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1.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633153

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized children in Spain and analyze the predictors of the etiology. HYPOTHESIS: The different etiological groups of pediatric CAP are associated with different clinical, radiographic, and analytical data. DESIGN: Observational, multicenter, and prospective study. PATIENT SELECTION: This study included children aged 1 month to 17 years with CAP, who were hospitalized between April 2012 and May 2019. METHODS: An extensive microbiological workup was performed. The clinical, radiographic, and analytical parameters were analyzed for three etiological groups. RESULTS: Among the 495 children included, at least one causative pathogen was identified in 262 (52.9%): pathogenic viruses in 155/262 (59.2%); atypical bacteria (AB), mainly Mycoplasma pneumonia, in 84/262 (32.1%); and typical bacteria (TyB) in 40/262 (15.3%). Consolidation was observed in 89/138 (64.5%) patients with viral CAP, 74/84 (88.1%) with CAP caused by AB, and 40/40 (100%) with CAP caused by TyB. Para-pneumonic pleural effusion (PPE) was observed in 112/495 (22.6%) patients, of which 61/112 (54.5%) presented a likely causative pathogen: viruses in 12/61 (19.7%); AB in 23/61 (37.7%); and TyB in 26/61 (42.6%). Viral etiology was significantly frequent in young patients and in those with low oxygen saturation, wheezing, no consolidation, and high lymphocyte counts. CAP patients with AB as the etiological agent had a significantly longer and less serious course as compared to those with other causative pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Viruses and M. pneumoniae are the main causes of pediatric CAP in Spain. Wheezing, young age, and no consolidation on radiographs are indicative of viral etiology. Viruses and AB can also cause PPE. Since only a few cases can be directly attributed to TyB, the indications for antibiotics must be carefully considered in each patient.

2.
AIDS ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690281

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Following the introduction of direct-acting antiviral therapy in 2013, WHO launched the first Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis. We describe a hepatitis C virus (HCV) cascade of care in people with HIV (PWH) across Europe in terms of reaching the WHO elimination targets of diagnosing 90% and treating 80% of HCV-infected individuals. METHODS: HIV/HCV-coinfected participants in the EuroSIDA cohort under prospective follow-up at October 1, 2019, were described using a nine-stage cascade of care. Care cascades were constructed across Europe, on a regional (n = 5) and country (n = 21) level. RESULTS: Of 4773 anti-HCV positive PWH, 4446 [93.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 92.4-93.9)] were ever tested for HCV RNA, and 19.0% (95% CI 16.4-21.6) were currently HCV RNA positive, with the highest prevalence in Eastern and Central-Eastern Europe (33.7 and 29.6%, respectively). In Eastern Europe, 78.1% of the estimated number of chronic infections have been diagnosed, whereas this proportion was above 95% in the other four regions. Overall, 3116 persons have ever started treatment (72.5% of the ever chronically infected, 95% CI 70.9-74.0) and 2404 individuals (55.9% of the ever chronically infected, 95% CI 53.9-57.9) were cured. Cure proportion ranged from 11.2% in Belarus to 87.2% in Austria. CONCLUSION: In all regions except Eastern Europe, more than 90% of the study participants have been tested for HCV-RNA. In Southern and Central-Western regions, more than 80% ever chronically HCV-infected PWH received treatment. The proportion with cured HCV infection did not exceed 80% in any region, with significant heterogeneity between countries. SUMMARY: In a pan-European cohort of PWH, all regions except Eastern Europe achieved the WHO target of diagnosing 90% of chronic HCV infections, while the target of treating 80% of eligible persons was achieved in none of the regions.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 730691, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650556

RESUMEN

Elite controllers (ECs) are an exceptional group of people living with HIV (PLWH) who maintain undetectable viral loads (VLs) despite not being on antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, this phenotype is heterogeneous, with some of these subjects losing virological control over time. In this longitudinal retrospective study, serum acute-phase glycoprotein profile assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) was determined in 11 transient controllers (TCs) who spontaneously lost virological control and 11 persistent controllers (PCs) who persistently maintained virological control over time. Both PCs and TCs showed similar acute-phase glycoprotein profiles, even when TCs lost the virological control (GlycB, p = 0.824 and GlycA, p = 0.710), and the serum acute-phase glycoprotein signature in PCs did not differ from that in HIV-negative subjects (GlycB, p = 0.151 and GlycA, p = 0.243). Differences in serum glycoproteins A and B were significant only in ECs compared to HIV-typical progressors (TPs) with < 100 CD4+ T-cells (p < 0.001). 1H-NMR acute-phase glycoprotein profile does not distinguish TCs form PCs before the loss of viral control. ECs maintain a low-grade inflammatory state compared to TPs. PCs revealed a closer serum signature to HIV-negative subjects, reaffirming this phenotype as a closer model of functional control of HIV.

4.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657781

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Surgical oncology is a defined specialty within the European Board of Surgery within the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). Variation in training and specialization still occurs across Europe. There is a need to align the core knowledge needed to fulfil the criteria across subspecialities in surgical oncology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The core curriculum, established in 2013, was developed with contributions from expert advisors from within the European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO), European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO) and European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) and related subspeciality experts. RESULTS: The current version reiterates and updates the core curriculum structure needed for current and future candidates who plans to train for and eventually sit the European fellowship exam for the European Board of Surgery in Surgical Oncology. The content included is not intended to be exhaustive but, rather to give the candidate an idea of expectations and areas for in depth study, in addition to the practical requirements. The five elements included are: Basic principles of oncology; Disease site specific oncology; Generic clinical skills; Training recommendations, and, lastly; Eligibility for the EBSQ exam in Surgical Oncology. CONCLUSIONS: As evidence-based care for cancer patients evolves through research into basic science, translational research and clinical trials, the core curriculum will evolve, mature and adapt to deliver continual improvements in cancer outcomes for patients.

5.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510996

RESUMEN

High Grade B Cell Lymphoma, NOS, and High Grade B Cell Lymphoma with Dual Hit or Triple Hit have been recently recategorized in the 2016 revision of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms. In this study we have characterized the genetic, histopathological, and clinical features of a series of this type of lymphoid neoplasia (17 HGBCL NOS and 53 HGBCL DH/TH).HGBCL NOS showed better response to first line treatment than HGBCL with DH/TH but no significant differences in PFS or OS were found between the two categories. Survival analysis in the whole cohort of cases found that only the presence of BCL2 translocation was significantly associated with PFS. Other clinical features such as IPI, LDH or stage were equivalent in both categories. Furthermore, both high grade and DLBCL morphological patterns showed equivalent PFS and OS in this set of High grade BCL NOS/DH/TH.Key pointsBCL2 translocation in High Grade B Cell Lymphoma NOS and High Grade B Cell Lymphoma with DH/TH is associated with reduced progression free survival.Both high grade and DLBCL morphological patterns showed equivalent outcome regarding PFS and OS in HGBCL.

6.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 39(8): 372-382, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373227

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study sought to analyse differences in epidemiology and survival between women and men living with HIV (WLHIV and MLHIV) in the CoRIS cohort and the course of their disease over a 10-year period. METHODS: Variables of interest between WLHIV and MLHIV were compared. A trend analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel test. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a Cox regression analysis were used to study survival. RESULTS: A total of 10,469 people were enrolled; of them, 1,742 (16.6%) were women. At the time of enrolment in the cohort, WLHIV, compared to MLHIV, had higher rates of transmission due to intravenous drug use (IDU), hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection, AIDS-stage disease and foreign origin. They also had a worse immunovirological status and a lower educational level. These differences were maintained in the trend study. Regarding age, the women included in the cohort were older whereas the men were younger. In the comparative analysis between women according to place of origin, we found that the group of Spanish WLHIV featured older women with higher rates of IDU transmission and HCV coinfection, whereas the group of WLHIV born outside of Spain featured women with higher rates of syphilis infection. There were no major differences in relation to other characteristics such as educational level or disease status. Although sex was not a determinant of survival, conditions more prevalent in women were determinants of survival. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected women presented at diagnosis with certain epidemiological and HIV-associated characteristics that made them more vulnerable. These trends became more marked or did not improve during the years of observation.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH , Hepatitis C , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382910

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) infections have been occasionally described in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We assess the clinical features and outcome of these infections. METHODS: In this retrospective single-centre, case-control study, we included 54 patients with CPE infection: 30 case-patients (COVID-19) and 24 controls (non-COVID-19), collected between March and May 2020. We compared the epidemiological, clinical features, and outcome between cases and controls. RESULTS: CPE infection was more frequent in COVID-19 patients than in controls (1.1 vs. 0.5%, p = .005). COVID-19 patients were younger, had a lower frequency of underlying diseases (p = .01), and a lower median Charlson score (p = .002). Predisposing factors such as antimicrobial use, mechanical ventilation, or ICU admission, were more frequent in COVID-19 patients (p < .05). There were 73 episodes of infection (42 cases and 31 controls) that were more frequently hospital-acquired and diagnosed at the ICU in COVID-19 patients (p < .001). Urinary tract was the most common source of infection (47.9%), followed by pneumonia (23.3%). The frequency of severe sepsis or shock (p = .01) as well as the median SOFA score (p = .04) was higher in cases than in controls. Klebsiella pneumoniae (80.8%), Serratia marcescens (11%) and Enterobacter cloacae (4.1%) were the most common bacteria in both groups (KPC 56.2%, OXA-48 26% and VIM 17.8%). Overall 30-d mortality rate of COVID-19 patients and controls was 30 and 16.7%, respectively (p = .25). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients have an increased risk of CPE infections, which usually present as severe, nosocomial infections, appearing in critically-ill patients and associated with a high mortality.

8.
HIV Med ; 22(9): 867-876, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324783

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We compared the characteristics and clinical outcomes of hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 with [people with HIV (PWH)] and without (non-PWH) HIV co-infection in Spain during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective matched cohort study. People with HIV were identified by reviewing clinical records and laboratory registries of 10 922 patients in active-follow-up within the Spanish HIV Research Network (CoRIS) up to 30 June 2020. Each hospitalized PWH was matched with five non-PWH of the same age and sex randomly selected from COVID-19@Spain, a multicentre cohort of 4035 patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19. The main outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Forty-five PWH with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 were identified in CoRIS, 21 of whom were hospitalized. A total of 105 age/sex-matched controls were selected from the COVID-19@Spain cohort. The median age in both groups was 53 (Q1-Q3, 46-56) years, and 90.5% were men. In PWH, 19.1% were injecting drug users, 95.2% were on antiretroviral therapy, 94.4% had HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL, and the median (Q1-Q3) CD4 count was 595 (349-798) cells/µL. No statistically significant differences were found between PWH and non-PWH in number of comorbidities, presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory parameters, radiology findings and severity scores on admission. Corticosteroids were administered to 33.3% and 27.4% of PWH and non-PWH, respectively (P = 0.580). Deaths during admission were documented in two (9.5%) PWH and 12 (11.4%) non-PWH (P = 0.800). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that well-controlled HIV infection does not modify the clinical presentation or worsen clinical outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalization.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidad , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab251, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250189

RESUMEN

Background: An estimated 58 749 people with opioid use disorder engaged in opioid agonist therapy (OAT) in 1132 centers in Spain during 2017. We aimed to calculate the incidence of severe injection-related infections in people who inject drugs (PWID) engaged in OAT in harm reduction settings without a safe consumption space. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed in PWID engaged in OAT and in a mobile harm reduction unit to quantify admissions to a referral hospital for any severe injection-related infections between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2019. A Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with any severe injection-related infection. Results: Two hundred thirty-seven PWID who engaged in OAT were included in the study. After a median follow-up of 5.5 months (interquartile range [IQR], 1.3-22.7 months), a total of 104 episodes of severe injection-related infections occurred among 56 individuals, and admission due to a second event occurred in 35.7% of this same group. The incidence density of any type of severe injection-related infection was 26.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 20.2-34.8) episodes per 100 person-years, and the incidence density of complicated skin and soft tissue infections that required hospital admission was 20.4 (95% CI, 15.0-27.3) episodes per 100 person-years. Fifty-six (53.8%) of all the episodes were patient-directed discharge (PDD), and people who had 2 or more hospital admissions had a higher PDD frequency. Conclusions: Severe injection-related infections remain highly prevalent among PWID cared for in a harm reduction setting without a safe consumption space. PDD was more frequent among higher-risk individuals who presented 2 or more hospital readmissions.

10.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(10): 2501-2518, 2021 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077524

RESUMEN

Thanks to advances in the field over the years, HIV/AIDS has now become a manageable chronic condition. Nevertheless, a new set of HIV-associated complications has emerged, related in part to the accelerated ageing observed in people living with HIV/AIDS, the cumulative toxicities from exposure to antiretroviral drugs over decades and emerging comorbidities. As a result, HIV/AIDS can still have a negative impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). In this scenario, it is reasonable to believe that the concept of therapeutic success, traditionally associated with CD4 cell count restoration and HIV RNA plasma viral load suppression and the absence of drug resistances, needs to be redefined to include other factors that reach beyond antiretroviral efficacy. With this in mind, a group of experts initiated and coordinated the RET Project, and this group, using the available evidence and their clinical experience in the field, has proposed new criteria to redefine treatment success in HIV, arranged into five main concepts: rapid initiation, efficacy, simplicity, safety, and QoL. An extensive review of the literature was performed for each category, and results were discussed by a total of 32 clinicians with experience in HIV/AIDS (4 coordinators + 28 additional experts). This article summarizes the conclusions of these experts and presents the most updated overview on the five topics, along with a discussion of the experts' main concerns, conclusions and/or recommendations on the most controversial issues.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Carga Viral
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(11): 1678-1684, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186209

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and factors associated with seropositivity and asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among people with HIV (PWH). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out within the cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network. Participants were consecutive PWH with plasma collected from 1st April to 30th September 2020. We determined SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Abs) in plasma. Illness severity (NIH criteria) was assessed by a review of medical records and, if needed, participant interviews. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of seropositivity among the following variables: sex, age, country of birth, education level, comorbidities (hypertension, chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, non-AIDS-related cancer, chronic kidney disease, cirrhosis), route of HIV acquisition, prior AIDS, CD4+ cell count, HIV viral load, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (N [t]RTI) backbone, type of third antiretroviral drug, and month of sample collection. RESULTS: Of 1076 PWH (88.0% males, median age 43 years, 97.7% on antiretroviral therapy, median CD4+ 688 cells/mm3, 91.4% undetectable HIV viral load), SARS-CoV-2 Abs were detected in 91 PWH, a seroprevalence of 8.5% (95%CI 6.9-10.3%). Forty-five infections (45.0%) were asymptomatic. Variables independently associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity were birth in Latin American countries versus Spain (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.30, 95%CI 1.41-3.76, p 0.001), and therapy with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) versus tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC as the N(t)RTI backbone (aOR 0.49, 95%CI 0.26-0.94, p 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Many SARS-CoV-2 infections among PWH were asymptomatic, and birth in Latin American countries increased the risk of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Our analysis, adjusted by comorbidities and other variables, suggests that TDF/FTC may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection among PWH.

12.
AIDS ; 35(12): 2025-2033, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033590

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate time trends in pregnancies and pregnancy outcomes among women with HIV in Europe. DESIGN: European multicentre prospective cohort study. METHODS: EuroSIDA has collected annual cross-sectional audits of pregnancies between 1996 and 2015. Pregnancy data were extracted and described. Odds of pregnancy were modelled, adjusting for potential confounders using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Of 5535 women aged 16 to <50 years, 4217 (76.2%) had pregnancy information available, and 912 (21.6%) reported 1315 pregnancies. The proportions with at least one pregnancy were 28.1% (321/1143) in East, 24.5% (146/596) in North, 19.8% (140/706) in West/Central, 19.3% (110/569) in Central East and 16.2% (195/1203) in South Europe. Overall 319 pregnancies (24.3%) occurred in 1996-2002, 576 (43.8%) in 2003-2009 and 420 (31.9%) in 2010-2015. After adjustment, the odds of pregnancy were lower in 1996-2002, in South, Central East and East compared to West/Central Europe, in older women, those with low CD4+ cell count or with prior AIDS, and higher in those with a previous pregnancy or who were hepatitis C virus positive.Outcomes were reported for 999 pregnancies in 1996-2014, with 690 live births (69.1%), seven stillbirths (0.7%), 103 spontaneous (10.3%) and 199 medical abortions (19.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Around 20% of women in EuroSIDA reported a pregnancy, with most pregnancies after 2002, when more effective antiretroviral therapy became available. Substantial differences were seen between European regions. Further surveillance of pregnancies and outcomes among women living with HIV is warranted to ensure equal access to care.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Infecciones por VIH , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos
13.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(5): e25732, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036745

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Weight gain after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a major problem that can increase morbidity. Our main objective was to evaluate the effects of initial ART on weight change in a large prospective cohort of HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 13,198 subjects included in the Spanish HIV Research Network (CoRIS) between January 2004 and November 2018. We included subjects who started triple ART and achieved HIV RNA suppression within 48 weeks. We fitted linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders to compare longitudinal changes in weight. We used Cox proportional-hazard models to compare treatment groups' times to transition to a higher body mass index (BMI) category. RESULTS: We analysed data from a total of 1631 individuals resulting in 14,965 persons/years and 14,085 observations. Individuals retained in the final multivariable model were representative of the overall cohort. NNRTI-based first-line ART was associated with a lower average weight gain compared to PI- (+0.7 kg per year, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0, p < 0.001) and INSTI-based (+0.9 kg per year, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.1, p < 0.001) regimens. Individuals starting ART with TAF+FTC had greater weight gain than those receiving TDF+FTC (+0.8 kg per year, 95% CI 0.3 to 1.4, p = 0.004). Women and black persons presented a greater weight gain than men and non-black individuals. Differences in weight trajectories were driven mainly by changes during the first year of ART. The NNRTI group was less likely to transition from normal weight to overweight than the PI (aHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.85) and INSTI groups (aHR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.64). PIs but not INSTIs were associated with a higher rate of overweight-to-obesity shift (aHR 2.17, 95% CI 1.27 to 3.72). No differences were found among INSTIs in the transition to a higher BMI category. CONCLUSIONS: INSTI- and PI-based first-line ARTs are associated with greater weight gain compared to NNRTI-based ART. Within the NRTIs, TAF+FTC was most strongly associated with weight gain. This heterogeneous effect of ART on body weight could affect the long-term risk of some non-communicable diseases.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/uso terapéutico , España/epidemiología
14.
Mycoses ; 64(11): 1334-1345, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934405

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) can be problematic in solid organ transplantation (SOT). The prognosis greatly varies according to the type of transplant, and the impact of prophylaxis is not well defined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Diaspersot cohort analyses the impact of IA in SOT in Spain during the last 10 years. Proven and probable/putative IA was included. RESULTS: We analysed 126 cases of IA. The incidences of IA were as follows: 6.5%, 2.9%, 1.8% and 0.6% for lung, heart, liver and kidney transplantation, respectively. EORTC/MSG criteria confirmed only 49.7% of episodes. Tree-in-bud sign or ground-glass infiltrates were present in 56.3% of patients, while serum galactomannan (optical density index >0.5) was positive in 50.6%. A total of 41.3% received combined antifungal therapy. Overall mortality at 3 months was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in lung transplant recipients (14.8%) than in all other transplants [globally: 48.6%; kidney 52.0%, liver 58.3%, heart 31.2%, and combined 42.9%]. Fifty-four percent of episodes occurred despite the receipt of antifungal prophylaxis, and in 10%, IA occurred during prophylaxis (breakthrough infection), with both nebulised amphotericin (in lung transplant recipients) and candins (in the rest). CONCLUSIONS: Invasive aspergillosis diagnostic criteria, applied to SOT patients, may differ from those established for haematological patients. IA in lung transplants has a higher incidence, but is associated with a better prognosis than other transplants. Combination therapy is frequently used for IA in SOT. Prophylactic measures require optimisation of its use within this population.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/terapia , Trasplante de Órganos , Adulto , Antifúngicos/efectos adversos , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Causalidad , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/epidemiología , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/etiología , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , España/epidemiología , Voriconazol/efectos adversos , Voriconazol/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
15.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 2021 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020808

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The PRODIGE 7-trial investigated the additional value of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) to cytoreductive surgery (CRS) for patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases (CPM). The results of PRODIGE 7 were presented at the 2018 ASCO meeting showing that 30 min oxaliplatin-based HIPEC did not improve overall survival. The current study investigated the impact of PRODIGE 7 on the worldwide practice of CRS and HIPEC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CRS-HIPEC experts from 19 countries were invited through the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) to complete an online survey concerning the current CRS-HIPEC practice in their hospital and country, and were asked to appraise the effect of PRODIGE 7. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 18/19 experts. Although their personal opinions of CRS-HIPEC were barely influenced by PRODIGE 7, they reported a substantial impact on daily practice. This included a switch towards Mitomycin-C based HIPEC-regimens and prolongation of HIPEC perfusion time, a reduction in the number of referrals from non-HIPEC centers, a reduction in national consensus, the removal of HIPEC from national guidelines, and a reduced reimbursement rate. CONCLUSION: The PRODIGE 7 has had a major impact on the practice of CRS-HIPEC for CPM worldwide. HIPEC remains an attractive option with potential for control and eradication of disease and further studies into the optimal HIPEC-regimen are urgently needed. Meanwhile, given the complexity of the treatment of patients with CPM, and the proven benefits of optimal CRS, referral of patients with potentially resectable CPM to expert centers is recommended whilst the precise role of HIPEC is further evaluated.

16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249864, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882093

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: With the purpose of reducing the well-known negative impact of late presentation (LP) on people living with HIV (PLWH), guidelines on early HIV diagnosis were published in 2014 in Spain, but since then no data on LP prevalence have been published. To estimate prevalence and risk factors of LP and to evaluate their impact on the development of clinical outcomes in the Cohort of the Spanish HIV/AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) during 2004-2018. METHODS: CoRIS is an open prospective multicenter cohort of PLWH, adults, naive to ART at entry. LP was defined as HIV diagnosis with CD4 count ≤350 cells/µL or an AIDS defining event (ADE). Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate both prevalence ratios (PR) for the association of potential risk factors with LP and Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for its impact on the development of the composite endpoint (first ADE, first serious non-AIDS event [SNAE] or overall mortality). RESULTS: 14,876 individuals were included. Overall, LP prevalence in 2004-2018 was 44.6%. Risk factors for LP included older age, having been infected through injection drug use or heterosexual intercourse, low educational level and originating from non-European countries. LP was associated with an increased risk of the composite endpoint (IRR: 1.34; 95%CI 1.20, 1.50), ADE (1.39; 1.18, 1.64), SNAE (1.22; 1.01, 1.47) and mortality (1.71; 1.41, 2.08). CONCLUSIONS: LP remains a health problem in Spain, mainly among certain populations, and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Public policies should be implemented to expand screening and early diagnosis of HIV infection, for a focus on those at greatest risk of LP.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios de Cohortes , Diagnóstico Tardío , Escolaridad , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/patología , Tasa de Supervivencia
17.
AIDS ; 35(8): 1283-1293, 2021 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813554

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of late presentation (CD4+ cell count <350 cells/µl or an AIDS-defining event) on effectiveness and safety of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to evaluate whether treatment response depends on first-line ART regimen in late presenters. DESIGN: ART-naive adults from the Cohort of the Spanish HIV/AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) starting triple ART between 2010 and 2018. METHODS: We used multivariable models to assess differences in viral suppression (viral load <50 copies/ml), immunological response (change in CD4+ cell count, CD4% (>29%) and CD4/CD8 normalization (>0.4 and >1) multiple T-cell marker recovery (MTMR): CD4+ cell count more than 500 cells/µl and CD4% >29% and CD4/CD8 >1), and treatment discontinuation due to adverse events (TDAE) at 48 weeks from ART initiation. RESULTS: Out of 8002 participants, 48.7% were late presenters. Of them, 45.8% initiated ART with a NNRTI- (mostly TDF/FTC/EFV), 33.9% with a protease inhibitor (mostly TDF/FTC+boosted DRV) and 20.3% with an INI-based regimen (mostly ABC/3TC/DTG). At 48 weeks, late presenters had similar viral suppression, but worse immunological response, than non-late presenters with no difference on TDAE. Late presenters initiating with NNRTI-based regimens were more likely to achieve viral suppression than those starting with INI-based, due to the higher chance of achieving viral suppression observed with TDF/FTC/RPV compared to ABC/3TC/DTG. Initial treatment with NNRTI or protease inhibitor based showed similar immunological response than the INI-based regimens, which showed lower rates of TDAE than NNRTI- and protease inhibitor based regimens. CONCLUSION: Despite safety and effectiveness of initial ART in terms of viral suppression, late presenters may not experience complete immunological response. In late presenters, effectiveness and safety depends on both the class and the specific first-line ART regimen.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento , Carga Viral
18.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921309

RESUMEN

The availability of highly sensitive molecular tests for the detection of Clostridioides difficile in feces leads to overtreatment of patients who are probably only colonized. In this prospective study, the usefulness of fecal calprotectin (fCP) is evaluated in a cohort of patients with detection of toxigenic C. difficile in feces. Patients were classified by an infectious diseases consultant blinded to fCP results into three groups-group I, presumed Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI); group II, doubtful but treated CDI; and group III, presumed C. difficile colonization or self-limited CDI not needing treatment. One hundred and thirty-four patients were included. The median fCP concentrations were 410 (138-815) µg/g in group I, 188 (57-524) µg/g in group II, and 51 (26-97) µg/g in group III (26 cases); p < 0.05 for all comparisons. In forty-five out of 134 cases (33.5%), the fCP concentrations were below 100 µg/g. In conclusion, fCP is low in most patients who do not need treatment against C. difficile, and should be investigated as a potentially useful test in the management of patients with detected toxigenic C. difficile.

20.
Oncogene ; 40(16): 2923-2935, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742126

RESUMEN

The survival rate in lung cancer remains stubbornly low and there is an urgent need for the identification of new therapeutic targets. In the last decade, several members of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes have been described altered in different tumor types. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms of their impact on cancer progression, as well as the application of this knowledge to cancer patient management are largely unknown. In this study, we performed targeted sequencing of a cohort of lung cancer patients on genes involved in chromatin structure. In addition, we studied at the protein level the expression of these genes in cancer samples and performed functional experiments to identify the molecular mechanisms linking alterations of chromatin remodeling genes and tumor development. Remarkably, we found that 20% of lung cancer patients show ARID2 protein loss, partially explained by the presence of ARID2 mutations. In addition, we showed that ARID2 deficiency provokes profound chromatin structural changes altering cell transcriptional programs, which bolsters the proliferative and metastatic potential of the cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated that ARID2 deficiency impairs DNA repair, enhancing the sensitivity of the cells to DNA-damaging agents. Our findings support that ARID2 is a bona fide tumor suppressor gene in lung cancer that may be exploited therapeutically.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/deficiencia , Células A549 , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Ratones , Ratones Desnudos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo
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