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1.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225312, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834881

RESUMEN

Accurate smoking prevalence data is critical for monitoring, surveillance, and evaluation. However, estimates of prevalence vary across surveys due to various factors. This study examines smoking prevalence estimates for 18-21 year olds across six U.S. national telephone, online and in-person surveys for the years 2013 and 2014. Estimates of ever smoking ranged from 35% to 55%. Current smoking ranged from 16% to 30%. Across the three modalities, household surveys were found to yield the highest estimates of smoking prevalence among 18 to 21 year olds while online surveys yielded the lowest estimates, and this was consistent when stratifying by gender and race/ethnicity. Assessments of the joint effect of gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment and survey mode indicated that the relative differences in the likelihood of smoking were consistent across modes for gender and education groups. However, the relative likelihood of smoking among minority groups compared with non-Hispanic Whites varied across modes. Gender and racial/ethnic distributions for most surveys significantly differed from the U.S. Census. Over and underrepresentation of certain demographic subpopulations, variations in survey question wording, and social desirability effects may explain modality differences in smoking estimates observed in this study. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of survey mode on variation in smoking prevalence estimates across national surveys, particularly for young adult populations.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Adolescente , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilancia de la Población , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0200827, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096141

RESUMEN

This study's objective was to describe long-term trends and patterns in first cigarette use (cigarette initiation) and daily cigarette use (daily initiation) among youth and young adults in the U.S. We used cross-sectional survey data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2015, to estimate annual incidence of first cigarette use (N = 270,556) and first daily cigarette use (N = 373,464) for each year by age groups, race/ethnicity and gender, examining trends over time and the average annual change in initiation for each group. Several clear patterns emerged: 1) cigarette initiation and daily initiation significantly decreased over time among those aged 12-14 and 15-17 and these trends were consistent among nearly all racial/ethnic and gender subgroups; 2) among 18-21 year olds, cigarette initiation sharply increased through 2009, surpassing rates among 15-17 year olds, and sharply declined through 2015 while remaining higher than rates among the younger group, and this trend was consistent for almost all racial/ethnic subgroups; 3) daily initiation for those aged 18-21 significantly declined, and this was significant among most subgroups 4) there was no change in cigarette initiation and daily initiation for 22-25 year olds overall and most subgroups; 5) there was a significant increase in cigarette initiation for 22-25 year old Hispanics males and daily initiation for 22-25 year old males. This study provides a comprehensive look at trends in cigarette and daily initiation among U.S. youth and young adults. Despite notable declines in smoking initiation among youth and young adult populations over the last two decades, targeted prevention and policy efforts are needed for subgroups at higher risk, including young adults and Hispanic males.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Edad , Niño , Fumar Cigarrillos/prevención & control , Fumar Cigarrillos/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(3): 312-320, 2018 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339616

RESUMEN

Introduction: During the 2000s the number of adolescents who became new smokers in the United States declined while the number of young adults who did so increased. However, we do not know among which demographic groups these changes occurred. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2006 to 2013 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (n = 180 079). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess annual trends in smoking onset and log-binomial regression models to assess changes over time in the risk of smoking onset among young adults (18- to 25-years-old) relative adolescents (12- to 17-years-old). Results: From 2006 to 2013, the rate of onset among young adults (6.3%) was greater than among adolescents (1.9%). Time trends demonstrated that annual declines in smoking onset occurred among white young adult males and females. Rates of smoking onset increased among black and Hispanic young adult males with a lower rate of decline among black and Hispanic young adult females. There was a greater risk of smoking onset among young adults relative to adolescents that did not change over time. Conclusions: Smoking onset is becoming more concentrated in the young adult than adolescent years. Despite this trend, there were annual declines in young adult smoking onset but not uniformly across racial/ethnic groups. More effective strategies to prevent young adult smoking onset may contribute to a further decline in adult smoking and a reduction in tobacco-related health disparities. Implications: Smoking onset is becoming more concentrated in the young adult years across sex and racial/ethnic groups. The United States may be experiencing a period of increasing age of smoking onset and must develop tobacco control policies and practices informed by these changes.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/tendencias , Fumar/etnología , Fumar/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Afroamericanos/etnología , Afroamericanos/psicología , Factores de Edad , Niño , Grupos de Población Continentales/etnología , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/etnología , Adulto Joven
4.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0170381, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28207744

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess state coverage and utilization of Medicaid smoking cessation medication benefits among fee-for-service enrollees who smoked cigarettes. METHODS: We used the linked National Health Interview Survey (survey years 1995, 1997-2005) and the Medicaid Analytic eXtract files (1999-2008) to assess utilization of smoking cessation medication benefits among 5,982 cigarette smokers aged 18-64 years enrolled in Medicaid fee-for-service whose state Medicaid insurance covered at least one cessation medication. We excluded visits during pregnancy, and those covered by managed care or under dual enrollment (Medicaid and Medicare). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine correlates of cessation medication benefit utilization among Medicaid fee-for-service enrollees, including measures of drug coverage (comprehensive cessation medication coverage, number of medications in state benefit, varenicline coverage), individual-level demographics at NHIS interview, age at Medicaid enrollment, and state-level cigarette excise taxes, statewide smoke-free laws, and per-capita tobacco control funding. RESULTS: In 1999, the percent of smokers with ≥1 medication claims was 5.7% in the 30 states that covered at least one Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved cessation medication; this increased to 9.9% in 2008 in the 44 states that covered at least one FDA-approved medication (p<0.01). Cessation medication utilization was greater among older individuals (≥ 25 years), females, non-Hispanic whites, and those with higher educational attainment. Comprehensive coverage, the number of smoking cessation medications covered and varenicline coverage were all positively associated with utilization; cigarette excise tax and per-capita tobacco control funding were also positively associated with utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of medication benefits among fee-for-service Medicaid enrollees increased from 1999-2008 and varied by individual and state-level characteristics. Given that the Affordable Care Act bars state Medicaid programs from excluding any FDA-approved cessation medications from coverage as of January 2014, monitoring Medicaid cessation medication claims may be beneficial for informing efforts to increase utilization and maximize smoking cessation.


Asunto(s)
Planes de Aranceles por Servicios/economía , Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicaid/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/economía , Cese del Uso de Tabaco/métodos , Tabaquismo/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
5.
Tob Control ; 25(Suppl 2): ii14-ii20, 2016 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27729565

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: National data from 2004 to 2010 showed that despite decreases in non-menthol cigarette use prevalence, menthol cigarette use prevalence remained constant in adolescents and adults and increased in young adults. The purpose of the current study was to extend these analyses through 2014. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of menthol cigarette smoking in the USA during 2004-2014 using annual cross-sectional data on persons aged ≥12 years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Self-reported menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively menthol or non-menthol were adjusted based on retail sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: Although overall smoking prevalence has decreased, the proportion of past 30-day cigarette smokers using menthol cigarettes was higher (39%) in 2012-2014 compared to 2008-2010 (35%). Youth smokers remain the most likely group to use menthol cigarettes compared to all other age groups. Menthol cigarette prevalence has increased in white, Asian and Hispanic smokers since 2010. Menthol cigarette prevalence exceeded non-menthol cigarette prevalence in youth and young adult smokers in 2014. Among smokers, menthol cigarette use was positively correlated with co-use of cigars. Menthol cigarette and smokeless tobacco co-use also increased from 2004 to 2014. CONCLUSIONS: The youngest smokers are most likely to use menthol cigarettes. Among smokers, increases in overall menthol cigarette use and menthol cigarette use in whites, Asians and Hispanics since 2010 are of concern. There is tremendous urgency to limit the impact of menthol cigarettes on public health, particularly the health of youth and young adults.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Mentol , Fumar/epidemiología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/etnología , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Tabaco sin Humo/economía , Tabaco sin Humo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 18(6): 1539-44, 2016 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26588937

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: To understand changes occurring in nondaily smoking, we assessed differences in demographics and trends in nondaily smoking, by smoking frequency and amount. METHODS: Participants were 13 966 adult nondaily cigarette smokers (NDS) age 18 years and older responding to the 2000-2012 US National Health Interview Survey, an annual, nationally-representative, cross-sectional, household interview survey. We created a nine-level smoking frequency-amount variable using tertile cut points from the number of days smoked in the past 30 (1-7, 8-14, 15-29 days) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (cpd; 1-2, 3-5, ≥6). We computed weighted frequencies by low-, moderate-, high-frequency use, by low-, moderate-, high-cpd amount, and by demographics. We estimated temporal trends using weighted least squares regression, and the association between groups and past-year quit attempts using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of nondaily smoking among adults remained stable between 2000 to 2012 (P = .62). The most prevalent nondaily smoking frequency-amount groups were: smoking 15-29 days (in the past 30), 3-5 cpd (20.2%); 1-7 days, 1-2 cpd (19.7%); 15-29 days, 1-2 cpd (14.9%); and 15-29 days, ≥6 cpd (12.1%). From 2000 to 2012, low-cpd NDS (1-2 cpd) across moderate (8-14 days) and high (15-29 days) frequency groups increased (P < .01), while moderate frequency-moderate cpd (8-14 days, 3-5 cpd; P < .05) and high frequency-high cpd (15-29 days, ≥6 cpd; P < .01) NDS declined. Adjusting for demographics and year, the lowest frequency-amount groups had the lowest odds of past-year quit attempts. CONCLUSION: Changes occurred in NDS frequency and amount from 2000 to 2012, suggesting that more granular classifications may be important for monitoring NDS patterns. IMPLICATIONS: From 2000 to 2012, low-cpd NDS (1-2 cpd) across moderate- (8-14 days) and high-frequency (15-29 days) groups increased in the United States, while moderate frequency-moderate cpd (8-14 days, 3-5 cpd) and high frequency-high cpd (15-29 days, ≥6 cpd) NDS declined. Demographic differences were found across NDS frequency-amount groups. Adjusting for demographics and year, the lowest frequency-amount groups had the lowest odds of past-year quit attempts. These data can be used to further understand evolving patterns of NDS behavior, and to provide possible targeted groups-both by demographics and smoking frequency/amount-for future research and intervention.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar , Tabaquismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/terapia , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/terapia , Adulto Joven
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 817298, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26273647

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine abstinence outcomes among tobacco users with and without a reported mental health condition (MHC) who enrolled in state tobacco quitline programs. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a 7-month follow-up survey (response rate: 41% [3,132/7,459]) of three state-funded telephone quitline programs in the United States that assessed seven self-reported MHCs at quitline registration. We examined 30-day point prevalence tobacco quit rates for callers with any MHC versus none. Data were weighted to adjust for response bias and oversampling. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine cessation outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 45.8% of respondents reported ≥ 1 MHC; 57.4% of those reporting a MHC reported ≥ 2 MHCs. The unadjusted quit rate for callers with any MHC was lower than for callers with no MHC (22.0% versus 31.0%, P < 0.001). After adjusting for demographics, nicotine dependence, and program engagement, callers reporting ≥ 1 MHC were less likely to be abstinent at follow-up (adjusted OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.51-0.78, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: More intensive or tailored quitline programs may need to be developed among callers with MHCs as their quit rates appear to be lower than callers without MHCs.


Asunto(s)
Consejo/estadística & datos numéricos , Líneas Directas/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nebraska/epidemiología , North Carolina/epidemiología , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Revisión de Utilización de Recursos
8.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 12: E110, 2015 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26182145

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Antismoking mass media campaigns, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Tips from Former Smokers (Tips) campaign, increase the number of tobacco users calling tobacco quitlines. Few studies have investigated long-term tobacco use cessation for callers during antismoking media campaigns. Studies have suggested that callers during campaigns may be less committed to quitting and have lower quit rates. This study examines tobacco user cessation outcomes 7 months after quitline enrollment during the 2012 Tips campaign (March 19 through June 10, 2012). METHODS: We analyzed data for 715 tobacco users who enrolled in the Nebraska, North Carolina, or Texas state quitline multiple-call programs during the 2012 Tips campaign and responded to a 7-month postenrollment survey (38.5% survey response rate). We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine whether 7-day and 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates 7 months after enrollment were related to level of exposure to the campaign. RESULTS: In multivariable models, only lower nicotine dependence and higher call completion were associated with higher odds of 7-day and 30-day abstinence 7 months after enrollment. Tips campaign exposure was not associated with abstinence. CONCLUSION: Once enrolled in quitline counseling, quitline callers achieved similar outcomes regardless of Tips campaign exposure levels. While the campaign did not appear to directly affect odds of tobacco abstinence through quitlines, antismoking mass media campaigns such as Tips are valuable in increasing tobacco users' exposure to quitlines and thus increasing their likelihood of making a quit attempt and eventually achieving tobacco abstinence.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Líneas Directas/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Adulto , Consejo Dirigido , Escolaridad , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Cobertura del Seguro , Internet , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Nebraska/epidemiología , North Carolina/epidemiología , Autoinforme , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Texas/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Tabaquismo/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Am J Prev Med ; 49(5): 738-744, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163166

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Smoking-related disparities continue to be a public health problem among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population groups and data documenting the health burden of smoking in this population are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess mortality attributable to cigarette smoking among AI/AN adults relative to non-Hispanic white adults (whites) by calculating and comparing smoking-attributable fractions and mortality. METHODS: Smoking-attributable fractions and mortality among AI/ANs (n=1.63 million AI/ANs) and whites were calculated for people living in 637 Indian Health Service Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in the U.S., from mortality data collected during 2001-2009. Differences in smoking-attributable mortality between AI/ANs and whites for five major causes of smoking-related deaths were examined. All data analyses were carried out in 2013-2014. RESULTS: Overall, from 2001 to 2009, age-adjusted death rates, smoking-attributable fractions, and smoking-attributable mortality for all-cause mortality were higher among AI/ANs than among whites for adult men and women aged ≥35 years. Smoking caused 21% of ischemic heart disease, 15% of other heart disease, and 17% of stroke deaths in AI/AN men, compared with 15%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, for white men. Among AI/AN women, smoking caused 18% of ischemic heart disease deaths, 13% of other heart diseases deaths, and 20% of stroke deaths, compared with 9%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, among white women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the need for comprehensive tobacco control and prevention efforts that can effectively reach and impact the AI/AN population to prevent and reduce smoking.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Indios Norteamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/etnología , Fumar/mortalidad , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alaska/etnología , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población , Distribución por Sexo
10.
Tob Control ; 24(1): 94-9, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23864404

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The news media plays an important role in agenda setting and framing of stories about tobacco control. The purpose of this study was to examine newspaper, newswire and television coverage of tobacco issues in the USA over a 7-year period. METHODS: Analyses of 2004-2010 news media surveillance system data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office on Smoking and Health, based on content analysis and quantitative methods. Information on extent of news coverage, and types of tobacco-related themes, were examined from articles in 10 newspapers and 2 major newswires, as well as transcripts from 6 national television networks. RESULTS: The overall extent of newspaper, newswire and television stories about tobacco, and level of coverage by specific media outlets, varied over time, especially for newspapers. Nevertheless, there was an average of 3 newspaper stories, 4 newswire stories, and 1 television tobacco-related story each day. Television stories were more likely to contain cessation/addiction or health effects/statistics themes and less likely to contain secondhand smoke or policy/regulation themes than newspaper/newswire stories. There was more variation in the choice of tobacco theme among individual newspapers/newswires than television media outlets. CONCLUSIONS: News coverage of tobacco in the USA was relatively constant from 2004 to 2010. Audiences were more likely to be exposed to different tobacco themes in newspapers/newswires than on television. Tracking information about tobacco news stories can be used by advocates, programs and others for planning and evaluation, and by researchers for hypothesis generation.


Asunto(s)
Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Televisión/tendencias , Tabaco , Humanos , Estados Unidos
11.
Tob Control ; 24(1): 28-37, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23997070

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous to an individual's health as non-mentholated varieties. The addition of menthol to cigarettes reduces perceived harshness of smoke, which can facilitate initiation. Here, we examine correlates of menthol use, national trends in smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes, and brand preferences over time. METHODS: We estimated menthol cigarette use during 2004-2010 using annual data on persons ≥12 years old from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We adjusted self-reported menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively menthol or non-menthol, based on sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: Among cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette use was more common among 12-17 year olds (56.7%) and 18-25 year olds (45.0%) than among older persons (range 30.5% to 34.7%). In a multivariable analysis, menthol use was associated with being younger, female and of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Among all adolescents, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes decreased from 2004-2010, while menthol smoking rates remained constant; among all young adults, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes also declined, while menthol smoking rates increased. The use of Camel menthol and Marlboro menthol increased among adolescent and young adult smokers, particularly non-Hispanic Caucasians, during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Young people are heavy consumers of mentholated cigarettes. Progress in reducing youth smoking has likely been attenuated by the sale and marketing of mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands. This study should inform the Food and Drug Administration regarding the potential public health impact of a menthol ban.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Mentol , Fumar/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
12.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 16(11): 1478-86, 2014 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25006045

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: From March 19 through June 10, 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the first federally funded National Tobacco Education Campaign: Tips From Former Smokers (Tips). This study examined the campaign's impact on quitline callers' intermediate cessation outcomes. METHODS: We used quitline data from 23 states to examine changes in enrollment, service utilization, quit attempts, and self-reported quitting for 7 days or longer during Tips versus a similar time period in 2011. We used multivariate models to examine the relationship between Tips exposure (measured as gross rating points [GRPs]) and cessation outcomes during the campaign in 2012. We also assessed whether the Tips campaign's impact differed by state tobacco control funding. RESULTS: Compared with similar weeks in 2011, the number of quitline callers and callers who received counseling and/or nicotine replacement therapies increased by 88.6% (48,738 in 2011 vs. 91,911 during Tips) and 70.8% (40,546 in 2011 vs. 69,254 during Tips), respectively. Greater numbers of callers reported having made 24-hr quit attempts or quitting for 7 days or longer during the campaign. Higher Tips campaign GRPs were positively associated with quit attempts and with quitting for 7 days or longer among persons from states with higher tobacco control funding. In states with lower funding, the highest GRP group (2,000+ GRPs) had lower levels of cessation compared with the middle GRP group (1,200-1,999 GRPs). CONCLUSIONS: An evidence-based national tobacco education campaign with adequate reach and frequency can lead to substantial increases in quitline use and, to a lesser degree, intermediate cessation outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Líneas Directas/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Adulto , Consejo/métodos , Consejo/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Factores de Tiempo , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 9: E163, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23137862

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The death rate of people who have a chronic disease is lower among former smokers than current smokers. State tobacco cessation quitlines are available for free in every state. The objective of our study was to compare demographic characteristics, use of quitline services, and quit rates among a sample of quitline callers. METHODS: We used data from 15 states on tobacco users aged 18 or older who enrolled with a quitline between October 1, 2005, and May 31, 2008; 9 states also provided data from 7-month follow-up surveys. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to compare callers by disease status. RESULTS: Among 195,057 callers, 32.3% reported having 1 or more of the following chronic diseases: 17.7%, asthma; 5.9%, coronary artery disease; 11.1%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and 9.3%, diabetes; 9.0% had 2 or more chronic diseases. Callers who had a chronic disease were older and better educated; more likely to be female, have Medicaid or other health insurance, and have used tobacco for 20 years or more; and less likely to quit smoking (22.3%) at 7 months than callers who had none of these chronic diseases (29.7%). CONCLUSION: About one-third of tobacco users who call state quitlines have a chronic disease, and those who have a chronic disease are less likely to quit using tobacco. Continued efforts are needed to ensure cessation treatments are reaching tobacco users who have a chronic disease and to develop and test ways to increase quit rates among them.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Líneas Directas/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Enfermedad Crónica/prevención & control , Consejo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Planificación en Salud , Humanos , Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Fumar/tendencias , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Mercadeo Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
14.
J Environ Public Health ; 2012: 314740, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22649463

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: On April 1, 2009, the federal cigarette excise tax increased from 39 cents to $1.01 per pack. METHODS: This study describes call volumes to 16 state quitlines, characteristics of callers and cessation outcomes before and after the tax. RESULTS: Calls to the quitlines increased by 23.5% in 2009 and more whites, smokers ≥ 25 years of age, smokers of shorter duration, those with less education, and those who live with smokers called after (versus before) the tax. Quit rates at 7 months did not differ before versus after tax. CONCLUSIONS: Descriptive analyses revealed that the federal excise tax on cigarettes was associated with increased calls to quitlines but multivariate analyses revealed no difference in quit rates. However, more callers at the same quit rate indicates an increase in total number of successful quitters. If revenue obtained from increased taxation on cigarettes is put into cessation treatment, then it is likely future excise taxes would have an even greater effect.


Asunto(s)
Líneas Directas/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/economía , Impuestos/economía , Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Gobierno Federal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/economía , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Gobierno Estatal , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
15.
J Environ Public Health ; 2012: 632629, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22654921

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Preemption is a legislative or judicial arrangement in which a higher level of government precludes lower levels of government from exercising authority over a topic. In the area of smoke-free policy, preemption typically takes the form of a state law that prevents communities from adopting local smoking restrictions. BACKGROUND: A broad consensus exists among tobacco control practitioners that preemption adversely impacts tobacco control efforts. This paper examines the effect of state provisions preempting local smoking restrictions in enclosed public places and workplaces. METHODS: Multiple data sources were used to assess the impact of state preemptive laws on the proportion of indoor workers covered by smoke-free workplace policies and public support for smoke-free policies. We controlled for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: State preemptive laws were associated with fewer local ordinances restricting smoking, a reduced level of worker protection from secondhand smoke, and reduced support for smoke-free policies among current smokers. DISCUSSION: State preemptive laws have several effects that could impede progress in secondhand smoke protections and broader tobacco control efforts. Conclusion. Practitioners and advocates working on other public health issues should familiarize themselves with the benefits of local policy making and the potential impact of preemption.


Asunto(s)
Formulación de Políticas , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Humanos , Gobierno Estatal , Estados Unidos
16.
Am J Public Health ; 102(7): 1310-2, 2012 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22594728

RESUMEN

This study examines patterns of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette use from 2003 to 2005 in a cohort of smokers, aged 16 to 24 years in the National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey. At follow-up, 15.0% of baseline menthol smokers had switched to nonmentholated cigarettes; by contrast, 6.9% of baseline nonmenthol smokers had switched to mentholated cigarettes. Differences in switching patterns were evident by gender, race/ethnicity, parental education, and smoking frequency. These data support previous evidence that young smokers start with mentholated cigarettes and progress to nonmentholated cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Mentol , Adulto Joven
17.
Am J Public Health ; 101(10): 1955-62, 2011 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21852638

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We examined patterns in cigar use among young adults, aged 18-25 years, focusing on race/ethnicity and brand. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2008, using multivariate logistic regression to assess time trends in past 30 days cigar use, past 30 days use of a "top 5" cigar brand, cigar use intensity, and age at first cigar use. RESULTS: Cigar use has increased among White non-Hispanic men aged 18 to 25 years, from 12.0% in 2002 to 12.7% in 2008. Common predictors of all outcomes included male gender and past 30 days use of cigarettes, marijuana, and blunts. Additional predictors of past 30 days cigar and "top 5" brand use included younger age, non-Hispanic Black or White race, lower income, and highest level of risk behavior. College enrollment predicted intensity of use and "top 5" brand use. CONCLUSIONS: Recent legislative initiatives have changed how cigars are marketed and may affect consumption. National surveys should include measures of cigar brand and little cigar and cigarillo use to improve cigar use estimates.


Asunto(s)
Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 13(11): 1098-105, 2011 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21852272

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Although awareness of mass-media smoking cessation campaigns is hypothesized to affect quit behavior through changes in cessation-related attitudes, intentions, and motivation (cognitions), this has yet to be formally tested. METHODS: Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether changes in cessation-related cognitions mediate the relationship between awareness of a national mass-media smoking cessation campaign, the EX campaign, and quit attempts in a cohort of 3,571 current smokers drawn from eight U.S. Designated Market Areas and followed over an approximate six-month period. Models were examined in the total sample and within racial/ethnic, gender, age, and educational strata. RESULTS: Data suggest that there are both a direct effect of confirmed awareness of EX on quit attempts as well as an indirect effect mediated by positive changes in cessation-related cognitions. Results are not uniform across subgroups; stratified analyses reveal that awareness of EX is significantly associated with positive changes in cessation-related cognitions and quit attempts only in Blacks, males, and those with less than a high-school education. CONCLUSIONS: Those developing health communication mass-media campaigns need to consider how media messages might differentially impact U.S. subpopulations in order to elicit desired behavioral change across target subgroups.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Adulto , Publicidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Demografía , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Intención , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Fumar/etnología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/etnología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 20(7): 1329-40, 2011 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21430301

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. METHOD: Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. RESULTS: Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. IMPACT: Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design.


Asunto(s)
Cotinina/sangre , Mentol , Fumar/sangre , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Anciano , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
20.
Am J Prev Med ; 38(3 Suppl): S312-8, 2010 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20176302

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mass media campaigns can be an effective strategy to increase quitting activity among smokers, particularly when aired in the context of other anti-tobacco efforts. DESIGN: A longitudinal study using data collected from smokers identified in a random-digit-dial survey of adults in Grand Rapids MI, prior to the campaign and approximately 6 months after the launch of the campaign. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Adult smokers who were interviewed in the fall of 2006 and agreed to participate in a follow-up interview approximately 6 months later (n=212). INTERVENTION: A pilot mass media campaign, branded EX, which used empathy to encourage smokers to "relearn" life without cigarettes, and focused on disassociating smoking from common activities that would otherwise function as smoking cues, such as driving or drinking coffee. The campaign averaged 100 targeted rating points per week on television. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measures were five campaign-related cognitions and confidence in quitting. Secondary outcome measures were quitting behaviors. RESULTS: This 2007 analysis suggests that the campaign generated a high level of awareness of EX, with 62% of the sample demonstrating confirmed awareness and 79% reporting aided awareness. Awareness of EX was associated with significant change in two of five campaign-related cognitions. Awareness was not associated with confidence in quitting or having made a quit attempt. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that a branded, empathetic media campaign that offers smokers practical advice on how to approach quitting can change cognitions related to successful cessation over a relatively short time period.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Michigan , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Adulto Joven
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