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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 178: 113604, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366546

RESUMEN

Alegranza is the most northerly island of the Canary Islands archipelago, the first obstacle crossed by the Canary Current. From July to October 2020, six expeditions were led to the island to make a first inventory of marine debris and its possible source and origin. In total, 3667 objects weighing 321 kg were removed, excluding wooden objects. Of these, 97.7% were plastics, the most abundant being drink bottles (25.4%). While knowing the origin, source and pathway of debris is difficult, legible labels provided valuable information. In Alegranza, 66.7% of the legible bottle labels indicated Asian countries of manufacture, which is evidence that the source is maritime traffic in the region. The lobster trap license labels from the east coast of the United States and Canada were dated from 1999 to 2018, supporting both the exogenous origin and long lifetime in the ocean of these debris.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Residuos , Asia , Canadá , Plásticos , Estados Unidos , Residuos/análisis
2.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329937

RESUMEN

Impulsive choice, measured by delay discounting (DD) tasks, has been shown in patients with gambling disorders (GD). However, the impact of DD and treatment outcome has been scarcely explored in GD patients. The aims of this study were: (1) to examine the baseline association between DD and clinical variables in GD patients depending on their age and gambling preferences (strategic vs. non-strategic); and (2) to estimate the predictive role of DD on poorer outcomes of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) when considering also the effect of other clinical variables. 133 treatment-seeking male GD patients were evaluated at baseline with a DD task and measures of GD severity, personality traits and psychopathology. Treatment outcome was measured in terms of dropout from CBT and relapses. Results showed baseline associations between DD and GD severity (correlation coefficient R = 0.408 among strategic gamblers and R = 0.279 among mixed gamblers) and between DD and positive/negative urgency (R = 0.330 for the youngest patients, R = 0.244 for middle age, and around R = 0.35 for gamblers who reported preferences for strategic games). Other personality traits such as high harm avoidance and low cooperativeness were also related to DD at baseline (R = 0.606 among strategic gamblers). Regarding treatment outcome, a steeper discount rate predicted a higher risk of relapses in strategic gamblers (odds ratio OR = 3.01) and middle-age ones (OR = 1.59), and a higher risk of dropout in younger gamblers (OR = 1.89), non-strategic gamblers (OR = 1.70) and mixed gamblers (R = 4.74). GD severity mediated the associations between age, DD, personality traits and poor CBT outcome. In conclusion, impulsive choice affects treatment response in individuals with GD and may interfere with it to a significant extent. Considering DD in GD, patients seeking treatment could help control its impact on treatment adherence and relapses.

3.
Environ Res ; 205: 112451, 2022 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848209

RESUMEN

Measurements of CO2 and counting of occupants were carried out in 37 public bus trips during commuting rush hours in Barcelona (NE Spain) with the aim of evaluating parameters governing ventilation inside the vehicles and proposing actions to improve it. The results show that CO2 concentrations (1039 and 934 ± 386 ppm, as average and median, during rush hours but with average reduced occupancy due to the fair to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the measurement period, and measured in the middle of the busses) are in the lower range of values recorded in the literature for public buses, however an improvement in ventilation is required in a significant proportion of the journeys. Thus, we found better ventilation in the older Euro 3+ (retrofitted with filter traps and selective catalytic reduction) and Euro 5 buses (average 918 ± 257 ppm) than in the hermetically closed new Euro 6 ones (1111 ± 432 ppm). The opening of the windows in the older buses yielded higher ventilation rates (778 ± 432 ppm). The opening of all doors at all stops increases the ventilation by causing a fall in concentrations of 200-350 ppm below inter-stop concentrations, with this effect typically lasting 40-50 s in the hermetically closed new Euro 6 hybrid buses. Based on these results a number of recommendations are offered in order to improve ventilation, including measurement of CO2 and occupancy, and installation of ventilation fans on the top of the hermetically closed new buses, introducing outdoor air when a given concentration threshold is exceeded. In these cases, a CO2 sensor installed in the outdoor air intake is also recommended to take into account external CO2 contributions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , COVID-19 , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Humanos , Vehículos a Motor , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportes , Ventilación
4.
Biomedicines ; 9(12)2021 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944723

RESUMEN

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. It is characterized by cognitive decline and progressive memory loss. The aim of this review was to update the state of knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic methods and therapeutic approach to AD. Currently, the amyloid cascade hypothesis remains the leading theory in the pathophysiology of AD. This hypothesis states that amyloid-ß (Aß) deposition triggers a chemical cascade of events leading to the development of AD dementia. The antemortem diagnosis of AD is still based on clinical parameters. Diagnostic procedures in AD include fluid-based biomarkers such as those present in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma or diagnostic imaging methods. Currently, the therapeutic armory available focuses on symptom control and is based on four pillars: pharmacological treatment where acetylcholinesterase inhibitors stand out; pharmacological treatment under investigation which includes drugs focused on the control of Aß pathology and tau hyperphosphorylation; treatment focusing on risk factors such as diabetes; or nonpharmacological treatments aimed at preventing development of the disease or treating symptoms through occupational therapy or psychological help. AD remains a largely unknown disease. Further research is needed to identify new biomarkers and therapies that can prevent progression of the pathology.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149486, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391157

RESUMEN

This study evaluates geochemical and oxidative potential (OP) properties of the respirable (finer than 4 µm) fractions of 22 powdered coal samples from channel profiles (CP4) in Chinese mined coals. The CP4 fractions extracted from milled samples of 22 different coals were mineralogically and geochemically analysed and the relationships with the OP evaluated. The evaluation between CP4/CP demonstrated that CP4 increased concentrations of anatase, Cs, W, Zn and Zr, whereas sulphates, Fe, S, Mo, Mn, Hf and Ge decreased their CP4 concentrations. OP results from ascorbic acid (AA), glutathione (GSH) and dithiothreitol (DTT) tests evidenced a clear link between specific inorganic components of CP4 with OPAA and the organic fraction of OPGSH and OPDTT. Correlation analyses were performed for OP indicators and the geochemical patterns of CP4. These were compared with respirable dust samples from prior studies. They indicate that Fe (r = 0.83), pyrite (r = 0.66) and sulphate minerals (r = 0.42) (tracing acidic species from pyrite oxidation), followed by S (r = 0.50) and ash yield (r = 0.46), and, to a much lesser extent, Ti, anatase, U, Mo, V and Pb, are clearly linked with OPAA. Moreover, OPGSH correlation was identified by organic matter, as moisture (r = 0.73), Na (r = 0.56) and B (r = 0.51), and to a lesser extent by the coarse particle size, Ca and carbonate minerals. In addition, Mg (r = 0.70), B (r = 0.47), Na (r = 0.59), Mn, Ba, quartz, particle size and Sr regulate OPDTT correlations. These became more noticeable when the analysis was done for samples of the same type of coal rank, in this case, bituminous.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Mineral , Polvo , China , Carbón Mineral/análisis , Polvo/análisis , Estrés Oxidativo , Polvos
6.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107086, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450349

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gaming Disorder (GD) is characterized by a pattern of persistent and uncontrolled gaming behavior that causes a marked impairment in important areas of functioning. The evolution of the worldwide incidence of this disorder warrants further studies focused on examining the existence of different subtypes within clinical samples, in order to tailor treatment. This study explored the existence of different profiles of patients seeking treatment for GD through a data-driven approach. METHODS: The sample included n = 107 patients receiving treatment for GD (92% men and 8% women) ranging between 14 and 60 years old (mean age = 24.1, SD = 10). A two-step clustering analysis approach explored the existence of different underlying GD profiles based on a broad set of indicators, including sociodemographic features, clinical course of the condition (e.g., onset or evolution), psychopathological symptoms, and personality traits. RESULTS: Two GD profiles emerged. The first cluster grouped together patients who presented with a lower psychological impact (n = 72, 66.1%), whereas the second cluster comprised patients with a higher psychological impact (n = 35, 32.7%). Cluster comparisons revealed that those patients presenting the higher impact were older, with a later onset of pathological gaming patterns, and more pronounced psychopathological symptoms and dysfunctional personality profiles. CONCLUSIONS: GD severity is influenced by specific demographic, clinical, and psychopathological factors. The identification of two separate profiles provides empirical evidence that contributes to the conceptualization of this disorder, as well as to the development of reliable and valid screening tools and effective intervention plans focused on the precise characteristics of the treatment-seeking patients.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva , Trastornos Disruptivos, del Control de Impulso y de la Conducta , Adolescente , Adulto , Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , Análisis por Conglomerados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personalidad , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Adulto Joven
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146380, 2021 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030280

RESUMEN

We offer an overview of the COVID-19 -driven air quality changes across 11 metropolises in Spain with the focus on lessons learned on how continuing abating pollution. Traffic flow decreased by up to 80% during the lockdown and remained relatively low during the full relaxation (June and July). After the lockdown a significant shift from public transport to private vehicles (+21% in Barcelona) persisted due to the pervasive fear that using public transport might increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which need to be reverted as soon as possible. NO2 levels fell below 50% of the WHO annual air quality guidelines (WHOAQGs), but those of PM2.5 were reduced less than expected due to the lower contributions from traffic, increased contributions from agricultural and domestic biomass burning, or meteorological conditions favoring high secondary aerosol formation yields. Even during the lockdown, the annual PM2.5 WHOAQG was exceeded in cities within the NE and E regions with high NH3 emissions from farming and agriculture. Decreases in PM10 levels were greater than in PM2.5 due to reduced emissions from road dust, vehicle wear, and construction/demolition. Averaged O3 daily maximum 8-h (8hDM) experienced a generalized decrease in the rural receptor sites in the relaxation (June-July) with -20% reduced mobility. For urban areas O3 8hDM responses were heterogeneous, with increases or decreases depending on the period and location. Thus, after canceling out the effect of meteorology, 5 out of 11 cities experienced O3 decreases during the lockdown, while the remaining 6 either did not experience relevant reductions or increased. During the relaxation period and coinciding with the growing O3 season (June-July), most cities experienced decreases. However, the O3 WHOAQG was still exceeded during the lockdown and full relaxation periods in several cities. For secondary pollutants, such as O3 and PM2.5, further chemical and dispersion modeling along with source apportionment techniques to identify major precursor reduction targets are required to evaluate their abatement potential.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ciudades , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , SARS-CoV-2 , España
8.
J Behav Addict ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683220

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sports betting has been barely explored independently from other gambling behaviors. Little evidence is available regarding the factors affecting its severity in a clinical sample. The current study explores new determinants for sports betting severity in Spain by the inclusion of psychopathological distress and personality factors. METHODS: A sample of 352 Spanish sports bettors undergoing treatment for gambling disorder was recruited. Multiple regression models were used to evaluate the effects of sociodemographic variables, the age of onset of gambling behavior, the global psychopathological distress (SCL-90R GSI) and the personality profile (TCI-R) on sports betting severity and their influence over frequency (bets per episode) and debts due to gambling. RESULTS: We found that older age, higher psychopathological distress, lower self-directedness level, and higher novelty seeking level were predictors of gambling severity in Spanish sports bettors. The highest betting frequency was found in men, with the lowest education levels but the highest social status, the highest psychopathological distress, reward dependence score, and self-transcendence trait and the lowest persistence score. Debts were also associated to higher score in cooperativeness as well as older age. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our findings call for further exploration of factors affecting sports betting severity regarded as a separate gambling entity subtype, as some of the traditional factors typically found in gamblers do not apply to sports bettors or apply inversely in our country. Consequently, sports bettors might deserve specific clinical approaches to tackle the singularities of their gambling behavior.

9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 621953, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746839

RESUMEN

Background: Serious games have shown positive results in increasing motivation, adherence to treatment and strengthening the therapeutic alliance in multiple psychiatric disorders. In particular, patients with impulse control disorders and other disorders in which the patient suffers from inhibitory control deficits (e.g., behavioral addictions) have been shown to benefit from serious games. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and to evaluate the usability of a new serious videogame, e-Estesia. This serious videogame was designed to improve emotion regulation in patients with gambling disorder (GD). Preliminary results from a pilot sample are also reported. Method: A pilot sample of 26 patients undergoing treatment for GD was recruited (ranging from 22 to 74 years, mean = 41.2 and SD = 12.9; 80.8% men). Participants used e-Estesia on a tablet, which was connected to a thoracic band that sent heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) data to the videogame platform in order to provide biofeedback. The System Usability Scale was completed by patients to determine the usability of e-Estesia. Results and Discussion: e-Estesia performed comparatively well for all the explored groups (i.e., sex, age, and online vs. offline gambling: mean usability score = 83.8, SD = 13.1). Around 84.6% of the patients endorsed that it was easy to use. Female patients with GD presented higher HRV during the use of the serious videogame compared to men.

10.
Addict Behav ; 116: 106813, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453584

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gambling Disorder (GD) is considered a heterogeneous, multidimensional pathology with high personal and social consequences. The transition time (TT) between problematic gaming and pathological gambling, which varies significantly across patients, may predict the disorder's severity. As only limited studies have investigated the factors implicated in the TT, the current study set out to identify its predictors and their relationships with GD severity. METHODS: Correlation were performed in 725 male GD patients to identify factors associated to TT and GD severity, including: age of onset of gambling behaviors, alcohol/drug use, personality traits and gambling preferences (i.e., strategic, non-strategic, and mixed). Then a regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of TT to GD. RESULTS: Longer TT correlated with higher GD severity, early age of onset of problematic gambling, substance use and a non-strategic gambling preference. Personality traits including low self-directedness, high novelty seeking, and low cooperativeness were also related with longer TT. The strongest associations with GD severity were substance use, and some of the personality traits (i.e., low self-directedness and cooperativeness, high harm avoidance and self-transcendence). Factors significantly predicting longer transition to GD were older ages, low self-directedness, and non-strategic gambling. CONCLUSIONS: A clinical profile characterized by a longer TT and more severe GD symptoms pertains to older patients with low self-directedness, and preference for non-strategic gambling. Other relevant factors associated with this profile of patients included early age of onset problematic gambling, substance consumption, high novelty seeking and low cooperativeness.


Asunto(s)
Juego de Azar , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Anciano , Juego de Azar/epidemiología , Reducción del Daño , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personalidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
J Gambl Stud ; 37(2): 643-661, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809101

RESUMEN

Gambling motives and cognitive distortions are thought to be associated because both coping and financial motives to gamble appear to be predictors of gambling related cognitive distortions. Therefore, there is an argument to be made that gambling motives, cognitive distortions, and materialism share common attributes and might be related to problem gambling severity. The present paper aims to examine the relationship between these three variables, both in a clinical and community setting, to see if they can predict gambling severity. A sample of 250 participants from the general population and 31 participants from the clinical population was recruited. The results showed that the clinical sample scored higher on gambling severity, cognitive distortions, materialism, and gambling motives. It also showed that low scores in enhancement motives and higher scores in social motives and gambling related cognitions predicted gambling severity in older gamblers, whereas for younger patients, gambling severity was best predicted by higher scores in materialism and coping motives, and lower scores for enhancement and social motives. In the community sample, gambling severity correlated with gambling related cognitive distortions and with gambling motives (except for social and coping motives within the women subsample). These results testify to the importance of materialism, cognitive distortions, and gambling motives as risk factors for problem gambling both in community and clinical samples.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Juego de Azar/psicología , Psicología del Adolescente , Recompensa , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Cognición , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Factores de Riesgo , Autocontrol/psicología , Adulto Joven
12.
J Atten Disord ; 25(9): 1230-1239, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884864

RESUMEN

Objectives: Although emotion regulation deficits have been implicated in gambling disorder and ADHD, the interplay between these factors has yet to be systematically studied. We examined relationships between ADHD symptoms, emotion regulation, and gambling disorder severity in a sample of treatment-seeking gambling disorder patients (n = 98). We also examined clinical differences between patients with and without ADHD symptomatology. Method: Structural equation modeling (SEM) evaluated direct and indirect effects of ADHD and emotion regulation on gambling disorder severity. Results: Significant correlations between ADHD symptomatology and emotion regulation and between emotion regulation and gambling disorder severity were identified. Differences in emotion regulation were found between gambling disorder patients with and without ADHD symptomatology. Path analysis revealed emotion regulation to be a mediator between ADHD and gambling disorder. Conclusion: Our findings indicate the presence of ADHD symptomatology to be associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and greater emotional dysregulation.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Regulación Emocional , Juego de Azar , Emociones , Humanos
13.
J Gambl Stud ; 37(2): 483-495, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436155

RESUMEN

People with gambling disorder (GD) exhibit distorted cognitions and superstitious beliefs more often than the general population. Similarly, difficulties in coping and emotion dysregulation are more prevalent among those with GD, and could determine the onset of GD in particularly vulnerable groups such as adolescents. This study examines the relationship between gambling severity and gambling-related cognitions with coping strategies and emotion regulation. Also, it explores how accurately gambling severity and gambling-related cognitions were able to predict emotion regulation and coping strategies. Two groups were recruited and analyzed: a community sample comprising 250 adolescents and young adults from secondary education schools, and a clinical sample of 31 patients with similar age characteristics seeking treatment for GD. The participants from the clinical sample scored higher on gambling severity, emotion dysregulation, cognitive biases, and maladaptive coping strategies. In the community sample, cognitive biases mediated the relationship between sex and emotion dysregulation and disengagement. People with GD use more often than controls maladaptive emotion regulation strategies to manage negative emotional states. This perspective emphasizes the need to focus on coping with emotions, as opposed to coping with problems, as the best approach to tackle gambling problems.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Cognición/fisiología , Regulación Emocional , Juego de Azar/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Emociones , Humanos , Masculino , Autocontrol/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
J Gambl Stud ; 37(2): 467-481, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253655

RESUMEN

Behavioral addictions have been related with biased emotional reactions to risky choices. However, few studies have analyzed the role of both explicit and implicit emotional expression in gambling disorder (GD). This pilot study aims to examine emotion regulation in treatment-seeking patients with GD. The sample included n = 35 participants classified into three groups: patients with current GD, patients with GD in remission, and a control group without GD. Implicit emotional expressions were evaluated through a serious videogame (Playmancer) and explicit emotions were measured through self-reports. Patients in the current GD group had, compared to the remission and control groups, lower levels of implicit emotion expression and higher levels of explicit emotion expression. The patients in GD remission group endorsed better emotion regulation capacity in comparison to patients with current GD. We conclude that differences in emotion expression profiles (such as anger and anxiety) should be considered both in the development of screening and diagnostic measures and in the planning of prevention and treatment programs.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Juego de Azar/psicología , Autocontrol/psicología , Juegos de Video/psicología , Adulto , Ira , Ansiedad/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Addict Behav ; 113: 106684, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080543

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The commission of illegal acts has been associated with gambling disorder (GD). However, little is known about young adults with GD who commit GD-related crimes. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to compare sociodemographic, clinical, personality and psychopathological features among young adults with GD with and without a history of illegal behaviors. Our second aim was to analyze the specific associations between these factors through a path analysis. METHODS: A total of 808 treatment-seeking young adults who met criteria for GD were assessed at a public hospital unit specialized in behavioral addictions. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires to explore GD, personality traits, and psychopathological symptomatology. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 291 patients (36.0%) had committed GD-related offences. Illegal acts were related to younger age and unemployment status. Greater levels of psychopathology, as well as earlier GD onset, longer GD duration and greater GD severity were also associated with the presence of criminal behaviors. Differences in personality traits were also found between these two groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The GD group with a history of illegal acts showed dysfunctional personality traits and higher levels of psychopathology. Therefore, specific GD treatments and harm reduction interventions should be designed for these patients.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva , Juego de Azar , Adolescente , Conducta Criminal , Juego de Azar/epidemiología , Humanos , Personalidad , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Adulto Joven
16.
Environ Int ; 147: 106326, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340987

RESUMEN

Given the widespread concern but general lack of information over the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection in public transport, key issues such as passenger personal hygiene, efficient air circulation systems, and the effective disinfection of frequently touched surfaces need to be evaluated to educate the public and diminish the risk of viral transmission as we learn to live with the ongoing pandemic. In this context we report on a study involving the collection of 99 samples taken from inside Barcelona buses and subway trains in May to July 2020. From this sample group 82 (58 surface swabs, 9 air conditioning (a/c) filters, 3 a/c dust, 12 ambient air) were selected to be analysed by RT-PCR for traces of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Thirty of these selected samples showed evidence for one or more of 3 target RNA gene regions specific for this virus (IP2, IP4, E). Most (24) of these 30 samples showed positivity for only 1 of the 3 RNA targets, 4 samples yielded 2 targets, and 2 samples provided evidence for all 3 targets. RNA remnants were more common in surface swabs from support bars (23 out of 58) than in ambient air inside the vehicles (3 out of 12), with relatively higher concentrations of viral RNA fragments in buses rather than in trains. Whereas subway train a/c filters examined were all virus-free, 4 of the 9 bus a/c filter/dust samples yielded evidence for viral RNA. After nocturnal maintenance and cleaning most buses initially yielding positive results subsequently showed elimination of the RT-PCR signal, although signs of viral RNA remained in 4 of 13 initially positive samples. The presence of such remnant viral traces however does not demonstrate infectivity, which in the present study is considered unlikely given the fragmentary nature of the gene targets detected. Nevertheless, best practice demands that close attention to ventilation systems and regular vehicle disinfection in public transport worldwide need to be rigorously applied to be effective at eliminating traces of the virus throughout the vehicle, especially at times when COVID-19 cases are peaking. Additionally, infectivity tests should be implemented to evaluate the efficiency of disinfection procedures to complement the information resulting from RT-PCR analysis. Modelling the probability of infection whilst travelling in buses under different scenarios indicates that forced ventilation greatly reduces the risk.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vías Férreas , Humanos , Vehículos a Motor , Pandemias , ARN Viral , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Acupunct Med ; 39(5): 441-451, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280397

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical pain is a problem with a high prevalence of ~13% of the population, and is more common in women (16.5%). The most affected age group is 65-74 years. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of self-applied acupressure for decreasing benign-origin cervical pain, under the supervision of a health professional and in combination with usual treatment, as well as to examine its impact on the patient's self-perceived health condition and their opinion of the technique. METHODS: Pragmatic, multicenter, controlled clinical trial randomized by healthcare center. A total of 160 patients with benign-origin cervical pain between 18 and 65 years of age who attended primary care were included from 12 healthcare centers in the autonomous community of Madrid by consecutive sampling, and randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. The main outcome variable was pain intensity measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and secondary variables were self-perceived quality of life (EuroQol-5D utility index) and functional ability (neck disability index). An explanative model of generalized estimating equations was built taking into account the lack of independence among observations. The analysis was performed over 6 months. RESULTS: In total, 150 patients completed the study. Mean age was 45 years (SD: 10.7), 86.7% were women, 86.2% were currently employed, and 57.9% did not perform any physical exercise. Average days experiencing pain was 32.9 (SD: 2.8) and 80% were undergoing previous pharmacological treatment. The quality of life utility index after 3 months was 1.6 points (95% CI: 0.54-2.71) higher in the intervention group. The pain score on the VAS was 0.16 points (95% CI: 0.80-0.48) lower in the intervention group. The health professional explained 10.4% of the reduction in pain observed on the VAS throughout the medical visits. CONCLUSION: Acupressure applied in addition to usual practice appeared to improve cervical pain in the long term. The effectiveness of this technique was partially explained by the health professional that trained the participants on technique application. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:: NCT01855893.


Asunto(s)
Acupresión , Dolor de Cuello/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18722, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127941

RESUMEN

Significant increasing prevalences have been observed in gambling disorder (GD) in the last decades. This study analyzed the underlying mechanisms of the gambling severity with path analysis (implemented through Structural Equation Modeling, SEM), and assessed the potential moderator effect of the patients' sex. A sample of n = 512 treatment-seeking patients was assessed for sociodemographics and clinical state previously to the treatment. Results obtained in two separate SEM (for men and women) revealed differences in the direct effects and the mediational links. Among the male subsample, higher GD severity was directly related to the higher cognitive bias and the younger age of onset of the problematic gambling, while impulsivity levels and age of onset achieved an indirect effect on the disordered gambling mediated by the cognitive bias. Among females, GD severity was directly increased by younger age of onset, higher cognitive bias and lower self-directedness, while lower socioeconomic positions, and higher levels in harm avoidance achieved an indirect effect on the gambling severity mediated also by the distortions related to the gambling activity. These results provide new empirical evidence for a better understanding of the GD etiology, suggesting that the underlying complex links mediating the GD severity are strongly related to the patients' sex. The results can also contribute to design more effectiveness and precise therapy programs of patient-centered care.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Juego de Azar/epidemiología , Juego de Azar/psicología , Factores Sexuales , Adulto , Cognición , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Masculino , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Personalidad , Prevalencia , Recurrencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Environ Res ; 191: 109978, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827521

RESUMEN

Portable miniaturised scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) instruments measuring atmospheric particles within the 10-241 nm size range were used to track particle number size distributions and concentrations during near-simultaneous pedestrian, bicycle, bus, car, tram and subway commuting journeys in Barcelona, Spain on 4th-6th July 2018. The majority of particles in this size range were <100 nm, with k-means cluster analysis identifying peaks at 15-22 nm, 30-40 nm, and 45-75 nm. Around 10-25% of the particles measured however were >100 nm (especially in the subway environment) and so lie outside the commonly defined range of "ultrafine" particles (UFP, or <100 nm particles). The study demonstrated in detail how personal exposure to quasi-UFP (QUFP, <241 nm), most of which present in the city streets are produced by road traffic, varies greatly depending on the transport mode and route chosen. Proximity to fresh traffic exhaust sources, such as in a car with open windows, on-road cycling, walking downwind of busy roads, or in a subway station contaminated by roadside air, enhances commuter exposure to particles <30 nm in size. In contrast, travelling inside air-conditioned bus or tram offers greater protection to the commuter from high concentrations of fresh exhaust. Ultrafine number size distributions in traffic-contaminated city air typically peak in the size range 30-70 nm, but they can be shifted to finer sizes not only by increased content of fresh proximal exhaust emissions but also by bursts of new particle formation (NPF) events in the city. One such afternoon photochemical nucleation NPF event was identified during our Barcelona study and recognised in different transport modes, including underground in the subway system. The integration of static urban background air monitoring station information with particle number concentration and size distribution data obtained from portable miniaturised SMPS instruments during commuting journeys opens new approaches to investigating city air quality by offering a level of detail not previously available.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , España , Transportes , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
20.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; 24(4): 407-415, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643498

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The comorbidity between gambling disorder (GD) and buying-shopping disorder (BSD) has led to explore the core features that could be interacting between them. The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in both conditions considering emotion dysregulation, coping and materialism, as well as the relationship between these variables and their interaction with age and sex. METHODS: A community sample (n = 281 adolescents) and a sample of individuals with GD (n = 31) was compared. Both samples were split into a group with BSD and a group without it. RESULTS: The prevalence of participants who met the criteria for BSD was higher in the GD sample than in the community sample; the GD sample also presented higher values in the psychological variables studied. In the community sample group, positive associations were found between BSD severity and materialism and emotion dysregulation levels. In the GD sample, BSD severity was higher for participants who reported higher levels in materialism and lower scores in coping strategies. Variables impacted BSD severity differently according to sex and age covariates. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the interaction of the variables could be useful to design prevention and treatment approaches addressed to specific groups of age and sex. KEY POINTS Buying-shopping disorder (BSD) has been compared in clinical and community samples. The clinical sample was constituted by Gambling disorder (GD) patients. The variables emotion dysregulation, coping and materialism have been considered. Variables impacted BSD severity differently according to sex and age covariates.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica/fisiología , Síntomas Afectivos/fisiopatología , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Trastornos Disruptivos, del Control de Impulso y de la Conducta/fisiopatología , Regulación Emocional/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Actitud , Femenino , Juego de Azar/fisiopatología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
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