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1.
Ecol Evol ; 12(9): e9259, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36177125

RESUMEN

One of the most challenging endeavors for students is choosing a career path that best fits their interests, wills and skills, and setting their professional goals accordingly. Such decisions are often made from within the culture of academia, in which mentors and peers are mainly familiar with the academic job market and lack the knowledge necessary to consult about other types of careers. We aimed to address this gap for ecology and related fields by creating an engaging and effective tool to help students and professionals to familiarize themselves with the diversity of potential career paths available to ecologists. The tool is an applied card game - the Ecologist's Career Compass - which is provided here freely. The game is played as a trump card game and includes 33 cards, each representing a combination of one of four job-market sectors and one of nine types of positions. Each card indicates the level of seven skill categories required to likely be hired and succeed in the focal position at the focal sector, as well as more specific examples for typical jobs in the focal combination. The information in the game largely relies on input from a global survey we conducted among 315 ecologists from 35 countries. While the challenges faced by early-career ecologists in developing their professional path are substantial and diverse, this game can assist in gaining a broad comparative overview of the whole ecology job market and the skills required to likely excel in different paths. We hope this applied game will act as a conversation starter about the diversity of aspirations and opportunities in ecology classrooms and labs.

2.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 173: 107390, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353366

RESUMEN

The crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci, which is among the most studied pathogens of aquatic invertebrates, co-evolved with North American crayfish species but threatens crayfish on other continents. The pathogen causes mass mortalities, particularly in Europe. In this study we document 12 crayfish plague outbreaks that occurred from 2014 to 2019 in Czechia and, by using available molecular techniques (microsatellite and mtDNA markers), we reveal the A. astaci genotypes involved. Our results provide the first evidence of strains from genotype group D, originally associated with the host Procambarus clarkii, causing Astacus astacus and Austropotamobius torrentium mass mortalities in Czechia. Moreover, mtDNA sequencing confirmed two distinct haplotypes of the D haplogroup, indicating two independent sources of infection, presumably originating from ornamental crayfish in the pet trade or spreading from crayfish established in neighbouring countries. Genotype group A was recorded in two As. astacus mortalities, and genotype group E, associated with Faxonius limosus, in two Au. torrentium and three As. astacus mortalities. Microsatellite genotyping also reidentified the unusual genotype SSR-Up in two As. astacus outbreaks, ten years after its first documented occurrence. In addition, we tested healthy-appearing indigenous crayfish from 25 localities for potential chronic infections. No traces of A. astaci DNA were detected; chronic infections in European crayfish species thus do not seem a pervasive phenomenon in Czechia. However, their role as A. astaci latent reservoirs, especially in Pontastacus leptodactylus populations introduced to the country since the late 19th century, cannot be excluded.


Asunto(s)
Aphanomyces/fisiología , Astacoidea/parasitología , Animales , Aphanomyces/genética , República Checa , Genotipo
3.
Parasitology ; 147(6): 706-714, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046798

RESUMEN

The spread of invasive, non-native species is a key threat to biodiversity. Parasites can play a significant role by influencing their invasive host's survival or behaviour, which can subsequently alter invasion dynamics. The North American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) is a known carrier of Aphanomyces astaci, an oomycete pathogen that is the causative agent of crayfish plague and fatal to European crayfish species, whereas North American species are considered to be largely resistant. There is some evidence, however, that North American species, can also succumb to crayfish plague, though how A. astaci affects such 'reservoir hosts' is rarely considered. Here, we tested the impact of A. astaci infection on signal crayfish, by assessing juvenile survival and adult behaviour following exposure to A. astaci zoospores. Juvenile signal crayfish suffered high mortality 4-weeks post-hatching, but not as older juveniles. Furthermore, adult signal crayfish with high-infection levels displayed altered behaviours, being less likely to leave the water, explore terrestrial areas and exhibit escape responses. Overall, we reveal that A. astaci infection affects signal crayfish to a much greater extent than previously considered, which may not only have direct consequences for invasions, but could substantially affect commercially harvested signal crayfish stocks worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Aphanomyces/fisiología , Astacoidea/microbiología , Factores de Edad , Animales , Conducta Animal , Especies Introducidas , Longevidad
4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7832, 2019 05 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127134

RESUMEN

Amniotes possess variability in sex determination, from environmental sex determination (ESD), where no sex chromosomes are present, to genotypic sex determination (GSD) with highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Some evolutionary scenarios postulate high stability of differentiated sex chromosomes and rare transitions from GSD to ESD. However, sex chromosome turnovers and two independent transitions from highly differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes to ESD were previously reported in the lacertid lizards. Here, we examined the homology of sex chromosomes in the wide phylogenetic spectrum of lacertids and their outgroups by comparing gene copy numbers between sexes in genes previously found to be Z-specific in some lacertids. Our current sampling covers 45 species from 26 genera including lineages supposed to possess a derived sex determining systems. We found that all tested lacertids share homologous differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes, which were present already in their common ancestor living around 85 million years ago. These differentiated sex chromosomes are not present in amphisbaenians and teiid lizards, the close relatives of lacertids. Our study demonstrates how inaccuracies in data can influence the outcome of phylogenetic reconstructions of evolution of sex determination, in this case they overestimated the number of shifts from GSD to ESD and the rate in turnovers of sex chromosomes.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Genotipo , Lagartos/fisiología , Cromosomas Sexuales/genética , Procesos de Determinación del Sexo/fisiología , Animales , Citogenética/estadística & datos numéricos , Exactitud de los Datos , Evolución Molecular , Femenino , Dosificación de Gen , Masculino , Filogenia , Homología de Secuencia de Ácido Nucleico
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 130(3): 209-219, 2018 09 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259873

RESUMEN

The oomycete Aphanomyces astaci is the causative agent of crayfish plague in native European freshwater crayfish. Molecular analyses showed that several distinct genotype groups of this pathogen, apparently associated with different original host taxa, are present in Europe. Tracking their distribution may contribute to understanding the introduction pathways of A. astaci. We used microsatellite markers to genotype the pathogen strains involved in 7 mass mortalities of the endangered indigenous crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes that occurred between 2009 and 2016 in the Abruzzi and Molise regions, central Italy. Three A. astaci genotype groups (A, B, and D, with the latter represented by 2 distinct multilocus genotypes) were identified, suggesting the existence of multiple infection sources even in a relatively small area. Most crayfish plague episodes were due to genotype groups associated with the North American host species Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii, although these crayfish are not widespread in the study area. A. astaci genotype group A was detected not only in crayfish plague outbreaks but also in apparently healthy Astacus leptodactylus imported for human consumption from Armenia and kept alive in an aquaculture facility. Imports of chronically infected A. leptodactylus from Armenia, Turkey, and possibly Eastern Europe are an underestimated introduction pathway for A. astaci. Although we cannot exclude the presence of latently infected native populations of A. pallipes in the region, A. astaci infections in legally imported crayfish species considered vulnerable to crayfish plague may represent further reservoirs of A. astaci; this should be reflected in the policies regulating the trade of live crayfish.


Asunto(s)
Aphanomyces , Astacoidea , Animales , Aphanomyces/genética , Astacoidea/microbiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Genotipo , Infecciones/veterinaria , Italia , Turquia
6.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 150: 73-75, 2017 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888767

RESUMEN

Although the introduction of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci to Europe is responsible for substantial declines in native crayfish populations throughout the whole continent, its presence has never been officially confirmed in many European regions, including most of the Balkan Peninsula. We demonstrate that the recent crayfish mortality observed in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Mostarsko blato karst field, Neretva river drainage) was caused by A. astaci. The causative strain is known only from European crayfish, indicating that A. astaci poses a threat to native species in this region, even in the absence of its main vectors, the North American crayfish.


Asunto(s)
Aphanomyces/patogenicidad , Astacoidea/microbiología , Infecciones/veterinaria , Animales , Bosnia y Herzegovina , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Infecciones/microbiología
7.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 132: 115-124, 2015 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26410255

RESUMEN

European crayfish are sensitive to the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, carried by North American crayfish species due to their less effective immune defence mechanisms against this disease. During a controlled infection experiment with a susceptible crayfish species Astacus astacus using three A. astaci strains (representing genotype groups A, B, and E), we investigated variation in their virulence and in crayfish immune defence indicators (haemocyte density, phenoloxidase activity, and production of reactive oxygen species). Experimental crayfish were exposed to two dosages of A. astaci spores (1 and 10 spores mL(-1)). The intensity and timing of the immune response differed between the strains as well as between the spore concentrations. Stronger and faster change in each immune parameter was observed in crayfish infected with two more virulent strains, indicating a relationship between crayfish immune response and A. astaci virulence. Similarly, the immune response was stronger and was observed earlier for the higher spore concentration. For the first time, the virulence of a strain of the genotype group E (isolated from Orconectes limosus) was experimentally tested. Total mortality was reached after 10 days for the two higher spore dosages (10 and 100 spores mL(-1)), and after 16 days for the lowest (1 spore mL(-1)), revealing equally high and rapid mortality as caused by the genotype group B (from Pacifastacus leniusculus). No mortality occurred after infection with genotype group A during 60 days of the experimental trial.


Asunto(s)
Aphanomyces/inmunología , Astacoidea/inmunología , Inmunidad Innata , Animales , Aphanomyces/genética , Aphanomyces/patogenicidad , Astacoidea/parasitología , Recuento de Células Sanguíneas , Genotipo , Hemocitos , Monofenol Monooxigenasa/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Virulencia
8.
PLoS Biol ; 12(5): e1001850, 2014 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24802715

RESUMEN

Species moved by human activities beyond the limits of their native geographic ranges into areas in which they do not naturally occur (termed aliens) can cause a broad range of significant changes to recipient ecosystems; however, their impacts vary greatly across species and the ecosystems into which they are introduced. There is therefore a critical need for a standardised method to evaluate, compare, and eventually predict the magnitudes of these different impacts. Here, we propose a straightforward system for classifying alien species according to the magnitude of their environmental impacts, based on the mechanisms of impact used to code species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Invasive Species Database, which are presented here for the first time. The classification system uses five semi-quantitative scenarios describing impacts under each mechanism to assign species to different levels of impact-ranging from Minimal to Massive-with assignment corresponding to the highest level of deleterious impact associated with any of the mechanisms. The scheme also includes categories for species that are Not Evaluated, have No Alien Population, or are Data Deficient, and a method for assigning uncertainty to all the classifications. We show how this classification system is applicable at different levels of ecological complexity and different spatial and temporal scales, and embraces existing impact metrics. In fact, the scheme is analogous to the already widely adopted and accepted Red List approach to categorising extinction risk, and so could conceivably be readily integrated with existing practices and policies in many regions.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal/fisiología , Ambiente , Especies Introducidas/estadística & datos numéricos , Dispersión de las Plantas/fisiología , Animales , Biodiversidad , Extinción Biológica , Cadena Alimentaria , Herbivoria/fisiología , Actividades Humanas/tendencias , Humanos , Plantas/microbiología , Plantas/parasitología , Plantas/virología , Dinámica Poblacional/tendencias , Conducta Predatoria/fisiología , Suelo/química , Especificidad de la Especie , Incertidumbre
9.
Conserv Biol ; 28(5): 1188-94, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24779412

RESUMEN

Non-native species cause changes in the ecosystems to which they are introduced. These changes, or some of them, are usually termed impacts; they can be manifold and potentially damaging to ecosystems and biodiversity. However, the impacts of most non-native species are poorly understood, and a synthesis of available information is being hindered because authors often do not clearly define impact. We argue that explicitly defining the impact of non-native species will promote progress toward a better understanding of the implications of changes to biodiversity and ecosystems caused by non-native species; help disentangle which aspects of scientific debates about non-native species are due to disparate definitions and which represent true scientific discord; and improve communication between scientists from different research disciplines and between scientists, managers, and policy makers. For these reasons and based on examples from the literature, we devised seven key questions that fall into 4 categories: directionality, classification and measurement, ecological or socio-economic changes, and scale. These questions should help in formulating clear and practical definitions of impact to suit specific scientific, stakeholder, or legislative contexts.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Especies Introducidas , Animales , Biodiversidad , Plantas
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