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Malar J ; 20(1): 32, 2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422080


BACKGROUND: Malaria remains highly endemic in Cameroon. The rapid emergence and spread of drug resistance was responsible for the change from monotherapies to artemisinin-based combinations. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance markers within an evolving efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in Cameroon from January 1998 to August 2020. METHODS: The PRISMA-P and PRISMA statements were adopted in the inclusion of studies on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of P. falciparum anti-malarial drug resistance genes (Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pfatp6, Pfcytb and Pfk13). The heterogeneity of the included studies was evaluated using the Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. The random effects model was used as standard in the determination of heterogeneity between studies. RESULTS: Out of the 902 records screened, 48 studies were included in this aggregated meta-analysis of molecular data. A total of 18,706 SNPs of the anti-malarial drug resistance genes were genotyped from 47,382 samples which yielded a pooled prevalence of 35.4% (95% CI 29.1-42.3%). Between 1998 and 2020, there was significant decline (P < 0.0001 for all) in key mutants including Pfcrt 76 T (79.9%-43.0%), Pfmdr1 86Y (82.7%-30.5%), Pfdhfr 51I (72.2%-66.9%), Pfdhfr 59R (76.5%-67.8%), Pfdhfr 108 N (80.8%-67.6%). The only exception was Pfdhps 437G which increased over time (30.4%-46.9%, P < 0.0001) and Pfdhps 540E that remained largely unchanged (0.0%-0.4%, P = 0.201). Exploring mutant haplotypes, the study observed a significant increase in the prevalence of Pfcrt CVIET mixed quintuple haplotype from 57.1% in 1998 to 57.9% in 2020 (P < 0.0001). In addition, within the same study period, there was no significant change in the triple Pfdhfr IRN mutant haplotype (66.2% to 67.3%, P = 0.427). The Pfk13 amino acid polymorphisms associated with artemisinin resistance were not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This review reported an overall decline in the prevalence of P. falciparum gene mutations conferring resistance to 4-aminoquinolines and amino alcohols for a period over two decades. Resistance to artemisinins measured by the presence of SNPs in the Pfk13 gene does not seem to be a problem in Cameroon. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42020162620.

Methods Mol Biol ; 2013: 73-82, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267494


Diagnosing malaria is a key component of effective case management and monitoring of antimalarial programs worldwide. This chapter features the different diagnostic approaches currently in use or under testing for use in case management and/or epidemiological studies of malaria. Emphasis is laid on the basic principles of each diagnostic approach as well as their operational limits under different malaria endemicity settings. The discussed methods are defined as "conventional" or "unconventional" depending on their widespread use in malaria case management. The chapter therefore provides a practical guide to students, health practitioners, and field researchers involved in the fight against malaria through community-based interventions.

Malaria/diagnóstico , Antimaláricos , Humanos , Malaria/prevención & control
BMC Pediatr ; 18(1): 259, 2018 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075712


BACKGROUND: Universal HIV testing and treatment of infected children remain challenging in resource-limited settings (RLS), leading to undiagnosed children/adolescents and limited access to pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of active cases finding of HIV-infected children/adolescents by provider-initiated testing and counseling in a health facility. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted from January through April 2016 at 6 entry-points (inpatient, outpatient, neonatology, immunization/family planning, tuberculosis, day-care units) at the Laquintinie Hospital of Douala (LHD), Cameroon. At each entry-point, following counseling with consenting parents, children/adolescents (0-19 years old) with unknown HIV status were tested using the Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) (Determine®) and confirmed with a second RDT (Oraquick®) according to national guidelines. For children less than 18 months, PCR was performed to confirm every positive RDT. Community health workers linked infected participants by accompanying them from the entry-point to the treatment centre for an immediate ART initiation following the « test and treat ¼ strategy. Statistical analysis was performed, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Out of 3439 children seen at entry-points, 2107 had an unknown HIV status (61.3%) and HIV testing acceptance rate was 99.9% (2104). Their mean age was 2.1 (Sd = 2.96) years, with a sex ratio boy/girl of 6/5. HIV prevalence was 2.1% (44), without a significant difference between boys and girls (p = 0.081). High rates of HIV-infection were found among siblings/descendants (22.2%), TB treatment unit attendees (11.4%) and hospitalized children/adolescents (5.6%); p < 0.001. Up to 95.4% (42/44) of those infected children/adolescents were initiated on ART. Overall, 487 (23.2%) deaths were registered (122 per month) and among them, 7 (15.9%) were HIV-positive; mainly due to tuberculosis and malnutrition. CONCLUSION: The consistent rate of unknown HIV status among children/adolescents attending health facilities, the high acceptability rates of HIV testing and linkage to ART, underscore the feasibility and utility of an active case finding model, using multiple entry-points at the health facility, in achieving the 90-90-90 targets for paediatric HIV/AIDS in RLS.

Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Camerún , Niño , Preescolar , Consejo , Estudios Transversales , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
Rev Prat ; 57(2): 183-8, 2007 Jan 31.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17432523


In more than one way, the development of antiparasitic vaccines is challenging, but major efforts have been made. A large number of clinical trials have been carried out and a few antigens have been tested in the endemic zone, especially against malaria. So far, no vaccine candidate has shown a sufficient and long-lasting effectiveness that would be useful for public health. However, the trials have shown without ambiguity that a certain level of clinical immunity against paludism, schistosomiasis or leishmaniasis could be induced by vaccination, in the experimental setting or in the field.

Enfermedades Parasitarias/prevención & control , Vacunas , Humanos , Leishmaniasis/prevención & control , Malaria/prevención & control , Vacunas Antiprotozoos