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1.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734370

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Whether routinely prescribed opioids are necessary for pain control after discharge among lumpectomy/sentinel node biopsy (Lump/SLNB) patients is unclear. We hypothesize that Lump/SLNB patients could be discharged without opioids, with a failure rate < 10%. This study prospectively examines outcomes after changing standard discharge prescription from an opioid/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to NSAID/acetaminophen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Standard discharge pain medication orders included opioids in the first 3-month study period and were changed to NSAID/acetaminophen in the second 3-month period. Patient-reported medication consumption and pain scores were collected by post-discharge survey. Frequency of discharge with opioid, NSAID/acetaminophen failure rate, opioid use, and pain scores were examined. RESULTS: From May to October 2019, 663 patients had Lump/SLNB: 371 in the opioid study period and 292 in the NSAID period. In the opioid period, 92% (342/371) of patients were prescribed an opioid at discharge; of 142 patients who documented opioid use on the survey, 86 (61%) used zero tablets. Among 56 (39%) patients who used opioids, the median number taken by POD 5 was 4. After the change to NSAID/acetaminophen, rates of opioid prescription decreased to 14% (41/292). The NSAID/acetaminophen failure rate was 2% (5/251). Among survey respondents, there was no significant difference in the maximum reported pain scores (POD 1-5) between the opioid period and the NSAID period (p = 0.7). CONCLUSIONS: In Lump/SLNB patients, a change to default discharge with NSAID/acetaminophen resulted in a 78% absolute reduction in opioid prescription, with a failure rate of 2% and no difference in patient-reported pain scores. Most Lump/SLNB patients can be discharged with NSAID/acetaminophen.

3.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694446

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to estimate the incidence and incidence rate of breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) at a high-volume single institution, which enables vigorous long-term follow-up and implant tracking for more accurate estimates. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The reported incidence of BIA-ALCL is highly variable, ranging from 1 in 355 to 1 in 30,000 patients, demonstrating a need for more accurate estimates. METHODS: All patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction from 1991 to 2017 were retrospectively identified. The incidence and incidence rate of BIA-ALCL were estimated per patient and per implant. A time-to-event analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and life table. RESULTS: During the 26-year study period, 9373 patients underwent reconstruction with 16,065 implants, of which 9589 (59.7%) were textured. Eleven patients were diagnosed with BIA-ALCL, all of whom had a history of textured implants. The overall incidence of BIA-ALCL was 1.79 per 1000 patients (1 in 559) with textured implants and 1.15 per 1000 textured implants (1 in 871), with a median time to diagnosis of 10.3 years (range, 6.4-15.5 yrs). Time-to-event analysis demonstrated a BIA-ALCL cumulative incidence of 0 at up to 6 years, increasing to 4.4 per 1000 patients at 10 to 12 years and 9.4 per 1000 patients at 14 to 16 years, although a sensitivity analysis showed loss to follow-up may have skewed these estimates. CONCLUSIONS: BIA-ALCL incidence and incidence rates may be higher than previous epidemiological estimates, with incidence increasing over time, particularly in patients exposed to textured implants for longer than 10 years.

4.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488512

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial demonstrated the safety of omitting axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in T1-T2cN0 patients with fewer than three positive sentinel nodes (SLNs) undergoing breast-conservation therapy. While microscopic extracapsular extension (mECE) > 2 mm is associated with increased nodal burden, the significance of extranodal tumor deposits (ETDs) in the axillary fat is uncertain. METHODS: Consecutive patients with T1-T2cN0 breast cancer undergoing sentinel node biopsy and ALND for SLN metastases from January 2010 to December 2018 were identified. ETDs were defined as intravascular tumor emboli or metastatic deposits in the axillary fat. Clinicopathologic characteristics and nodal burden were compared by ETD status. RESULTS: Among 1114 patients, 113 (10%) had ETDs: 81 (72%) were intravascular tumor emboli and 32 (28%) were soft tissue deposits. Patients with ETDs had larger tumors (median 2.2 vs. 2.1 cm; p = 0.033) and more often had mECE (83% vs. 44%; p < 0.001). On univariable analysis, presence of ETDs (odds ratio [OR] 9.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.36-14.68), larger tumors (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.25-1.72), and mECE (OR 10.73, 95% CI 6.86-16.78) were associated with four or more additional positive non-SLNs (NSLNs; all p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, ETDs remained associated with four or more positive NSLNs (OR 5.67, 95% CI 3.53-9.08; p < 0.001). ETDs were strongly associated with four or more positive NSLNs (OR 7.15, 95% CI 4.04-12.67) among patients with one to two positive SLNs (n = 925). CONCLUSIONS: Among T1-T2cN0 patients with SLN metastases, ETDs are strongly associated with four or more positive NSLNs at ALND. Even among those who may otherwise meet the criteria for omission of ALND, the presence of ETDs in axillary fat warrants consideration of ALND.

5.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488513

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) can be avoided in node-positive patients who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) if three or more negative sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are retrieved. We evaluate how often node-positive patients avoid ALND with NAC, and identify predictors of identification of three or more SLNs and of nodal pathological complete response (pCR). METHODS: From November 2013 to July 2019, all patients with cT1-3, biopsy-proven N1 tumors who converted to cN0 after NAC received SLN biopsy (SLNB) with dual mapping and were identified from a prospectively maintained database. RESULTS: 630 consecutive N1 patients were eligible for axillary downstaging with NAC; 573 (91%) converted to cN0 and had SLNB, and 531 patients (93%) had three or more SLNs identified. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI; odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-0.87; p = 0.02) and increasing body mass index (BMI; OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.96 per 5-unit increase; p = 0.02) were significantly associated with failure to identify three or more SLNs. 255/573 (46%) patients achieved nodal pCR; 237 (41%) had adequate mapping. Factors associated with ALND avoidance included high grade (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.6-3.94, p = 0.001) and receptor status (HR+/HER2- [referent]: OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.15-3.46 [p = 0.01] for HR-/HER2-, OR 3.93, 95% CI 2.40-6.44 [p < 0.001] for HR+/HER2+, and OR 8.24, 95% CI 4.16-16.3 [p < 0.001] for HR-/HER2+). LVI was associated with a lower likelihood of avoiding ALND (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18-0.43; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ALND was avoided in 41% of cN1 patients after NAC. Increased BMI and LVI were associated with lower retrieval rates of three or more SLNs. ALND avoidance rates varied with receptor status, grade, and LVI. These factors help select patients most likely to avoid ALND.

6.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588263

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Opioid analgesics are overprescribed after surgery. In August 2018, the authors replaced routine discharge opioid prescription with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for patients who had a lumpectomy or excisional biopsy (lump/ex). This study compared patient-reported post-discharge pain scores for patients treated before and after the change in routine discharge medication. METHODS: Patients were categorized based on treatment before and after a change in discharge medication as follows: study period 1 (routine opioids), study period 2 (routine NSAID). Pain severity was assessed with an electronic survey on postoperative days (PODs) 1 to 5. Multivariable generalized estimating equations tested the association between pain severity and discharge in the first versus the second study period. RESULTS: Lump/ex was performed for 1606 patients between December 2017 and June 2019. Of these patients, 789 (49%) reported pain scores and were analyzed (328 in study period 1, 461 in study period 2). Opioid prescription at discharge decreased from 96% in period 1 to 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11-18%) in period 2. Only 1% of the patients discharged with NSAID were later prescribed an opioid. The maximum reported pain score on any POD for all the patients was severe for 30 patients (3.8%), moderate for 217 patients (28%), mild for 430 patients (54%), and none for 112 patients (14%). The estimated risk for moderate or greater pain on POD 1 was 36% for period 1 and 34% for period 2. The proportion of patients reporting moderate or greater pain was nonsignificantly lower for the patients treated in period 2 (odds ratio [OR], 0.91; 95% CI 0.67-1.22; P = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: For patients undergoing lump/ex, a clinically meaningful difference in reported post-discharge pain scores can be excluded with a change to routine NSAID at discharge. Patients undergoing lump/ex should not be routinely discharged with opioids.

7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514804

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has been proven to increase breast-conserving surgery (BCS) rates, but data are limited on conversion rates from BCS-ineligible (BCSi) to BCS-eligible (BCSe), specifically, in patients with large tumors. METHODS: Consecutive patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated with NAC from November 2013 to March 2019 were identified. BCS eligibility before and after NAC was prospectively determined. Patients deemed BCSi before NAC due to large tumor size were studied. Statistical analyses were conducted using Student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, Chi-square test, Fisher's test, and logistic regression. RESULTS: In this study, 600 of 1353 cancers were BCSi with large tumors; 69% were non-BCS candidates, 31% were borderline-BCS (bBCS) candidates. Of non-BCS candidates, 69% became BCSe after NAC; 66% chose BCS, and 90% were successful. Among bBCS candidates, 87% were BCSe after NAC, 73% chose BCS, and 96% were successful. On univariate analysis, bBCS candidacy, lower cT stage, cN0 status, absence of calcifications, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+)/triple negative (TN) receptor status, poor differentiation, ductal histology, and breast pCR were associated with conversion to BCS eligibility. On multivariable analysis, receptor status (hormone receptor positive [HR+]/HER2- ref; odds ratio [OR] HER2+ 1.63, P = 0.047; HR-/HER2- OR, 2.26, P = 0.003) and breast pCR (OR 2.62, P < 0.001) predicted successful downstaging, while larger clinical tumor size (OR 0.86, P = 0.003), non-BCS candidacy (OR 0.46, P = 0.003), cN+ status (OR 0.54, P = 0.008), and calcifications (OR 0.56, P = 0.007) predicted lower downstaging rates. CONCLUSION: In patients with large tumors precluding BCS, conversion to BCS eligibility was high with NAC, particularly in bBCS candidates. HER2+/TN receptor status predicted successful downstaging, while lower downstaging rates were observed with larger tumors, cN+ status, and calcifications. These factors should be considered when selecting patients for NAC.

9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500343

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Historically, more than one-third of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) underwent additional surgery. The SSO-ASTRO guidelines advise 2 mm margins for patients with DCIS having BCS and whole-breast radiation (WBRT). Here we examine guideline impact on additional surgery and factors associated with re-excision. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients treated with BCS for pure DCIS from August 2015 to January 2018 were identified. Guidelines were adopted on September 1, 2016, and all patients had separately submitted cavity-shave margins. Clinicopathologic characteristics, margin status, and rates of additional surgery were examined. RESULTS: Among 650 patients with DCIS who attempted BCS, 50 (8%) converted to mastectomy. Of 600 who had BCS as final surgery, 336 (56%) received WBRT and comprised our study group. One hundred twenty-eight (38%) were treated pre-guideline and 208 (62%) were treated post-guideline. Characteristics and margin status were similar between groups. The re-excision rate was 38% pre-guideline adoption and 29% post-guideline adoption (p = 0.09), with 91% having only one re-excision. Re-excision for ≥ 2 mm margins was uncommon (6% pre-guideline vs. 5% post-guideline). On multivariate analysis, younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94-0.99, p = 0.02) and larger DCIS size (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.2-1.8, p < 0.001) were predictive of re-excision; guideline era was not. Younger age (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.9-0.97, p < 0.001) and larger size (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.3-2.1, p < 0.001) were predictive of conversion to mastectomy, but residual tumor burden was low. CONCLUSIONS: The SSO-ASTRO guidelines did not significantly change re-excision rates for DCIS in our practice, likely since re-excision for margins ≥ 2 mm was uncommon even prior to guideline adoption, dissimilar to historically observed variations in surgeon practices. Younger age and larger DCIS size were associated with additional surgery.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(20): 2281-2289, 2020 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442069
13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 865-876, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221191

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Within the multidisciplinary management of breast cancer, variations exist in the reconstructive options offered and care provided. The authors evaluated plastic surgeon perspectives on important issues related to breast cancer management and reconstruction and provide some insight into factors that influence these perspectives. METHODS: Women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer (stages 0 to II) between July of 2013 and September of 2014 were identified through the Georgia and Los Angeles Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. These women were surveyed and identified their treating plastic surgeons. Surveys were sent to the identified plastic surgeons to collect data on specific reconstruction practices. RESULTS: Responses from 134 plastic surgeons (74.4 percent response rate) were received. Immediate reconstruction (79.7 percent) was the most common approach to timing, and expander/implant reconstruction (72.6 percent) was the most common technique reported. Nearly one-third of respondents (32.1 percent) reported that reimbursement influenced the proportion of autologous reconstructions performed. Most (82.8 percent) reported that discussions about contralateral prophylactic mastectomy were initiated by patients. Most surgeons (81.3 to 84.3 percent) felt that good symmetry is achieved with unilateral autologous reconstruction with contralateral symmetry procedures in patients with small or large breasts; a less pronounced majority (62.7 percent) favored unilateral implant reconstructions in patients with large breasts. In patients requiring postmastectomy radiation therapy, one-fourth of the surgeons (27.6 percent) reported that they seldom recommend delayed reconstruction, and 64.9 percent reported recommending immediate expander/implant reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Reconstructive practices in a modern cohort of plastic surgeons suggest that immediate and implant reconstructions are performed preferentially. Respondents perceived a number of factors, including surgeon training, time spent in the operating room, and insurance reimbursement, to negatively influence the performance of autologous reconstruction.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Mamoplastia/estadística & datos numéricos , Mastectomía/efectos adversos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Implantes de Mama/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Georgia , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Los Angeles , Mamoplastia/economía , Mamoplastia/instrumentación , Mamoplastia/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mastectomía Profiláctica/estadística & datos numéricos , Programa de VERF/estadística & datos numéricos , Cirujanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos/economía , Colgajos Quirúrgicos/trasplante , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Tiempo de Tratamiento , Dispositivos de Expansión Tisular/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006728

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Cosmetic outcomes and rate of implant loss are poorly characterized among patients with breast cancer with previous breast augmentation (BA) who undergo breast-conservation therapy (BCT). Here we determine capsular contracture and implant loss frequency after BCT among patients receiving contemporary whole-breast radiation therapy (RT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with breast cancer with a history of BA presenting to our institution from January 2006 to January 2017 who elected for BCT were included. Seventy-one breast cancers in 70 patients with a history of BA electing for BCT were retrospectively identified. Clinicopathologic, treatment, and outcome variables were examined. Whole-breast RT included conventional and hypofractionated schedules with and without a boost. Rates of implant loss and cosmetic outcomes among patients who did and did not develop a new/worse contracture based on physician assessment were compared. RESULTS: In the study, 54.9% of patients received radiation using hypofractionated whole-breast tangents; 81.7% received a boost. In addition, 18 out of 71 cases (25.4%) developed a new/worse contracture after BCT with a mean follow-up of 1.9 years. Furthermore, 9 out of 71 cases (12.7%) were referred to a plastic surgeon for revisional surgery. There were no implant-loss cases. On univariate analysis, implant location, time from implant placement to diagnosis, RT type, RT boost, body mass index, and tumor size were not associated with new/worse contracture. Of 12 patients with existing contracture, only 2 developed worsening contracture. Physician assessment of cosmetic outcome after BCT was noted to be excellent or good for 87.4% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: BCT for breast cancer patients with prior history of BA has a low risk of implant loss. Hypofractionated RT does not adversely affect implant outcomes. Patients should be counseled regarding risk for capsular contracture, but the majority have good/excellent outcome; BA does not represent a contraindication to BCT.

18.
JAMA Oncol ; : e196400, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027353

RESUMEN

Importance: The increasing use of germline genetic testing may have unintended consequences on treatment. Little is known about how women with pathogenic variants in cancer susceptibility genes are treated for breast cancer. Objective: To determine the association of germline genetic testing results with locoregional and systemic therapy use in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this population-based cohort study, data from women aged 20 years or older who were diagnosed with stages 0 to III breast cancer between 2014 and 2016 were accrued from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries of Georgia and California. The women underwent genetic testing within 3 months after diagnosis and were reported to the Georgia and California SEER registries by December 1, 2017. Exposures: Pathogenic variant status based on linked results of clinical germline genetic testing by 4 laboratories that did most such testing in the studied regions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Potential deviation of treatment from practice guidelines was assessed in the following clinical scenarios: (1) surgery: receipt of bilateral mastectomy by women eligible for less extensive unilateral surgery (unilateral breast tumor); (2) radiotherapy: omission in women indicated for postlumpectomy radiotherapy (all lumpectomy recipients except age ≥70 with stage I, estrogen and/or progesterone receptor [ER/PR] positive, ERBB2 [formerly HER2]-negative disease); and (3) chemotherapy: receipt by women eligible to consider chemotherapy omission (stages I-II, ER/PR-positive, ERBB2-negative, and 21-gene recurrence score of 0-30, which was the upper limit of the intermediate risk range during the study years). The adjusted percentage treated and adjusted odds ratio (OR) are reported based on multivariable modeling for each treatment-eligible group. Results: A total of 20 568 women (17.3%) of 119 198 were eligible (mean [SD] age, 51.4 [12.2]). Compared with women whose test results were negative, those with BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants were more likely to receive bilateral mastectomy for a unilateral tumor (61.7% vs 24.3%; OR, 5.52, 95% CI, 4.73-6.44), less likely to receive postlumpectomy radiotherapy (50.2% vs 81.5%; OR, 0.22, 95% CI, 0.15-0.32), and more likely to receive chemotherapy for early-stage, ER/PR-positive disease (38.0% vs 30.3%; OR, 1.76 (95% CI, 1.31-2.34). Similar patterns were seen with pathogenic variants in other breast cancer-associated genes (ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, NBN, NF1, PALB2, PTEN, and TP53) but not with variants of uncertain significance. Conclusions and Relevance: Women with pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 and other breast cancer-associated genes were found to have distinct patterns of breast cancer treatment; these may be less concordant with practice guidelines, particularly for radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

19.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 20(3): 159-166, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077338

RESUMEN

Introduction: The contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) rate in the U.S. has been steadily increasing. This is of particular concern because many women who undergo this procedure are candidates for breast-conserving surgery.Areas covered: CPM's medical benefit is related to the risk of contralateral cancer development and whether CPM provides a survival benefit. Contralateral cancer rates have decreased, and CPM does not provide a survival benefit. Other potential benefits of the procedure may be improved quality of life; these data are reviewed. Research efforts have been undertaken to better understand the decision-making process of patients who consider, and ultimately undergo, this procedure.Expert opinion: Decisional traits, personal values, the desire for peace of mind, and the desire to obtain breast symmetry are important factors that drive a woman's decision to undergo CPM. Additionally, many patients lack the knowledge on how different types of breast surgery impact outcomes. To improve the shared decision-making process, a stepwise approach to address possible misconceptions, and clarify the real risks/benefits of this procedure should be utilized. A clear recommendation (for/against) should be made for every patient with newly diagnosed breast cancer who considers CPM. Communication tools to assist patients and surgeons in this process are sorely needed.

20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 180(1): 197-205, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938938

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Axillary treatment strategies for the young woman with early-stage, clinically node-negative breast cancer undergoing upfront surgery found to have 1-3 positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) differ significantly after BCT and mastectomy. Here we compare axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and regional nodal irradiation (NRI) rates between women electing breast-conservation therapy (BCT) versus mastectomy. METHODS: From 2010 to 2016, women age < 50 years with clinical T1-T2N0 breast cancer having upfront surgery and found to have a positive SLN were identified. ALND and/or NRI receipt were compared between groups. RESULTS: 192 women undergoing BCT and 165 undergoing mastectomy were identified (median age: 44 years). 5.2% (10/192) of women undergoing BCT had an ALND versus 87% (144/165) of women undergoing mastectomy (p < 0.01). NRI was given to 48% (78/165) of mastectomy patients compared to 30% (57/192) of BCT patients (p < 0.01). Of the 75 mastectomy patients with 1-2 total positive lymph nodes after completion ALND, 44% received NRI. Women undergoing mastectomy were significantly more likely to receive both ALND and NRI than women undergoing BCS (45% vs 6%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Young cT1-2N0 breast cancer patients found to have 1-3 SLN metastases received ALND, NRI, and combined ALND/NRI more frequently if they elected mastectomy over BCT. Use of both ALND and postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in this population could be reduced in the future by omitting ALND in patients for whom the need for PMRT is clear with the finding of 1-2 SLN metastases.

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