Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 84
Filtrar
Más filtros










Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 5382843, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827679

RESUMEN

Stroke survivors are at substantial risk of recurrent cerebrovascular event or cardiovascular disease. Exercise training offers nonpharmacological treatment for these subjects; however, the execution of the traditional exercise protocols and adherence is constantly pointed out as obstacles. Based on these premises, the present study investigated the impact of an 8-week dynamic resistance training protocol with elastic bands on functional, hemodynamic, and cardiac autonomic modulation, oxidative stress markers, and plasma nitrite concentration in stroke survivors. Twenty-two patients with stroke were randomized into control group (CG, n = 11) or training group (TG, n = 11). Cardiac autonomic modulation, oxidative stress markers, plasma nitrite concentration, physical function and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated before and after 8 weeks. Results indicated that functional parameters (standing up from the sitting position (P = 0.011) and timed up and go (P = 0.042)) were significantly improved in TG. Although not statistically different, both systolic blood pressure (Δ = -10.41 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (Δ = -8.16 mmHg) were reduced in TG when compared to CG. Additionally, cardiac autonomic modulation (sympathovagal balance-LF/HF ratio) and superoxide dismutase were improved, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and carbonyl levels were reduced in TG when compared to the CG subjects. In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that dynamic resistance training with elastic bands may improve physical function, hemodynamic parameters, autonomic modulation, and oxidative stress markers in stroke survivors. These positive changes would be associated with a reduced risk of a recurrent stroke or cardiac event in these subjects.


Asunto(s)
Estrés Oxidativo , Entrenamiento de Resistencia , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular/métodos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/patología , Anciano , Presión Sanguínea , Enfermedad Crónica , Femenino , Fuerza de la Mano , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , NADPH Oxidasas/metabolismo , Nitritos/sangre , Carbonilación Proteica , Accidente Cerebrovascular/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Sobrevivientes
2.
Curr Cardiol Rev ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797762

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease of pulmonary arterioles. This pathology is characterized by elevation of the pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure, leading to right heart failure and death. Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol possesses a protective effect in the mechanisms related to the genesis of the PAH-induced by different models. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the dose-related effects of resveratrol in different models of pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS: To identify eligible papers, we performed a systematic literature search on Scielo, PubMed, and Scholar Google. The research was limited to articles written in English in the last 10 years. We use the following descriptors to search: Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Resveratrol, OR Resveratrol, and Animal models of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, OR Resveratrol, and in vitro models of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. RESULTS: 1724 studies were identified through the descriptors employed, fifty-five studies with different models of pulmonary arterial hypertension were selected for the full review, forty-four were excluded after application of exclusion and inclusion criteria, totalizing eleven studies included in this systematic review. CONCLUSION: The results showed that resveratrol, at low and high doses, protects in a dose-dependent manner against the development of PAH induced through monocrotaline, normoxia and hypoxia models. In addition to having chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. In the case of PAH-related myocardial injury, resveratrol protects cells from apoptosis, thus working as an antiapoptotic agent.

3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 25(5): 413-417, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042344

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Introduction Aging is a natural process and marked by changes and adaptations of both a biological and physiological nature. As regards adaptations, there are numerous works that address these responses following various types of training programs. Resistance training (RT) can be assessed by biochemical parameters such as creatine kinase (CK), which is a major marker of stress in the skeletal muscles. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biochemical marker used to assess damage to the cardiac muscles. Objective To evaluate the influence of CK on CRP in elderly female subjects undergoing RT. Methods An experimental study was carried out with 10 elderly women (61 ± 1.8 years). Peripheral venous blood was collected for the CK and CRP analysis both before and 24 hours after 8 weeks of RT. Anthropometric measurements involved BMI (Body Mass Index), WHR (waist-to-hip ratio) and body composition. The RT involved combined series - Bi-Set. For statistical analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk normality test was conducted first and presented p >0.05, confirming the use of parametric tests. Group variables were presented as mean and standard deviation. To compare the load-dependent samples, the repeated measures one-way ANOVA was performed first, followed by Tukey's post hoc test. For CK and CRP variables, we conducted the paired Student's t-test for the timepoints pre- and post-eight weeks of RT along with the one-way ANOVA test, also conducting Tukey's post-test when necessary. The level of significance was set at p ≤0.05. Results There was a statistically significant decrease in both serum CK and CRP, which indicated a reduction of 73.14% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion Long-term RT promoted influences among biomarkers assessed through skeletal muscle (CK) and cardiac muscle (CRP) damage, determining adaptation and muscle remodeling in any age group. Level of evidence II, Investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução O envelhecimento é um processo natural e marcado por mudanças e adaptações, tanto biológicas quanto fisiológicas. Com relação às adaptações, existem inúmeros trabalhos que abordam essas respostas decorrente a vários tipos de treinamento. O treinamento resistido (TR) pode ser avaliado por parâmetros bioquímicos, como a creatina quinase (CK), que é um grande marcador de estresse da musculatura esquelética. A proteína C-reativa (PCR) é um marcador bioquímico utilizado para avaliar o dano no sistema muscular cardíaco. Objetivo Avaliar a influência da CK sob a PCR em idosas em TR. Métodos Estudo do tipo experimental com dez idosas (61 ± 1,8 anos). As análises de CK e PCR foram coletadas em sangue venoso periférico antes e 24 horas após as 8 semanas de TR. Medidas antropométricas foram realizadas: índice de massa corporal (IMC), relação da cintura e o quadril (RCQ) e composição corporal. O TR foi realizado por série combinada (Bi-Set). Para análise estatística, primeiramente foi realizado o teste de normalidade de Shapiro-Wilk, apresentando p > 0,05) e comprovando a utilização de testes paramétricos. As variáveis do grupo foram apresentadas como média e desvio padrão. Para comparação das amostras dependentes de evolução das cargas foi realizado a ANOVA one-way pareada para medidas repetidas, seguida de pós-teste de Tukey. Para variáveis de CK e PCR, foi realizado teste t de Student pareado para os momentos pré e pós-8 semanas de TR, assim como o ANOVA one-way e, quando necessário, o pós-teste de Tukey. O nível de significância adotado foi de p ≤ 0,05. Resultados Houve diminuição estatisticamente significativa, tanto para as concentrações séricas de CK, quanto para PCR, o que indicou redução de 73,14% e 75%, respectivamente. Conclusão O TR de longa duração promoveu influências entre biomarcadores avaliados por meio do dano do músculo esquelético (CK) e dano do músculo cardíaco (PCR), determinando adaptação e remodelamento muscular em qualquer faixa etária. Nível de evidência II; Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción El envejecimiento es un proceso natural y marcado por cambios y adaptaciones, tanto biológicas como fisiológicas. Con respecto a las adaptaciones, existen innumerables trabajos que abordan esas respuestas derivadas de varios tipos de entrenamiento. El Entrenamiento Resistido (ER) puede ser evaluado por parámetros bioquímicos, como la creatina quinasa (CK) que es un gran marcador de estrés de la musculatura esquelética. La proteína C-reactiva (PCR) es un marcador bioquímico utilizado para evaluar el daño en el sistema muscular cardíaco. Objetivo Evaluar la influencia de la CK bajo la PCR en ancianas en ER. Métodos Estudio de tipo experimental con 10 ancianas (61 ± 1,8 años). Los análisis de CK y PCR fueron recolectados en sangre venosa periférica antes y 24 horas después de las 8 semanas de ER. Se realizaron mediciones antropométricas: IMC (Índice de Masa Corporal), RCC (Relación Cintura / Cadera) y Composición Corporal. El ER fue realizado por Serie Combinada (Bi-Set). Para análisis estadístico, primero se realizó la prueba de normalidad de Shapiro-Wilk presentando p> 0,05 y comprobando el uso de pruebas paramétricas. Las variables del grupo se mostraron como promedio y desviación estándar. Para comparación de las muestras dependientes de evolución de las cargas se realizó el Test one-way ANOVA pareado para medidas repetidas, seguido de post-test de Tukey. Para variables de CK y PCR se realizó el Test t de Student pareado para los momentos pre y post ocho semanas de ER, así como el ANOVA one-way y cuando necesario, el post-test de Tukey. El nivel de significancia adoptado fue de p ≤ 0,05. Resultados Hubo disminución estadísticamente significativa, tanto para las concentraciones séricas de CK, como para PCR, lo que indicó reducción del 73,14% y el 75%, respectivamente. Conclusión El ER de larga duración promovió influencias entre biomarcadores evaluados a través del daño del músculo esquelético (CK) y daño del músculo cardíaco (PCR) determinando adaptación y remodelación muscular en cualquier grupo de edad. Nivel de evidencia II; Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

4.
Rev. bras. ciênc. esporte ; 41(3): 298-307, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042069

RESUMEN

Resumo Foram avaliados os efeitos do destreinamento sobre parâmetros cardiovasculares em idosas. Idosas foram submetidas a oito semanas de treinamento resistido seguidas de oito semanas de destreinamento. Foram avaliadas nove mulheres idosas (idade 62 ± 2,30). Foram feitas coletas de sangue venoso periférico e avaliação da composição corporal antes do início de treinamento, após o treinamento e após a fase de destreinamento. Não houve aumento significativo da PCR na fase de destreino, porém observamos alterações negativas para colesterol total e composição corporal, representada pelo peso gordo. Os resultados sugerem que oito semanas de destreinamento não aumentaram significativamente a PCR, porém influenciaram negativamente em outros parâmetros relacionados aos riscos cardiovasculares, como valores antropométricos e bioquímicos representados pelo colesterol total e massa gorda, respectivamente. De fato, a continuidade do treinamento físico é essencial para adquirir e manter uma boa saúde, caso contrário os benefícios alcançados regridem aos valores iniciais.


Abstract The detraining effects on cardiovascular parameters in the elderly women (EW) were evaluated. EW underwent 8 weeks of resistance training, followed by eight weeks of detraining. 9 EW were evaluated (age 62 ± 2.30). Peripheral venous blood collections and body composition evaluation were performed before training, after training and after the detraining phase. There was no significant increase in CRP in detraining phase, but we observed negative changes for total cholesterol and body composition, represented by fat weight. The results suggest that 8 weeks of detraining did not significantly increase CRP, but had a negative influence on other parameters related to cardiovascular risks, as anthropometric and biochemical values represented by total cholesterol and fat mass, respectively. In fact, continuity of physical training is essential to acquiring and maintaining good health, otherwise the beneficial adaptations achieved will return to initial values.


Resumen Se evaluaron los efectos de la falta de entrenamiento sobre los parámetros cardiovasculares de mujeres mayores. Estas siguieron un entrenamiento resistido durante 8 semanas, seguidas de 8 semanas de falta de entrenamiento. Se evaluó a 9 mujeres de edad avanzada (edad de 62 ± 2,30). Se realizaron extracciones de sangre venosa periférica y evaluación de la composición corporal antes del inicio del entrenamiento, después del entrenamiento y después de la fase de falta de entrenamiento. No hubo un aumento considerable de la PCR en la fase de falta de entrenamiento, pero observamos alteraciones negativas del colesterol total y composición corporal, representada por la grasa. Los resultados sugieren que 8 semanas de falta de entrenamiento no aumentaron considerablemente la PCR, pero influyeron negativamente en otros parámetros relacionados con los riesgos cardiovasculares, como valores antropométricos y bioquímicos representados por el colesterol total y la masa grasa, respectivamente. De hecho, la continuidad del entrenamiento físico es esencial para adquirir y mantener una buena salud; de lo contrario, las adaptaciones beneficiosas alcanzadas vuelven a los valores iniciales.

5.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 263: 31-37, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853602

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effect a regular inspiratory muscle training program on autonomic modulation measured by heart rate variability, exercise capacity and respiratory function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects (COPD). DESIGN: Single-center controlled study, with balanced randomization (1:1 for two arms). SETTING: A COPD reference hospital localized in Sao Luís, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 22 COPD subjects joined the study. INTERVENTIONS: Three times a week for four weeks inspiratory muscle training (IMT) at 30% of PImax. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pulmonary capacities and inspiratory pressure, total six-minute walk test and, cardiac autonomic modulation. RESULTS: The intervention group showed improvements in the cardiac autonomic modulation, with increased vagal modulation (total variability and HF [ms2; adjusted p < 0.05]); increased expiratory and inspiratory capacities and, increased distance in the 6-min walk test. CONCLUSION: 12 weeks of IMT at 30% of the maximal inspiratory pressure increased cardiac autonomic modulation, expiratory and inspiratory and exercise capacity in COPD subjects.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiopatología , Ejercicios Respiratorios/métodos , Tolerancia al Ejercicio/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/rehabilitación , Músculos Respiratorios/fisiología , Anciano , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Espirometría , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(3): 209-217, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703844

RESUMEN

We aimed to analyze the effect of an exercise training program in autonomic modulation, and exercise tolerance of hemodialysis and kidney-transplanted patients. 4 groups of exercised and non-exercised patients undergoing hemodialysis and kidney-transplanted subjects had their biochemical tests, and heart rate variability evaluations analyzed. Also, sleep quality, anxiety and depression questionnaires were evaluated. Both exercised groups showed improvements in cardiovascular autonomic modulation, biochemical markers, and exercise tolerance after the exercise training program. The exercised kidney-transplanted patients group showed better improvements in cardiovascular autonomic modulation, biochemical markers, and exercise tolerance when compared to the exercised hemodialysis patients group. Both groups showed improvements in sleep quality, anxiety, and depression. The group of kidney-transplanted patients show better results in the cardiovascular autonomic modulation than subjects undergoing hemodialysis. However, the patients undergoing hemodialysis showed improvements in blood pressure, HDL, hemoglobin and phosphorus, changes not observed in the kidney-transplanted group. Exercise is beneficial for both hemodialysis and kidney-transplanted patients groups. However, exercise programs should be focused mainly in improving cardiovascular risk factors in the HD patients.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Ejercicio , Enfermedades Renales/terapia , Trasplante de Riñón , Diálisis Renal , Adulto , Ansiedad/etiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Enfermedad Crónica , Depresión/etiología , Tolerancia al Ejercicio , Femenino , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Enfermedades Renales/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Renales/psicología , Enfermedades Renales/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Consumo de Oxígeno , Factores de Riesgo , Sueño , Prueba de Paso
7.
J Health Psychol ; 24(3): 299-308, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28810362

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to compare the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and autonomic function of a group of kidney-transplanted recipients who joined a combined exercise program (KTRt) or remained sedentary (KTRs). A total of 20 kidney-transplanted recipients, split into two groups (10 KTRt and 10 KTRs), joined the study. Heart rate variability, cardiorespiratory capacity, depression, and sleep questionnaires were evaluated. KTRt presented lower Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and greater entropy, and increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic modulation than KTRs. Anxiety level was minimal and depression was absent in both groups. KTRt group presented better sleep quality and better autonomic modulation than KTRs.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/terapia , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo , Depresión/terapia , Ejercicio Físico , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Trasplante de Riñón/rehabilitación , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/terapia , Adulto , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiopatología , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
8.
Motriz (Online) ; 25(2): e101904, 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1020086

RESUMEN

Abstract Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an exercise session prescribed by the Sworkit® Personal Trainer application on hemodynamic and autonomic responses. Methods: The sample consisted of 11 men classified as sedentary according to IPAQ. The exercises were randomly selected by the app Sworkit® Personal Trainer, using the pre-built program "Light Warm-Up Cardio" (see supplementary material). Heart rate and perceived exertion data were collected every minute during an exercise session. Blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured Pre, Post, 30 min, 12h, 24 h, and 48h after exercise. Heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were collected during the 30 minutes exercise. Results: Hemodynamic responses showed differences in heart rate and systolic blood pressure: Post, 12 h and 24 h compared to Pre. We also found significant statistical differences in the heart rate variability indexes when comparing Post, 30min to 48h versus Pre, indicating modifications in the autonomic modulation post-exercise. The perceived exertions scale remained between 13-14 during the exercise. Heart rate was 149 ± 5.26 (80 ± 5% of HRmax) during the 30min exercise, indicating a moderate to vigorous intensity. Conclusion: We concluded that a single exercise session guided by the Sworkit® Personal Trainer application could generate autonomic changes in up to 12 hours, presenting a moderate to vigorous intensity in 30 minutes of exercise for sedentary men.

9.
J Aging Res ; 2018: 1467025, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510801

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training on the immunologic response, body composition, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression obtained from blood leukocytes, and the cytokines interleukin-6, TNF-alpha, and C-reactive protein (CRP), in the elderly women (mean age 63 ± 2 y). A randomized controlled trial was performed using a bi-set training method for eight weeks in nineteen elderly women. Peripheral blood samples were collected by puncture in pretraining (Pre) and posttraining (Post) moments. In the resistance training group, there was a statistically significant decrease from 38.43 ± 9.48 pg/mL to 11.76 ± 5.19 pg/mL (p=0.01) in the serum levels of interleukin-6. Considering serum levels of TNF-alpha, there was a statistically significant difference, comparing the resistance training group at Pre (66.27 ± 10.31 pg/mL) and Post (37.85 ± 9.05 pg/mL) moments (p=0.01). In molecular analysis of TNF-alpha gene expression, there was a statistically significant decrease (p=0.007) between Pre (0.010 ± 0.01 ng/ml) and Post (0.0002 ± 0.0001 ng/ml) moments. Among CRP data, in the resistance training group, there was a statistically significant reduction, between Pre (2.04 ± 0.32 mg/L) and Post (0.90 ± 0.22 mg/L) moments (p=0.001). In the Control group, there was no statistical significance between these two moments. Therefore, the resistance training demonstrated changes in the TNF-alpha gene expression in elderly women, as well as decreased serum levels of interleukin-6, TNF-alpha, and CRP. Such conditions may be related to immune modulation and anti-inflammatory effects, since resistance training releases cytokines, especially interleukin-6, which acts as a TNF-alpha antagonist during exercise.

10.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e246, 2018 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088535

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate cardiovascular autonomic modulation and angiotensin II (Ang II) activity in diabetic mice that were genetically engineered to harbor two or three copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene. METHODS: Diabetic and non-diabetic mice harboring 2 or 3 copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene were used in the present study. Animals were divided into 4 groups: diabetic groups with two and three copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (2CD and 3CD) and the respective age-matched non-diabetic groups (2C and 3C). Hemodynamic, cardiovascular, and autonomic parameters as well as renal Ang II expression were evaluated. RESULTS: Heart rate was lower in diabetic animals than in non-diabetic animals. Autonomic modulation analysis indicated that the 3CD group showed increased sympathetic modulation and decreased vagal modulation of heart rate variability, eliciting increased cardiac sympathovagal balance, compared with all the other groups. Concurrent diabetes and either angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism resulted in a significant increase in Ang II expression in the renal cortex. CONCLUSION: Data indicates that a small increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in diabetic animals leads to greater impairment of autonomic function, as demonstrated by increased sympathetic modulation and reduced cardiac vagal modulation along with increased renal expression of Ang II.


Asunto(s)
Angiotensina II/análisis , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiopatología , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatología , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatología , Dosificación de Gen/fisiología , Riñón/enzimología , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Animales , Glucemia/análisis , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Inmunohistoquímica , Masculino , Ratones , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Distribución Aleatoria , Nervio Vago/fisiopatología
11.
Int J Sports Med ; 39(10): 749-756, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940670

RESUMEN

The current study aimed to determine the effects of sildenafil-associated aerobic exercise training (ET) on the physical performance, hemodynamic, autonomic and inflammatory parameters of rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: sedentary rats placebo-treated (SP); sedentary rats sildenafil-treated (SS); trained rats placebo-treated (TP); and trained rats sildenafil-treated (TS). Sildenafil treatment consisted of 8 weeks of daily oral gavage (1.5 mg/kg), one hour before the session of ET (60-75% of maximal running speed, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks). After ET period, physical capacity, hemodynamic, autonomic and skeletal muscle inflammatory profile were assessed. Chronic sildenafil treatment causes an additional increase of physical capacity in aerobically trained rats. However, these beneficial effects were accompanied by unwanted alterations, as increased of arterial pressure and peripheral sympathetic modulation, as well as exacerbated inflammatory status on skeletal muscle of rats. Taken together, these data suggest the positive and negative effects of sildenafil chronic administration, associated to aerobic ET, at doses used in clinical practice. This report stresses the importance of paying greater attention to the indiscriminate use of this substance in high-performance sports.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/efectos de los fármacos , Hemodinámica/efectos de los fármacos , Inflamación/fisiopatología , Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias para Mejorar el Rendimiento/farmacología , Inhibidores de Fosfodiesterasa 5/farmacología , Condicionamiento Físico Animal/fisiología , Citrato de Sildenafil/farmacología , Animales , Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiología , Barorreflejo/efectos de los fármacos , Peso Corporal , Masculino , Ratas Wistar
12.
Front Physiol ; 9: 53, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483876

RESUMEN

Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR - treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15-20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI.

13.
Clinics ; 73: e246, 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952795

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate cardiovascular autonomic modulation and angiotensin II (Ang II) activity in diabetic mice that were genetically engineered to harbor two or three copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene. METHODS: Diabetic and non-diabetic mice harboring 2 or 3 copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene were used in the present study. Animals were divided into 4 groups: diabetic groups with two and three copies of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (2CD and 3CD) and the respective age-matched non-diabetic groups (2C and 3C). Hemodynamic, cardiovascular, and autonomic parameters as well as renal Ang II expression were evaluated. RESULTS: Heart rate was lower in diabetic animals than in non-diabetic animals. Autonomic modulation analysis indicated that the 3CD group showed increased sympathetic modulation and decreased vagal modulation of heart rate variability, eliciting increased cardiac sympathovagal balance, compared with all the other groups. Concurrent diabetes and either angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism resulted in a significant increase in Ang II expression in the renal cortex. CONCLUSION: Data indicates that a small increase in angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in diabetic animals leads to greater impairment of autonomic function, as demonstrated by increased sympathetic modulation and reduced cardiac vagal modulation along with increased renal expression of Ang II.

14.
Motriz (Online) ; 24(1): e1018132, 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-895056

RESUMEN

Aim: We aimed to evaluate the effect of low and vigorous levels of physical activity in body composition, hemodynamics and autonomic modulation in subjects with Down syndrome (DS). METHODS: We evaluated 13 healthy subjects without DS (control group), 15 sedentary subjects with DS, (SED DS group), nine with DS with low intensity levels of physical activity (LIDS) and 12 with DS with vigorous levels of physical activity (VIDS). The physical activity level was measured using the IPAQ questionnaire. Body composition, hemodynamics and autonomic modulation were also evaluated. RESULTS The VIDS showed lower BMI than the control and SED DS group. Body fat (%) was lower in LIDS and VIDS than in the control and SED DS group. The systolic and diastolic arterial pressure values were similar among the groups. When normalized, the frequency domain showed higher LF/HF, higher LF (nu) and lower HF (nu) component of heart rate variability in sedentary DS than in the control group. However, LIDS and VIDS groups showed similar values in LF (nu), HF (nu) and LF/HF than the control group. The symbolic analysis showed greater 0V and lower values in 2LV in sedentary DS group when compared to the control group. However, the LIDS and VIDS did not show difference in 0V when compared to the control group. The 2LV was lower in LIDS and VIDS than in the control group, but 2UV was higher in VIDS than in the control group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that, regardless of the intensity, exercise can promote positive adaptations in the autonomic modulation of DS patients.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Síndrome de Down , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Hemodinámica/fisiología
16.
J Exerc Rehabil ; 13(5): 599-607, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114536

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to investigate the impact of a short-term exercise training (ET) on the cardiorespiratory fitness and autonomic modulation of women with breast cancer who were receiving adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy or hormonotherapy. Eighteen women previously diagnosed with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy or hormone therapy were randomly allocated into breast cancer nonexercise (BC) and exercise groups (BC+Ex). Moreover, nine healthy physically inactive volunteers were recruited to compose the noncancer control group (CG). The BC+Ex group was underwent to a combined ET program, which was based on resistance, aerobic and flexibility exercises. ET was performed 3 times a week, on nonconsecutive days, for 4 weeks at the hospital room under the professional supervision. In turn, BC and CG remained without be engaged in physical exercise programs. Volunteers were evaluated regarding their cardiorespiratory fitness and autonomic modulation (i.e., time, frequency domains, and nonlinear [symbolic analysis]) before and after the end of the ET program. A priori, data indicate that women patients with breast cancer showed impaired exercise tolerance, as well as autonomic dysfunction in comparison with age-matched healthy control subjects. However, a 1-month combined ET program could reverse such impairments, so that after the intervention, BC+Ex and CG showing similar results in the cardiorespiratory test and heart rate variability analysis. In conclusion, data of the current study indicate that 1 month of ET is able to reverse impaired cardiorespiratory fitness and autonomic modulation in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant therapy.

17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1000: 65-84, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098616

RESUMEN

Hypertension is a worldwide prevalent disease, mostly manifested as its primary ethiology, characterized by a chronic, multifactorial, asymptomatic, and usually incurable state. It is estimated that more than one billion of the world population is hypertensive. Also, hypertension is the main cause of the two most frequent causes of death worldwide: myocardial infarction and stroke. Due to the necessity of the cardiovascular system to manage chronically increased levels of blood pressure, hypertension causes severe alterations in multiple organs, as the heart, vessels, kidneys, eyes and brain, thus increasing the risk of health complications. The heart is the main target organ and suffers several adaptations to compensate the increased blood pressure levels; nevertheless, long-term adaptations without proper control are extremely harmful to cardiovascular health. On the other hand, hypertension is a modifiable risk factor and its adequate control is highly dependent on lifestyle. Pharmacological treatment is of great success when adherence is high. Several classes of antihypertensive drugs are prescribed and can effectively maintain blood pressure within acceptable levels. However, non-pharmacological methods, as diet and exercise training, can not only optimize the treatment but also prevent or postpone hypertension development as well as its complications, acting as important complements to the ideal control of elevated blood pressure, and bringing together benefits beyond blood pressure decrease, as a general health status improvement and increased quality of life. There is consistent evidence that regular exercise training promotes several benefits when properly prescribed and practised, acting as "medicine" for dozens of chronic diseases. The effects of exercise training in blood pressure levels and in its mechanisms of control are of clinical relevance and efficacy. This chapter will describe the classical and recent results on the beneficial effects of different modalities of exercise training in the cardiovascular system of human primary hypertension, focusing on the mechanisms influenced by exercise training which help to decrease blood pressure and improve the cardiovascular system.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/rehabilitación , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Sistema Cardiovascular/efectos de los fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatología , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Calidad de Vida
18.
J Exerc Rehabil ; 13(3): 257-265, 2017 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28702435

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to compare the effects of moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity interval exercise training (ET) on exercise tolerance, cardiac morphometry and function, hemodynamic, and cardiac autonomic modulation in myocardial infarcted mice. Wild-type mice (WT) were divided into four groups: sedentary WT (S); WT myocardium infarction sedentary (IS); WT myocardium infarction underwent to moderate-intensity continuous ET (MICT), and WT myocardium infarction underwent to high-intensity interval ET (MIIT). After 60 days of descending coronary artery ligation, moderate-intensity continuous ET consisted of running at 60% of maximum, while the high-intensity interval training consisted of eight sprints of 4 min at 80% of maximum and a 4-min recovery at 40% of maximum. Both exercises were performed 1 hr a day, 5 days a week, during 8 weeks. Results demonstrated that IS showed elevated exercise tolerance, as well as decreased hemodynamic and heart function, and autonomic control. On the other hand, both programs of ET were equally effective to increase all parameters, without further differences between the groups. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that myocardial infarction leads to damage in both investigated strains and the two types of physical exercise attenuated the major impairments provoked by myocardial infarction in exercise tolerance, cardiac structure, cardiac function, hemodynamic and cardiac autonomic modulation.

19.
Games Health J ; 6(3): 159-164, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628383

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze the acute autonomic response of obese and eutrophic prepubertal boys to an exergame (EXG) session. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Nine eutrophic (8.89 ± 2.71 years of age and 16.42% ± 6.30% body fat) and nine obese boys (8.70 ± 1.16 years of age and 40.76% ± 4.2% body fat) participated. Nutritional state was determined using World Health Organization guidelines. Variables were collected at rest, immediately post (IP), and 60 minutes after a 20 minutes EXG session. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity was assessed using heart rate variability in time and frequency domains, and data were analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk and ANOVA tests with Tukey post hoc. RESULTS: The obese group demonstrated an increased sympathetic activity at rest when compared with the eutrophic group (P < 0.05). The obese group also demonstrated an increased parasympathetic activity 60 minutes after the EXG session when compared with the eutrophic group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded that an acute session of EXG promoted ANS super compensation. We encourage research on chronic ANS response to EXG.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Obesidad/terapia , Obesidad Pediátrica/terapia , Juegos de Video/normas , Niño , Terapia por Ejercicio/psicología , Terapia por Ejercicio/normas , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Monitoreo Fisiológico/métodos , Obesidad/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología , Juegos de Video/psicología
20.
J Exerc Rehabil ; 13(2): 218-226, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503537

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters, cardiac autonomic modulation and respiratory function of older women with metabolic syndrome (MS). For this, sixteen older women with MS and 12 aged-matched controls participated of the present study. Two days before and 2 days after the main experiment, fasting blood samples (i.e., total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose), cardiac autonomic modulation (i.e., heart rate variability), and respiratory muscle function were obtained and evaluated. The sessions of physical exercise was based on a IME, which was performed during 7 days. Each session of IME was performed during 20 min, at 30% of maximal static inspiratory pressure. In the results, MS group presented higher levels of triglycerides, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure when compared to control group. IME was not able to change these variables. However, although MS group showed impaired respiratory muscle strength and function, as well as cardiac autonomic modulation, IME was able to improve these parameters. Thus, the data showed that seven days of IME are capable to improve respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation of older women with MS. These results indicate that IME can be a profitable therapy to counteracting the clinical markers of MS, once repeated sessions of acute IME can cause chronical alterations on respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA