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2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 703, 2021 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623531

RESUMEN

The Nile River is the soul of Egypt, providing more than 95% of its freshwater demand. However, it receives different pollutants discharged into the water body along its stretch from Aswan (downstream of the High Dam) to Cairo, which is approximately 950 km. Alternatively, sediments play an important role in the dynamics of the entire aquatic environment and act as a sink or a source of pollution in the overlying water under various conditions. This study assessed sediment quality and its heavy metal levels. Several indices and human health risks were determined to assess the potential ecological risk of the Nile River sediment. On the basis of the index results, Cd registered the highest pollution ranking, whereas Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Ni had the lowest effect. In another context, southern sites represented the lowest ecological risk relative to the central and northern sectors. The results of the noncarcinogenic hazard indices, hazard quotient, and hazard index in addition to the lifetime cancer risk were below the acceptable international limits, confirming that there are no adverse effects on the exposed population due to the Nile sediment.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19335-19351, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073833

RESUMEN

Lithium is registered as a serious pollutant that causes environmental damage to an irrigation water supply. Freshwater green alga (Oocystis solitaria) was studied for its potential to remove lithium ions from aqueous solutions. The Plackett-Burman design was applied for initial screening of six factors for their significances for the removal of lithium from aqueous solutions using Oocystis solitaria cells. Among the variables screened, pH, lithium concentration, and temperature were the most significant factors affecting lithium removal. Hence, the levels of these significant variables were further investigated for their interaction effects on lithium removal using the Box-Behnken statistical design. The optimum conditions for maximum lithium removal from aqueous solutions by Oocystis solitaria were the initial lithium concentration of 200 mg/L, contact time of 60 min, temperature of 30 °C, pH 5, and biomass of Oocystis solitaria cells of 1 g/L with agitation condition. Under the optimized conditions, the percentage of maximum lithium removal was 99.95% which is larger than the percentage of lithium removal recorded before applying the Plackett-Burman design (40.07%) by 2.49 times. The different properties of Oocystis solitaria, as an adsorbent, were explored with SEM and via FTIR analysis. The spectrum of FTIR analysis for samples of Oocystis solitaria cells before lithium biosorption showed different absorption peaks at 3394 cm-1, 2068 cm-1, 1638 cm-1, 1398 cm-1, 1071 cm-1, and 649 cm-1 which has been shifted to 3446 cm-1, 2924 cm-1, 1638 cm-1, 1384 cm-1, 1032 cm-1, and 613 cm-1, respectively, after lithium biosorption by the alga. The treatment of aqueous solution containing lithium with Oocystis solitaria cells immobilized in alginate beads removed 98.71% of lithium at an initial concentration of 200 mg/L after 5 h. Therefore, Oocystis solitaria may be considered as an alternative for sorption and removal of lithium ions from wastewaters.


Asunto(s)
Chlorophyta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agua Dulce/química , Litio/análisis , Modelos Teóricos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Adsorción , Biodegradación Ambiental , Biomasa , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Soluciones , Temperatura
4.
Chemosphere ; 216: 556-563, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390586

RESUMEN

This study investigates the effect of palladium (Pd) form on the electrochemical degradation of chlorobenzene in groundwater by palladium-catalyzed electro-Fenton (EF) reaction. In batch and flow-through column reactors, EF was initiated via in-situ electrochemical formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) supported by Pd on alumina powder or by palladized polyacrylic acid (PAA) in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (Pd-PVDF/PAA). In a mixed batch reactor containing 10 mg L-1 Fe2+, 2 g L-1 of catalyst in powder form (1% Pd, 20 mg L-1 of Pd) and an initial pH of 3, chlorobenzene was degraded under 120 mA current following a first-order decay rate showing 96% removal within 60 min. Under the same conditions, a rotating Pd-PVDF/PAA disk produced 88% of chlorobenzene degradation. In the column experiment with automatic pH adjustment, 71% of chlorobenzene was removed within 120 min with 10 mg L-1 Fe2+, and 2 g L-1 catalyst in pellet form (0.5% Pd, 10 mg L-1 of Pd) under 60 mA. The EF reaction can be achieved under flow, without external pH adjustment and H2O2 addition, and can be applied for in-situ groundwater treatment. Furthermore, the rotating PVDF-PAA membrane with immobilized Pd-catalyst showed an effective and low maintenance option for employing Pd catalyst for water treatment.


Asunto(s)
Clorobencenos/química , Agua Subterránea/química , Paladio/química , Catálisis , Hierro , Oxidación-Reducción , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13456, 2018 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194341

RESUMEN

Lead (Pb2+) is among the most toxic heavy metals even in low concentration and cause toxicity to human's health and other forms of life. It is released into the environment through different industrial activities. The biosorption of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions by biomass of commonly available, marine alga Gelidium amansii was studied. The effects of different variables on Pb2+ removal were estimated by a two-level Plackett-Burman factorial design to determine the most significant variables affecting Pb2+ removal % from aqueous solutions. Initial pH, Pb2+ concentration and temperature were the most significant factors affecting Pb2+ removal chosen for further optimization using rotatable central composite design. The maximum removal percentage (100%) of Pb2+ from aqueous solution by Gelidium amansii biomass was found under the optimum conditions: initial Pb2+ concentration of 200 mg/L, temperature 45 °C, pH 4.5, Gelidium amansii biomass of 1 g/L and contact time of 60 minutes at static condition. FTIR analysis of algal biomass revealed the presence of carbonyl, methylene, phosphate, carbonate and phenolic groups, which are involved in the Pb2+ ions biosorption process. SEM analysis demonstrates the ability of Gelidium amansii biomass to adsorb and removes Pb2+ from aqueous solution. EDS analysis shows the additional optical absorption peak corresponding to the Pb2+ which confirms the involvement of Gelidium amansii biomass in the adsorption of Pb2+ ions from aqueous solution. Immobilized Gelidium amansii biomass was effective in Pb2+ removal (100%) from aqueous solution at an initial concentration of 200 mg/L for 3 h. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that the red marine alga Gelidium amansii biomass is a promising, efficient, ecofriendly, cost-effective and biodegradable biosorbent for the removal of Pb2+ from the environment and wastewater effluents.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Plomo/química , Rhodophyta/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Purificación del Agua/métodos
6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12456, 2018 08 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127459

RESUMEN

Cadmium is a global heavy metal pollutant. Marine green algae were used as efficient, low cost and eco-friendly biosorbent for cadmium ions removal from aqueous solutions. Plackett-Burman design was applied to determine the most significant factors for maximum cadmium removal from aqueous solutions using dry Ulva fasciata biomass. The most significant factors affecting cadmium removal process were further optimized by the face centered central composite design. The results indicated that 4 g of dry Ulva fasciata biomass was found to successfully remove 99.96% of cadmium from aqueous solution under the conditions of 200 mg/L of initial cadmium concentration at pH 5, 25 °C for 60 min of contact time with static condition. Dry Ulva fasciata biomass samples before and after cadmium biosorption were analyzed using SEM, EDS and FTIR. Furthermore, the immobilized biomass in sodium alginate-beads removed 99.98% of cadmium from aqueous solution at an initial concentration of 200 mg/L after 4 h which is significantly higher than that for control using sodium alginate beads without incorporation of the algal biomass (98.19%). Dry biomass of Ulva fasciata was proven to be cost-effective and efficient to eliminate heavy metals especially cadmium from aquatic effluents and the process is feasible, reliable and eco-friendly.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/metabolismo , Ulva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Biomasa , Chlorophyta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Chlorophyta/metabolismo , Cinética , Soluciones/metabolismo , Ulva/metabolismo , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Agua/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 109(1): 356-360, 2016 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27236229

RESUMEN

The crude oil drilling and extraction operations are aimed to maximize the production may be counterbalanced by the huge production of contaminated produced water (PW). PW is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological technologies. The efficiency of suggested hybrid electrobiochemical (EBC) methods for the simultaneous removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and sulfate from PW generated by petroleum industry is studied. Also, the factors that affect the stability of PW quality are investigated. The results indicated that the effect of biological treatment is very important to keep control of the electrochemical by-products and more TPH removal in the EBC system. The maximum TPH and sulfate removal efficiency was achieved 75% and 25.3%, respectively when the detention time was about 5.1min and the energy consumption was 32.6mA/cm(2). However, a slight increasing in total bacterial count was observed when the EBC compact unit worked at a flow rate of average 20L/h. Pseudo steady state was achieved after 30min of current application in the solution. Also, the results of the study indicate that when the current intensity was increased above optimum level, no significant results occurred due to the release of gases.


Asunto(s)
Biodegradación Ambiental , Yacimiento de Petróleo y Gas , Petróleo/metabolismo , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos/métodos , Hidrocarburos/metabolismo , Calidad del Agua
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