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Am J Primatol ; 78(5): 493-506, 2016 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26031411


Pitheciids are known for their frugivorous diets, but there has been no broad-scale comparison of fruit genera used by these primates that range across five geographic regions in South America. We compiled 31 fruit lists from data collected from 18 species (three Cacajao, six Callicebus, five Chiropotes, and four Pithecia) at 26 study sites in six countries. Together, these lists contained 455 plant genera from 96 families. We predicted that 1) closely related Chiropotes and Cacajao would demonstrate the greatest similarity in fruit lists; 2) pitheciids living in closer geographic proximity would have greater similarities in fruit lists; and 3) fruit genus richness would be lower in lists from forest fragments than continuous forests. Fruit genus richness was greatest for the composite Chiropotes list, even though Pithecia had the greatest overall sampling effort. We also found that the Callicebus composite fruit list had lower similarity scores in comparison with the composite food lists of the other three genera (both within and between geographic areas). Chiropotes and Pithecia showed strongest similarities in fruit lists, followed by sister taxa Chiropotes and Cacajao. Overall, pitheciids in closer proximity had more similarities in their fruit list, and this pattern was evident in the fruit lists for both Callicebus and Chiropotes. There was no difference in the number of fruit genera used by pitheciids in habitat fragments and continuous forest. Our findings demonstrate that pitheciids use a variety of fruit genera, but phylogenetic and geographic patterns in fruit use are not consistent across all pitheciid genera. This study represents the most extensive examination of pitheciid fruit consumption to date, but future research is needed to investigate the extent to which the trends in fruit genus richness noted here are attributable to habitat differences among study sites, differences in feeding ecology, or a combination of both.

Dieta/veterinaria , Frutas/clasificación , Herbivoria , Pitheciidae/fisiología , Plantas/clasificación , Animales , Ecosistema , Bosques , Geografía , Filogeografía
Am J Primatol ; 78(5): 583-97, 2016 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26031994


Polyspecific or mixed-species associations, where two or more species come together to forage and travel as a unit, have been reported in many primate species. These associations appear to offer a number of benefits to the species involved including increased foraging efficiency and decreased risk of predation. While several researchers have suggested that cuxiús (genus Chiropotes) form mixed-species associations, previous studies have not identified the circumstances under which cuxiús form associations or whether they form associations more often than would be expected by chance. Here we present data on the formation of mixed-species associations by four species of cuxiús at eight different sites in Brazil, Suriname, and Guyana. We analyzed data from two of the study sites, (Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), Brazil and the Upper Essequibo Conservation Concession (UECC), Guyana, to assess whether associations occurred more than would be expected by chance encounters and identify the factors influencing their formation. Cuxiús showed a high degree of inter-site variation in the frequency of time spent in association (ranging from 2 to 26% of observation time) and duration of associations (mean duration from 22 min to 2.5 hr). Sapajus apella was the most common association partner at most sites. At BDFFP, cuxiús formed associations more frequently but not for longer duration than expected by chance. For much of the year at UECC, associations were not more frequent or longer than chance. However, during the dry season, cuxiús formed associations with S. apella significantly more often and for longer duration than predicted by chance. Cuxiús at UECC formed associations significantly more often when in smaller subgroups and when foraging for insects, and alarm called significantly less frequently during associations. We suggest cuxiús form mixed-species associations at some sites as an adaptive strategy to decrease predation risk and/or increase foraging efficiency.

Conducta Apetitiva , Cebus/fisiología , Pitheciidae/fisiología , Conducta Social , Animales , Conducta Predatoria , Estaciones del Año , América del Sur
Am J Primatol ; 74(12): 1106-27, 2012 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22930419


Neotropical monkeys of the genera Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia (Pitheciidae) are considered to be highly arboreal, spending most of their time feeding and traveling in the upper canopy. Until now, the use of terrestrial substrates has not been analyzed in detail in this group. Here, we review the frequency of terrestrial use among pitheciin taxa to determine the ecological and social conditions that might lead to such behavior. We collated published and unpublished data from 14 taxa in the three genera. Data were gleaned from 53 published studies (including five on multiple pitheciin genera) and personal communications of unpublished data distributed across 31 localities. Terrestrial activity was reported in 61% of Pithecia field studies (11 of 18), in 34% of Chiropotes studies (10 of 29), and 36% of Cacajao studies (4 of 11). Within Pithecia, terrestrial behavior was more frequently reported in smaller species (e.g. P. pithecia) that are vertical clingers and leapers and make extensive use of the understory than in in the larger bodied canopy dwellers of the western Amazon (e.g. P. irrorata). Terrestrial behavior in Pithecia also occurred more frequently and lasted longer than in Cacajao or Chiropotes. An apparent association was found between flooded habitats and terrestrial activity and there is evidence of the development of a "local pattern" of terrestrial use in some populations. Seasonal fruit availability also may stimulate terrestrial behavior. Individuals also descended to the ground when visiting mineral licks, escaping predators, and responding to accidents such as a dropped infant. Overall, the results of this review emphasize that terrestrial use is rare among the pitheciins in general and is usually associated with the exploitation of specific resources or habitat types.

Conducta Animal , Ecosistema , Pitheciidae , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Conducta Predatoria , Estaciones del Año , América del Sur