029 allele (MICA-A4 variant) with the susceptibility to the MB form suggests this variant for the transmembrane domain of the MICA molecule may be a risk factor for leprosy. Two MICA and nine HLA-B variants were found associated with leprosy per se in the Colônia do Prata population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) between HLA-B markers rs2596498 and rs2507992, and high LD (R2  = .92) between these and the marker rs2442718. This familial study demonstrates that MICA association signals are not independent from those observed for HLA-B. Our findings contribute the knowledge pool of the immunogenetics of Hansen's disease and reveals a new association of the MICA*029 allele.

14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190488, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638886

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. One-third of infected patients will develop the cardiac form, which may progress to heart failure (HF). However, the factors that determine disease progression remain unclear. Increased angiotensin II activity is a key player in the pathophysiology of HF. A functional polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with plasma enzyme activity. In CD, ACE inhibitors have beneficial effects supporting the use of this treatment in chagasic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We evaluated the association of ACE I/D polymorphism with HF, performing a case-control study encompassing 343 patients with positive serology for CD staged as non-cardiomyopathy (stage A; 100), mild (stage B1; 144), and severe (stage C; 99) forms of Chagas heart disease. For ACE I/D genotyping by PCR, groups were compared using unconditional logistic regression analysis and adjusted for nongenetic covariates: age, sex, and trypanocidal treatment. RESULTS: A marginal, but not significant (p=0.06) higher prevalence of ACE I/D polymorphism was observed in patients in stage C compared with patients in stage A. Patients in stage C (CD with HF), were compared with patients in stages A and B1 combined into one group (CD without HF); DD genotype/D carriers were prevalent in the HF patients (OR = 2; CI = 1.013.96; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results of this cohort study, comprising a population from the Northeast region of Brazil, suggest that ACE I/D polymorphism is more prevalent in the cardiac form of Chagas disease with HF.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/genética , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Adulto , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina , Brasil , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Enfermedad de Chagas/fisiopatología , Estudios de Cohortes , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Genotipo , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
15.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1355-1368, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661593

RESUMEN

Due to multiple hypothesis testing with often limited sample size, microarrays and other-omics technologies can sometimes produce irreproducible findings. Complementary to better experimental design, reanalysis and integration of gene expression datasets may help overcome reproducibility issues by identifying consistent differentially expressed genes from independent studies. In this work, after a systematic search, nine microarray datasets evaluating host gene expression in leprosy were reanalyzed and the information was integrated to strengthen evidence of differential expression for several genes. Our results are relevant in prioritizing genes and pathways for further investigation, whether in functional studies or in biomarker discovery. Reanalysis of individual datasets revealed several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in accordance with original reports. Then, five integration methods (P value and effect size based) were tested. In the end, random-effects model and ratio association were selected as the main methods to pinpoint DEGs. Overall, classic pathways were found corroborating previous findings and validating this approach. Also, we identified some novel DEG involved especially with skin development processes (AQP3, AKR1C3, CYP27B1, LTB, VDR) and keratinocyte biology (CSTA, DSG1, KRT14, KRT5, PKP1, IVL), both still poorly understood in leprosy context. In addition, here we provide aggregated evidence towards some gene candidates that should be prioritized in further leprosy research, as they are likely important in immunopathogenesis. Altogether, these data are useful in better understanding host responses to the disease and, at the same time, provide a list of potential host biomarkers that could be useful in complementing leprosy diagnosis based on transcriptional levels.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Biomarcadores/análisis , Biología Computacional/métodos , Genoma Humano , Lepra/genética , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Lepra/patología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008247, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433683

RESUMEN

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which affects skin and peripheral nerves. Polymorphisms in genes associated with autophagy, metabolism, innate and adaptive immunity confer susceptibility to leprosy. However, these associations need to be confirmed through independent replication studies in different ethnicities. The population from Amazon state (northern Brazil) is admixed and it contains the highest proportion of Native American genetic ancestry in Brazil. We conducted a case-control study for leprosy in which we tested fourteen previously associated SNPs in key immune response regulating genes: TLR1 (rs4833095), NOD2 (rs751271, rs8057341), TNF (rs1800629), IL10 (rs1800871), CCDC122/LACC1 (rs4942254), PACRG/PRKN (rs9356058, rs1040079), IFNG (rs2430561), IL6 (rs2069845), LRRK2 (rs7298930, rs3761863), IL23R (rs76418789) and TYK2 (rs55882956). Genotyping was carried out by allelic discrimination in 967 controls and 412 leprosy patients. Association with susceptibility was assessed by logistic regression analyses adjusted for the following covariates: gender, age and ancestry. Genetic ancestry was similar in case and control groups. Statistically significant results were only found for IFNG and NOD2. The rs8057341 polymorphism within NOD2 was identified as significant for the AA genotype (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37-0.84; P = 0.005) and borderline for the A allele (OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-1.00; P = 0.053) and carrier (OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-1.00; P = 0.051). The rs2430561 SNP in IFNG was associated with disease susceptibility for the AT genotype (OR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06-1.85; P = 0.018) and carrier (OR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.88; P = 0.008). We confirmed that NOD2 and IFNG are major players in immunity against M.leprae in the Amazon ethnic admixed population.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Interferón gamma/genética , Lepra/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Señalización NOD2/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008325, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453754

RESUMEN

Leprosy urgently needs a precise and early diagnostic tool. The sensitivity of the direct (bacilli staining, Mycobacterium leprae DNA) and indirect (antibody levels, T cell assays) diagnostics methods vary based on the clinical form. Recently, PCR-based M. leprae DNA detection has been shown to differentially diagnose leprosy from other dermatological conditions. However, accuracy can still be improved, especially for use with less invasive clinical samples. We tested different commercial DNA extraction kits: DNeasy Blood & Tissue, QIAamp DNA Microbiome, Maxwell 16 DNA Purification, PowerSoil DNA Isolation; as well as in-house phenol-chloroform and Trizol/FastPrep methods. Extraction was performed on M. leprae-infected mouse footpads and different clinical samples of leprosy patients (skin biopsies and scrapings, lesion, oral and nasal swabs, body hair, blood on FTA cards, peripheral whole blood). We observed that the Microbiome kit was able to enrich for mycobacterial DNA, most likely due the enzymatic digestion cocktail along with mechanical disruption involved in this method. Consequently, we had a significant increase in sensitivity in skin biopsies from paucibacillary leprosy patients using a duplex qPCR targeting 16S rRNA (M. leprae) and 18S rRNA (mammal) in the StepOnePlus system. Our data showed that the presence of M. leprae DNA was best detected in skin biopsies and skin scrapings, independent of the extraction method or the clinical form. For multibacillary patients, detection of M. leprae DNA in nasal swabs indicates the possibility of having a much less invasive sample that can be used for the purposes of DNA sequencing for relapse analysis and drug resistance monitoring. Overall, DNA extracted with the Microbiome kit presented the best bacilli detection rate for paucibacillary cases, indicating that investments in extraction methods with mechanical and DNA digestion should be made.


Asunto(s)
ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Mycobacterium leprae/aislamiento & purificación , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Animales , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Ratones , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , ARN Bacteriano/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340990

RESUMEN

A case of Mycobacterium leprae rifampin resistance after irregular antileprosy treatments since 1971 is reported. Whole-genome sequencing from four longitudinal samples indicated relapse due to acquired rifampin resistance and not to reinfection with another strain. A putative compensatory mutation in rpoC was also detected. Clinical improvement was achieved using an alternative therapy.

19.
Immunohorizons ; 4(2): 47-56, 2020 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034084

RESUMEN

Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an inflammatory complication in leprosy. Yet, the involvement of ENL neutrophils in the inflammatory response against Mycobacterium leprae remains poorly explored. Our primary aim was to investigate the utility of the surface expression of neutrophil IL-10R1 as an ENL biomarker and, secondarily, to evaluate whether leprosy or healthy M. leprae-stimulated neutrophils produce cytokines and are able to respond to IL-10. We, in this study, describe a subpopulation of circulating neutrophils of ENL patients that exclusively expressed IL-10R1, providing evidence that IL-10R1+ neutrophils are present in ENL lesions. It was also found that ENL neutrophils, but not those of nonreactional leprosy controls, were able to secret detectable levels of TNF ex vivo and the addition of IL-10 blocked TNF release. It was likewise observed that M. leprae-stimulated, healthy neutrophils expressed IL-10R1 in vitro, and ENL-linked cytokines were released by M. leprae-cultured neutrophils in vitro. Moreover, consistent with the presence of a fully functional IL-10R, the addition of IL-10 prevented the release of M. leprae-induced cytokines. Most importantly, dead M. leprae revealed its superior capacity to induce CCL4 and IL-8 in primary neutrophils over live Mycobacterium, suggesting that M. leprae may hamper the inflammatory machinery as an immune escape mechanism.


Asunto(s)
Eritema Nudoso/inmunología , Subunidad alfa del Receptor de Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/farmacología , Lepra Lepromatosa/inmunología , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Piel/inmunología , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Eritema Nudoso/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Lepra Lepromatosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium leprae/inmunología , Infiltración Neutrófila/efectos de los fármacos , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Neutrófilos/microbiología , Talidomida/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190488, 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1136799

RESUMEN

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. One-third of infected patients will develop the cardiac form, which may progress to heart failure (HF). However, the factors that determine disease progression remain unclear. Increased angiotensin II activity is a key player in the pathophysiology of HF. A functional polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with plasma enzyme activity. In CD, ACE inhibitors have beneficial effects supporting the use of this treatment in chagasic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We evaluated the association of ACE I/D polymorphism with HF, performing a case-control study encompassing 343 patients with positive serology for CD staged as non-cardiomyopathy (stage A; 100), mild (stage B1; 144), and severe (stage C; 99) forms of Chagas heart disease. For ACE I/D genotyping by PCR, groups were compared using unconditional logistic regression analysis and adjusted for nongenetic covariates: age, sex, and trypanocidal treatment. RESULTS: A marginal, but not significant (p=0.06) higher prevalence of ACE I/D polymorphism was observed in patients in stage C compared with patients in stage A. Patients in stage C (CD with HF), were compared with patients in stages A and B1 combined into one group (CD without HF); DD genotype/D carriers were prevalent in the HF patients (OR = 2; CI = 1.013.96; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results of this cohort study, comprising a population from the Northeast region of Brazil, suggest that ACE I/D polymorphism is more prevalent in the cardiac form of Chagas disease with HF.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Enfermedad de Chagas/genética , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Brasil , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios de Cohortes , Enfermedad de Chagas/fisiopatología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/genética , Persona de Mediana Edad
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