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1.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(3): 312-320, 2018 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339616

RESUMEN

Introduction: During the 2000s the number of adolescents who became new smokers in the United States declined while the number of young adults who did so increased. However, we do not know among which demographic groups these changes occurred. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2006 to 2013 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (n = 180 079). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess annual trends in smoking onset and log-binomial regression models to assess changes over time in the risk of smoking onset among young adults (18- to 25-years-old) relative adolescents (12- to 17-years-old). Results: From 2006 to 2013, the rate of onset among young adults (6.3%) was greater than among adolescents (1.9%). Time trends demonstrated that annual declines in smoking onset occurred among white young adult males and females. Rates of smoking onset increased among black and Hispanic young adult males with a lower rate of decline among black and Hispanic young adult females. There was a greater risk of smoking onset among young adults relative to adolescents that did not change over time. Conclusions: Smoking onset is becoming more concentrated in the young adult than adolescent years. Despite this trend, there were annual declines in young adult smoking onset but not uniformly across racial/ethnic groups. More effective strategies to prevent young adult smoking onset may contribute to a further decline in adult smoking and a reduction in tobacco-related health disparities. Implications: Smoking onset is becoming more concentrated in the young adult years across sex and racial/ethnic groups. The United States may be experiencing a period of increasing age of smoking onset and must develop tobacco control policies and practices informed by these changes.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/tendencias , Fumar/etnología , Fumar/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos/etnología , Afroamericanos/psicología , Factores de Edad , Niño , Grupos de Población Continentales/etnología , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/etnología , Adulto Joven
2.
Tob Control ; 25(Suppl 2): ii14-ii20, 2016 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27729565

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: National data from 2004 to 2010 showed that despite decreases in non-menthol cigarette use prevalence, menthol cigarette use prevalence remained constant in adolescents and adults and increased in young adults. The purpose of the current study was to extend these analyses through 2014. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of menthol cigarette smoking in the USA during 2004-2014 using annual cross-sectional data on persons aged ≥12 years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Self-reported menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively menthol or non-menthol were adjusted based on retail sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: Although overall smoking prevalence has decreased, the proportion of past 30-day cigarette smokers using menthol cigarettes was higher (39%) in 2012-2014 compared to 2008-2010 (35%). Youth smokers remain the most likely group to use menthol cigarettes compared to all other age groups. Menthol cigarette prevalence has increased in white, Asian and Hispanic smokers since 2010. Menthol cigarette prevalence exceeded non-menthol cigarette prevalence in youth and young adult smokers in 2014. Among smokers, menthol cigarette use was positively correlated with co-use of cigars. Menthol cigarette and smokeless tobacco co-use also increased from 2004 to 2014. CONCLUSIONS: The youngest smokers are most likely to use menthol cigarettes. Among smokers, increases in overall menthol cigarette use and menthol cigarette use in whites, Asians and Hispanics since 2010 are of concern. There is tremendous urgency to limit the impact of menthol cigarettes on public health, particularly the health of youth and young adults.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Mentol , Fumar/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/etnología , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Tabaco sin Humo/economía , Tabaco sin Humo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Am J Prev Med ; 49(5): 738-744, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163166

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Smoking-related disparities continue to be a public health problem among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population groups and data documenting the health burden of smoking in this population are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess mortality attributable to cigarette smoking among AI/AN adults relative to non-Hispanic white adults (whites) by calculating and comparing smoking-attributable fractions and mortality. METHODS: Smoking-attributable fractions and mortality among AI/ANs (n=1.63 million AI/ANs) and whites were calculated for people living in 637 Indian Health Service Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in the U.S., from mortality data collected during 2001-2009. Differences in smoking-attributable mortality between AI/ANs and whites for five major causes of smoking-related deaths were examined. All data analyses were carried out in 2013-2014. RESULTS: Overall, from 2001 to 2009, age-adjusted death rates, smoking-attributable fractions, and smoking-attributable mortality for all-cause mortality were higher among AI/ANs than among whites for adult men and women aged ≥35 years. Smoking caused 21% of ischemic heart disease, 15% of other heart disease, and 17% of stroke deaths in AI/AN men, compared with 15%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, for white men. Among AI/AN women, smoking caused 18% of ischemic heart disease deaths, 13% of other heart diseases deaths, and 20% of stroke deaths, compared with 9%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, among white women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the need for comprehensive tobacco control and prevention efforts that can effectively reach and impact the AI/AN population to prevent and reduce smoking.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/etnología , Fumar/mortalidad , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alaska/etnología , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población , Distribución por Sexo
4.
Tob Control ; 24(1): 28-37, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23997070

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous to an individual's health as non-mentholated varieties. The addition of menthol to cigarettes reduces perceived harshness of smoke, which can facilitate initiation. Here, we examine correlates of menthol use, national trends in smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes, and brand preferences over time. METHODS: We estimated menthol cigarette use during 2004-2010 using annual data on persons ≥12 years old from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We adjusted self-reported menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively menthol or non-menthol, based on sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: Among cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette use was more common among 12-17 year olds (56.7%) and 18-25 year olds (45.0%) than among older persons (range 30.5% to 34.7%). In a multivariable analysis, menthol use was associated with being younger, female and of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Among all adolescents, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes decreased from 2004-2010, while menthol smoking rates remained constant; among all young adults, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes also declined, while menthol smoking rates increased. The use of Camel menthol and Marlboro menthol increased among adolescent and young adult smokers, particularly non-Hispanic Caucasians, during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Young people are heavy consumers of mentholated cigarettes. Progress in reducing youth smoking has likely been attenuated by the sale and marketing of mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands. This study should inform the Food and Drug Administration regarding the potential public health impact of a menthol ban.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Mentol , Fumar/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
5.
J Environ Public Health ; 2012: 314740, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22649463

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: On April 1, 2009, the federal cigarette excise tax increased from 39 cents to $1.01 per pack. METHODS: This study describes call volumes to 16 state quitlines, characteristics of callers and cessation outcomes before and after the tax. RESULTS: Calls to the quitlines increased by 23.5% in 2009 and more whites, smokers ≥ 25 years of age, smokers of shorter duration, those with less education, and those who live with smokers called after (versus before) the tax. Quit rates at 7 months did not differ before versus after tax. CONCLUSIONS: Descriptive analyses revealed that the federal excise tax on cigarettes was associated with increased calls to quitlines but multivariate analyses revealed no difference in quit rates. However, more callers at the same quit rate indicates an increase in total number of successful quitters. If revenue obtained from increased taxation on cigarettes is put into cessation treatment, then it is likely future excise taxes would have an even greater effect.


Asunto(s)
Líneas Directas/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/economía , Impuestos/economía , Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Gobierno Federal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/economía , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Gobierno Estatal , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
6.
J Environ Public Health ; 2012: 632629, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22654921

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Preemption is a legislative or judicial arrangement in which a higher level of government precludes lower levels of government from exercising authority over a topic. In the area of smoke-free policy, preemption typically takes the form of a state law that prevents communities from adopting local smoking restrictions. BACKGROUND: A broad consensus exists among tobacco control practitioners that preemption adversely impacts tobacco control efforts. This paper examines the effect of state provisions preempting local smoking restrictions in enclosed public places and workplaces. METHODS: Multiple data sources were used to assess the impact of state preemptive laws on the proportion of indoor workers covered by smoke-free workplace policies and public support for smoke-free policies. We controlled for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: State preemptive laws were associated with fewer local ordinances restricting smoking, a reduced level of worker protection from secondhand smoke, and reduced support for smoke-free policies among current smokers. DISCUSSION: State preemptive laws have several effects that could impede progress in secondhand smoke protections and broader tobacco control efforts. Conclusion. Practitioners and advocates working on other public health issues should familiarize themselves with the benefits of local policy making and the potential impact of preemption.


Asunto(s)
Formulación de Políticas , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Humanos , Gobierno Estatal , Estados Unidos
7.
Am J Public Health ; 102(7): 1310-2, 2012 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22594728

RESUMEN

This study examines patterns of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette use from 2003 to 2005 in a cohort of smokers, aged 16 to 24 years in the National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey. At follow-up, 15.0% of baseline menthol smokers had switched to nonmentholated cigarettes; by contrast, 6.9% of baseline nonmenthol smokers had switched to mentholated cigarettes. Differences in switching patterns were evident by gender, race/ethnicity, parental education, and smoking frequency. These data support previous evidence that young smokers start with mentholated cigarettes and progress to nonmentholated cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Mentol , Adulto Joven
8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 20(7): 1329-40, 2011 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21430301

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. METHOD: Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. RESULTS: Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. IMPACT: Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design.


Asunto(s)
Cotinina/sangre , Mentol , Fumar/sangre , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Anciano , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
9.
Am J Prev Med ; 38(3 Suppl): S312-8, 2010 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20176302

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mass media campaigns can be an effective strategy to increase quitting activity among smokers, particularly when aired in the context of other anti-tobacco efforts. DESIGN: A longitudinal study using data collected from smokers identified in a random-digit-dial survey of adults in Grand Rapids MI, prior to the campaign and approximately 6 months after the launch of the campaign. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Adult smokers who were interviewed in the fall of 2006 and agreed to participate in a follow-up interview approximately 6 months later (n=212). INTERVENTION: A pilot mass media campaign, branded EX, which used empathy to encourage smokers to "relearn" life without cigarettes, and focused on disassociating smoking from common activities that would otherwise function as smoking cues, such as driving or drinking coffee. The campaign averaged 100 targeted rating points per week on television. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measures were five campaign-related cognitions and confidence in quitting. Secondary outcome measures were quitting behaviors. RESULTS: This 2007 analysis suggests that the campaign generated a high level of awareness of EX, with 62% of the sample demonstrating confirmed awareness and 79% reporting aided awareness. Awareness of EX was associated with significant change in two of five campaign-related cognitions. Awareness was not associated with confidence in quitting or having made a quit attempt. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that a branded, empathetic media campaign that offers smokers practical advice on how to approach quitting can change cognitions related to successful cessation over a relatively short time period.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Michigan , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Adulto Joven
10.
Am J Public Health ; 99(12): 2210-6, 2009 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19833994

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We examined the effectiveness of a program to increase exposure to national "truth" tobacco countermarketing messages among youths in rural and low-population-density communities. METHODS: A longitudinal survey of 2618 youths aged 12 to 17 years was conducted over 5 months in 8 media markets receiving supplemental advertising and 8 comparison markets receiving less than the national average of "truth" messages. RESULTS: Confirmed awareness of "truth" increased from 40% to 71% among youths in treatment markets while remaining stable in comparison markets. Over 35% of all youths who were unaware of the campaign at baseline became aware of it as a direct result of the increased advertising. Youths living in rural and low-population-density communities were receptive to the campaign's messages. CONCLUSIONS: Through purchase of airtime in local broadcast media, the reach of a national tobacco countermarketing campaign was expanded among youths living in rural and low-population-density areas. This strategy of augmenting delivery of nationally broadcast antitobacco ads can serve as a model for leveraging limited tobacco control resources to increase the impact of evidence-based tobacco prevention campaigns.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Niño , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud/economía , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/economía , Población Rural , Estados Unidos
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 6(1): 25-35, 2009 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19440267

RESUMEN

Data from a nationally representative sample of smokers (ages 12-22 years, n=2,091) was examined to investigate the prevalence of symptoms of diminished autonomy over cigarettes. Six symptoms were assessed: failed cessation, smoking despite a desire to quit, and a need or urge to smoke, irritability, restlessness, or disrupted concentration attributed to nicotine withdrawal. One or more of the six symptoms were present in 18.9% of subjects who smoked less often than once per week. Among subjects who had not smoked 20 cigarettes in their lifetime, 12.6% had symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, and 25% had made an unsuccessful quit attempt.


Asunto(s)
Autonomía Personal , Fumar/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Fumar/fisiopatología , Fumar/psicología , Cese del Uso de Tabaco , Tabaquismo/fisiopatología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
Am J Health Promot ; 23(3): 195-202, 2009.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19149425

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Document changes from 2000 to 2004 in youth reports of exposure to pro-tobacco messages in the mass media, including images of smoking and tobacco advertising. DESIGN: Comparison of cross-sectional data from three waves of the school-based National Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2000 (N= 33,772), 2002 (N= 23,439), and 2004 (N= 23,540). SETTING: Public and private middle schools and high schools across the United States. SUBJECTS: Students in grades 6 through 12. MEASURES: Smoking status; exposure to images of smoking on television and in movies; exposure to advertisements for tobacco products in stores, on the Internet, and in newspapers and magazines; demographic data. RESULTS: Youth exposure to pro-tobacco messages declined within all media channels studied from 2000 to 2004, except the Internet. Despite these declines, most youth in the United States remain exposed to pro-tobacco messages: 81% saw images of smoking on television or in movies (down from 90%), 85% saw tobacco ads in stores (down from 88%), 50% saw tobacco ads in newspapers and magazines (down from 66%), and 33 % saw tobacco ads on the Internet (up from 22%). CONCLUSION: Despite recent progress in this area, most youth in the United States are still at increased risk of smoking as a result of exposure to pro-tobacco messages in the mass media.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Mercadotecnía/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Comunicación Persuasiva , Fumar/epidemiología , Industria del Tabaco , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/etnología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Intención , Internet , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/clasificación , Películas Cinematográficas , Periódicos como Asunto , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Instituciones Académicas , Fumar/etnología , Fumar/psicología , Televisión , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Addict Behav ; 32(7): 1532-6, 2007 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17184931

RESUMEN

This study assesses whether a national anti-tobacco campaign for youth could create a social context that would elevate social desirability response bias on surveys, as measured by an increase in under-reporting of smoking. This could give rise to data that falsely suggest a campaign-induced decline in youth smoking, or it could exaggerate campaign effects. Data were obtained from a national sample of 5511 students from 48 high schools that were matched to schools sampled for the 2002 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). Self-reported smoking was compared with biochemical indicators of smoking, measured using saliva cotinine. The rate of under-reporting detected was 1.3%. Level of truth exposure was not related to under-reporting. This study suggests that for high school students, anti-tobacco campaigns are not an important cause of social desirability responses on surveys, and that in general under-reporting smoking is not a major source of error in school-based surveys.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Mercadotecnía , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos de Investigación/estadística & datos numéricos , Deseabilidad Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Am J Public Health ; 94(2): 331-7, 2004 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14759951

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Our study presents national estimates of the proportion of youths in each of 7 stages of smoking and investigates the associations between risk/protective factors and progression to established smoking. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 1999 and 2000 National Youth Tobacco Surveys. RESULTS: In 1999 and 2000, 48.6% of US adolescents had at least experimented with tobacco, and 7.8% were established smokers. Important correlates of progression to established smoking included parental advice not to smoke, antismoking lessons in school, susceptibility to tobacco industry advertising and promotion, peer smoking, and exposure to smoking at home. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to stop adolescent progression to established smoking should target susceptible never smokers and early experimenters as well as those in later stages of smoking.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/etnología , Distribución por Edad , Estudios Transversales , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía , Oportunidad Relativa , Responsabilidad Parental , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Distribución por Sexo , Fumar/etnología , Fumar/psicología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Mercadeo Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Industria del Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med ; 156(6): 581-7, 2002 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12038891

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Understanding how advertising and other risk and demographic factors affect adolescent susceptibility to smoking would allow for the development of more effective youth-targeted tobacco prevention and cessation programs and policies. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of various demographic and risk factors on different stages of smoking among adolescents. DESIGN: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Survey of Tobacco Price Sensitivity, Behavior, and Attitudes Among Teenagers and Young Adults. SUBJECTS: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Survey of Tobacco Price Sensitivity, Behavior, and Attitudes Among Teenagers and Young Adults included 17,287 adolescent respondents (aged, 13-19 years) in 1996. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stage of susceptibility and correlates of progression toward regular smoking. RESULTS: Of all never [corrected] smoking adolescents, 32% were susceptible smokers (have never smoked, but might) with younger adolescents almost 3 times more likely than older adolescents to be susceptible. Female subjects were 50% [corrected] more likely than male subjects to be susceptible. In addition to exposure to others' smoking, owning or willingness to own tobacco promotional items, having a favorite cigarette advertisement, skipping school, poor school performance, and lack of attendance in religious activities were associated with progression along the uptake continuum. CONCLUSIONS: Improved understanding of the tobacco use trajectories of adolescents and the risk factors associated with progression will help clinicians and tobacco control advocates create effective youth-targeted interventions and policies. Findings suggest that physicians and other health care providers should redouble their efforts to ask preadolescents and young adults about smoking or the likelihood of their smoking. Nonsmokers should also be advised about the addictive nature of tobacco products and the resulting loss of control that accompanies addiction.


Asunto(s)
Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Publicidad , Distribución por Edad , Grupos de Población Continentales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Factores de Riesgo , Distribución por Sexo , Fumar/etnología , Fumar/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
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