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1.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 3(4): dlab162, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676367

RESUMEN

Objectives: To explore antibiotic consumption and surveillance patterns in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted. Stock requisition and logbooks from a District Health Facility in Trinidad were examined for the period 2011-18. Daily Defined Doses (DDDs) for each antibiotic were computed and extrapolated to represent the antibiotic consumption per 1000 residents within the population. Results: The mean consumption across the years was 2.917 DDD per 1000 residents per day. The most consumed antibiotics were cefuroxime, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and azithromycin, with mean DDDs of 0.879, 0.695 and 0.373 respectively. The least consumed antibiotics were cefaclor and clarithromycin, with DDDs of 0.0006 and 0.0005, respectively. Conclusions: Trinidad and Tobago is not mentioned in the WHO surveillance report on antibiotic consumption. Our most recent (2018) estimate of total antibiotic consumption was 3.224 DDD per 1000 habitants per day. This figure is an underestimate, as data was derived solely from the public sector. Notwithstanding, this data is novel and can provide a baseline for future comparison and development of national surveillance programmes.

2.
Cardiol Ther ; 10(2): 561-568, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643895

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This prospective pharmacodynamic (PD) study assessed the effect of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), dapagliflozin, on platelet reactivity. METHODS: Patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n = 27) who were on maintenance dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) of aspirin 81 mg daily, and clopidogrel 75 mg daily were recruited. Platelet function was evaluated with the VerifyNow™ P2Y12 assay (Werfen, Bedford, MA, USA) and assessed prior to initiation of and after 10 days of treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg once-daily dose regimen. Results were compared with a paired t test. RESULTS: Treatment with dapagliflozin significantly decreased P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) by 20%, (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.5-32.6%, p value 0.002). The mean difference in PRU was 36.70 (95% CI 16.66-56.75). No patients experienced any serious adverse events (SAEs). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly diminished platelet reactivity was observed on dapagliflozin as compared to without dapagliflozin. This dedicated pharmacodynamic study could be potentially informative and applicable for Trinidadian stable CAD patients with T2DM on DAPT. Further studies are required to confirm these exploratory findings. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: EDGE ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04400760.

3.
Postgrad Med J ; 97(1149): 423-426, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039692

RESUMEN

Little has been published regarding postgraduate assessments during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need to graduate well-trained specialists including family physicians who play a key role in patient care. The successes and challenges encountered in mounting qualifying 2020 Family Medicine examinations during the COVID-19 pandemic at the University of the West Indies are described in this paper. Human resource, planning, use of technology and virtual environments are discussed, which enabled successful examinations at this multicampus regional site.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Certificación , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Evaluación Educacional , Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria/educación , Médicos de Familia/normas , Rendimiento Académico , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Certificación/métodos , Certificación/normas , Evaluación Educacional/métodos , Evaluación Educacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Escolaridad , Tecnología Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Evaluación de Necesidades , SARS-CoV-2 , Enseñanza/normas , Enseñanza/tendencias , Indias Occidentales
4.
Cardiol Ther ; 10(1): 189-199, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306161

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This prospective pharmacodynamic (PD) study aimed to assess the effect of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) empagliflozin on platelet reactivity. METHODS: Patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n = 20) who were actively treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) of aspirin 81 mg daily and clopidogrel 75 mg daily were recruited. Platelet function was measured with the VerifyNow™ P2Y12 assay (Instrumentation Laboratory, Massachusetts, USA) and assessed before the initiation of and after 10 days of treatment with empagliflozin 25 mg once daily maintenance dose regimen. Results were compared with a paired t test. RESULTS: The mean P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) on empagliflozin was significantly less than without empagliflozin at baseline (187.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 155.38-219.32 vs. 217.25, CI 180.60-253.90; p < 0.030). The mean difference in PRU was 29.90 (95% CI 3.17-56.63). No patients experienced any serious adverse events (SAEs). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly attenuated platelet reactivity was observed on empagliflozin as compared to without empagliflozin. This dedicated pharmacodynamic study could be clinically pertinent for Trinidadian patients with stable CAD and T2DM on DAPT. Further studies are required to confirm these exploratory findings. (Funded by the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine; EFFECT). CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04342819.

5.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis ; 12: 1759720X20973560, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281953

RESUMEN

Background: To systematically review the diagnostic accuracy of salivary gland ultrasound in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Methods: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central and Scopus and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify diagnostic or validation studies in patients with pSS meeting the diagnostic criteria. A diagnostic test meta-analysis was performed using a bivariate model to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratios, and the diagnostic odds ratio. Meta-regression analyses were done for several pSS covariates. Results: Sixty-five studies met our criteria for the qualitative review. Fifty-four studies with a total of 6087 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity for salivary gland ultrasound was 80% [95% confidence interval (CI): 77-83%; I 2 = 78%], and specificity was 90% (95% CI: 87-92%; I 2 = 76%). The pooled positive and negative likelihood ratios were 8 (95% CI: 6.4-10) and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.19-0.25), respectively. The corresponding pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 37 (95% CI: 28-48). Separate meta-regression models resulted in similar diagnostic estimates: (a) adjusted for mean age: sensitivity 81% (95% CI:77-84%; I 2 = 99%) and specificity 90% (95% CI: 87-93%; I2 = 99%); (b) adjusted for mean disease duration, sensitivity 79% (95% CI:72-84%; I 2 = 99%), and specificity 90% (89-94%; I 2 = 99%). The diagnostic estimates were robust to sensitivity analyses by quality criteria, pSS diagnostic criteria and ultrasound scoring systems. Conclusion: Salivary gland ultrasound is a valuable modality for the diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. It is plausible that salivary gland ultrasound can be used as an important criterion for the diagnosis of pSS.

6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 498, 2020 10 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032571

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to screen cardiovascular patients for depressive symptoms at a tertiary centre in Trinidad and Tobago; and to determine any significant associations amongst patients' demographics, comorbidities, and cardiovascular medications with depressive symptoms. METHODS: In this observational, cross-sectional study, patients (n = 1203) were randomly selected from the cardiology outpatient clinics at the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex. After meeting selection criteria, informed consent was obtained, and patients were administered a case report form, which included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Descriptive analyses included frequency, percentage and summary statistics. Inferential analyses included 95% confidence intervals (CIs), independent sample t-test, Fisher's exact test, Chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The study had a 96% respondent rate, whereby the average age was 62 years old. Slightly less than half were male, and 52.5% were female. Over 90 % of the sample had cardiovascular disease (CVD). One-quarter of the sample had a PHQ-9 score of ≥10, with almost one-fifth having no depressive symptoms. Females, lower levels of education and income were all found to be statistically significant at risk for depressive symptoms (all p-values < 0.001). Comorbidities associated with depressive symptoms included hypertension, prior cerebrovascular events, chronic kidney disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of OR 1.988 (CI 1.414-2.797), OR 1.847 (CI 1.251-2.728), OR 1.872 (CI 1.207-2.902) and OR 1.703 (CI 1.009-2.876) respectively. Only the cardiovascular medication of ticagrelor was found to be significantly associated with depressive symptoms (p-value < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-five percent of screened cardiovascular patients displayed significant depressive symptoms with a PHQ-9 ≥ 10. This study also highlights the importance of implementing a multidisciplinary approach to managing cardiovascular disease and screening for depressive symptoms in this subpopulation. Further studies are required to validate these findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03863262 . This trial was retrospectively registered on 20th February 2019.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología
8.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 197, 2020 09 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957991

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Physician related factors with respect to insulin therapy can contribute to diabetes mellitus (DM) mismanagement. Patient related factors have been previously explored in a Trinidad survey. The main objective of this study was to explore primary care physicians' (PCPs) related barriers towards insulin therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of PCPs in the public primary care system was done using an online survey. RESULTS: Of the 170 PCPs contacted, 75 (44%) responded. There were 47 females (62.7%) and 28 males (37.3%) with a mean age of 35.9 yrs. Nearly 40% of physicians admitted that the education given to patients was inadequate to allow initiation of insulin therapy. Half the respondents admitted to insufficient consultation times and inadequate appointment frequency to allow for intensification of insulin therapy. Forty percent of PCPs admitted that HbA1c results were unavailable to guide their management decisions. Only 6.7% of physicians said they had access to rapid acting insulin, while 5.3% said they had access to insulin pens. CONCLUSION: PCPs in Trinidad treating diabetes at the public primary care clinics face several barriers in administering proper insulin therapy. Addressing these factors can improve glycemic control in this population.


Asunto(s)
Insulina , Médicos de Atención Primaria , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Atención Primaria de Salud , Trinidad y Tobago
9.
Cardiol Ther ; 9(2): 493-503, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766961

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This prospective, pharmacodynamic study aimed to explore the potential applicability of a low-dose ticagrelor regimen in a heterogeneous Trinidadian subpopulation. METHODS: Patients with stable coronary artery disease (n = 25) who were actively treated with dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin 81 mg daily and clopidogrel 75 mg daily were recruited. Platelet function was measured with the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (Accriva Diagnostics, San Diego, CA, USA) and assessed before initiation of and after 14 days of treatment with a low-dose ticagrelor 45 mg twice daily maintenance dose regimen. Results were compared with a paired t test. RESULTS: The mean P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) score on ticagrelor was significantly less compared to that of clopidogrel (50.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 29-73.9; vs. 149.6, 95% CI 129.4-169.9; p value < 0.001). Of the patients, 4% experienced Medical Research Council class 1 dyspnea, and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium class 1 bleeding on the ticagrelor regimen (one patient each). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly attenuated platelet reactivity was seen on the low ticagrelor maintenance dose as compared to clopidogrel. This dedicated pharmacodynamic study could be applicable and informative for Trinidadian stable coronary artery disease patients. Further studies are required to confirm these exploratory findings.(Funded by the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT04206176.

10.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727008

RESUMEN

Globally, a quarter of the population is infected with tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. About 5-10% of latent TB infections (LTBI) progress to active disease during the lifetime. Prevention of TB and treating LTBI is a critical component of the World Health Organization's (WHO) End TB Strategy. This study aims to examine the screening practices for prevention and treatment employed by the National Tuberculosis Program of Trinidad and Tobago in comparison to the WHO's standard guidelines. A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted from the TB registers (2018-2019) for persons aged 18 years and above with recorded tuberculin skin test reactions (TST). Bivariate comparisons for categorical variables were made using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Binary logistic regression was used for exploring predictors of TST positivity with adjustment for demographic confounders in multivariable models. Of the total 1972 eligible entries studied, 384 (19.4%) individuals were tested positive with TST. TB contact screening (aOR 2.49; 95% CI 1.65, 3.75) and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination status (aOR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.22) were associated with a positive TST reaction, whereas, preplacement screening failed to show such association when compared to those screened as suspect cases. The findings suggest that TB contact screening and positive BCG vaccination status are associated with TST positivity independent of age and gender.

11.
Ethn Dis ; 30(Suppl 1): 211-216, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269463

RESUMEN

Background: Metformin is the drug of first choice in people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Most patients respond to metformin monotherapy, but many others remain uncontrolled even at maximal doses. Although non-adherence is a major contributor to non-response, genetic polymorphisms of organic cation transporters play an important role in clinical response. We hypothesize that genetic variants are partly responsible for non-response. Objective: This study aims to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; ATM rs11212617, SLC22A1 rs594709 and SLC47A1 rs2289669) most commonly associated with failure to respond to metformin. Setting: Ten primary health care facilities in the North Central Regional Health Authority region of Trinidad. Patients: The study population will include 216 patients with diabetes adherent to metformin monotherapy for at least three months. Methods: Following a 12-hour overnight fast, blood samples will be taken to measure fasting insulin and HbA1c. DNA would be isolated and PCR will be used to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of these three SNPs in adherent diabetic patients. DNA samples will be stored for future sequencing of these three genes to determine whether other, possibly novel, mutations are associated with poor metformin response in Trinidad. Clinical Significance: This study will highlight the prevalence of these polymorphisms in our population. Should an association be found between the polymorphisms tested and glycemic control in adherent patients on metformin monotherapy, this will have implications for further research on medication initiation in newly diagnosed patients with diabetes in Trinidad.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos Clínicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Genotipo , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Metformina/uso terapéutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Adulto , Alelos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trinidad y Tobago
12.
Radiol Imaging Cancer ; 2(4): e200007, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778724

RESUMEN

Purpose: To assess risk-group migration and subsequent management change following biparametric MRI using a risk-stratified approach in a group of Caribbean men with prostate adenocarcinoma being offered external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study assessed the biparametric MRI findings in men who opted for EBRT from January 2018 to June 2019 (n = 79; mean age, 67.9 years ± 6.2 [standard deviation]). Serum prostate-specific antigen level, digital rectal examination findings, histologic grade group (GG) from transrectal US-guided biopsy, prior androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and any prior CT results were used to stratify patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk categories. Risk-group stratification prior to MRI separated patients into low- (seven of 79 [8.9%]), intermediate- (36 of 79 [45.6%]) and high-risk (36 of 79 [45.6%]) groups. Following MRI, any risk group (low, intermediate, high, nodal involvement, and metastatic disease) or oncologic management changes were recorded. Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess predictor of upgrade status, with adjustment for demographic covariates jointly. Results: Following MRI, 30 of 79 (38.0%) patients had risk-group upshifts compared with their original assessment. Patients were recategorized into low risk (one of 79, 1.3%), intermediate risk (19 of 79, 24.1%), high risk (51 of 79, 64.6%), nodal involvement (one of 79, 1.3%), and metastatic disease (seven of 79, 8.9%). From the original groupings, there were six of seven (85.7%) from the low group, 18 of 36 (50.0%) from the intermediate group, and six of 36 (16.7%) from the high group that had risk group upward shifts. There was no association with GG: GG2 versus GG1, P = .53; GG3 versus GG1, P = .98; or prior ADT (P = .37) and the adjusted odds of risk-group upshifts. MRI findings resulted in treatment plan modification for 39 of 79 (49.4%) men overall. Conclusion: Prostate MRI should be considered for patients in high-risk populations prior to EBRT because upstaging from MR image assessment may have implications for modification of treatment.Keywords: MR-Imaging, Prostate, Radiation Therapy© RSNA, 2020See the commentary by Davenport and Shankar in this issue.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata , Anciano , Antagonistas de Andrógenos , Región del Caribe , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias de la Próstata/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias de la Próstata/radioterapia , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
Cardiol Ther ; : 229-237, 2019 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292901

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This prospective study aimed to determine whether trimetazidine (TMZ) alters the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of clopidogrel. METHODS: Patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) (n = 24) who were actively treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) of aspirin 81 mg daily and clopidogrel 75 mg daily were recruited. Platelet function was measured with the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (Accriva Diagnostics, San Diego, CA, USA) and assessed before the initiation of and after 14 days of treatment with TMZ. Results were compared using a paired t test. RESULTS: Almost 80% of the study population were of South Asian descent and had diabetes mellitus (DM). P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs) were higher in patients on TMZ (204 ± 56 compared with 174 ± 71 before TMZ, p = 0.005). The average increase in PRU score was 29 (95% confidence interval 8.8-49.7). Before TMZ, the proportion of patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (PRU > 208 units) was 25%, which increased to 42% for patients on TMZ. CONCLUSION: Higher platelet reactivity was seen in patients on TMZ, suggesting that TMZ attenuated the PD effects of clopidogrel in this study of a predominantly South Asian diabetic subpopulation. Alternative therapies should be considered and further research is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03603249.

14.
Open Heart ; 6(1): e000841, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997117

RESUMEN

Objectives: This novel, pilot study aimed to assess the estimated prevalence of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: Patients (n=40) who were awaiting elective percutaneous coronary intervention on maintenance dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin 81 mg daily and clopidogrel 75 mg or loaded at least 48 hours prior were recruited. Platelet reactivity with the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (Accriva Diagnostics, San Diego, California, USA) was assessed prior to cardiac catheterisation. Results: 60.7% (17/28) of the South Asian (Indo-Trinidadians) patients had HPR, whereas 14.3% (1/7) of Africans and 40% (2/5) of mixed ethnicity had HPR. There was a significant association between HPR (P2Y12 reaction units >208) and ethnicity with South Asians (Indo-Trinidadians) (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.18 to 24.66, p=0.029). Conclusions: This pilot study serves to introduce the preliminary observation that the estimated prevalence of HPR is considerably higher within the heterogeneous population in Trinidad at 50% as compared with predominantly Caucasian studies. Furthermore, the HPR is significantly higher in South Asians (Indo-Trinidadians) (>60% of patients) which has severe clinical repercussions considering the cardiovascular disease pandemic. Clopidogrel may not be a satisfactory or optimal antiplatelet agent in this subgroup, and therefore, another more potent antiplatelet such as ticagrelor should be used instead. Further large-scale studies are imperative to confirm these findings. (Funded by the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine; POINT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03667066.).

15.
J Altern Complement Med ; 19(4): 347-52, 2013 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23098698

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Current treatment strategies for painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) include oral medications, which are costly and may have adverse effects. Topical therapies have been used for PDN with some benefit. Nutmeg has certain properties that may be effective in ameliorating neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether topical nutmeg extracts can reduce pain or improve the quality of life in PDN sufferers. DESIGN: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTINGS/LOCATION: It was conducted at a primary care center in Trinidad, Caribbean. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four (74) diabetic subjects who met criteria for painful neuropathy were recruited. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to receive either topical nutmeg extracts (NEMM; mace oil [2%], nutmeg oil [14%], methyl salicylate [6%], menthol [6%], and coconut oil) or placebo (MM; methyl salicylate [6%], menthol [6%], coconut oil, and alcohol). OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcome measures of pain and quality of life were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory for Diabetic Painful Neuropathy and Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. RESULTS: An intention-to-treat analysis was done for 24 male and 50 female subjects (30-85 years) with an average duration of diabetes of 11 years. Significant reductions in worst and average pain scores were seen within each group (p ≤ 0.001). Similarly significant reductions were also noted for interference with walking, sleep, and mood scores as well as burning, pins and needles, and tingling scores within each group (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between both groups after 4 weeks for any outcome measure. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial topical, nutmeg extracts did not add to the improvements observed in PDN symptoms during 4 weeks treatment with preparations containing menthol and methyl salicylate. Further research designed to test the individual components of the topical therapies used in this study may clarify their benefit.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Neuropatías Diabéticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Myristica/química , Neuralgia/tratamiento farmacológico , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Administración Tópica , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Intención de Tratar , Masculino , Mentol/uso terapéutico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceites Volátiles/uso terapéutico , Aceites Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Salicilatos/uso terapéutico
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