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IUBMB Life ; 72(10): 2121-2132, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710811


Sepsis results from a major systemic inflammatory response and can induce disorders in multiple organs. The present study evaluated the potential protective effects of oleuropein (OLE) against hyperinflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis in mice. Sixty male Balb/c mice were randomly categorized into five groups of 12 animals each: control, intraperitoneally injected with OLE (50 mg/kg), injected with LPS (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and two groups administered OLE (25 and 50 mg/kg) for 3 days prior to LPS injection. Twenty-four hours after lipopolysaccharide injection, the animals were sacrificed. Serum, liver, and kidney tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses, histopathological examinations, and investigation of inflammation-related gene expression. OLE pretreatment significantly reduced liver damage parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase) and kidney damage parameters (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and kidney injury molecule-1) in the septic mice. OLE pretreatment ameliorated LPS-induced liver and kidney histological changes. OLE significantly mitigated the increased levels of malondialdehyde in the liver and kidneys and reduced levels of reduced glutathione induced by LPS. LPS injection also resulted in increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) and inflammation-related genes (Nos2, Hmgb1, Mpo, Cd46, Map2k4, and Map2k7) in the hepatic and renal tissues. OLE reduced these expressions to ameliorate the inflammatory response. Moreover, OLE pretreatment enhanced the survival rate of septic mice. In conclusion, OLE alleviated the inflammatory response to protect against LPS-induced sepsis in mice.

Blood Adv ; 2(13): 1585-1594, 2018 07 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980574


Plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) vary considerably in the general population and this variation has been linked to several genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors include 2 common single nucleotide variants (SNVs) located in VWF, rs1063856 (c.2365A>G) and rs1063857 (c.2385T>C), although to date the mechanistic basis for their association with VWF level is unknown. Using genotypic/phenotypic information from a European healthy control population, in vitro analyses of recombinant VWF expressing both SNVs, and in vivo murine models, this study determined the precise nature of their association with VWF level and investigated the mechanism(s) involved. Possession of either SNV corresponded with a significant increase in plasma VWF in healthy controls (P < .0001). In vitro expression confirmed this observation and highlighted an independent effect for each SNV (P < .0001 and P < .01, respectively), despite close proximity and strong linkage disequilibrium between them both. The influence of c.2365A>G on VWF levels was also confirmed in vivo. This increase in VWF protein corresponded to an increase in VWF messenger RNA (mRNA) resulting, in part, from prolonged mRNA half-life. In addition, coinheritance of both SNVs was associated with a lower VWF propeptide-to-VWF antigen ratio in healthy controls (P < .05) and a longer VWF half-life in VWF knockout mice (P < .0001). Both SNVs therefore directly increase VWF plasma levels through a combined influence on VWF biosynthesis and clearance, and may have an impact on disease phenotype in both hemostatic and thrombotic disorders.

Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , ARN Mensajero , Factor de von Willebrand , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Estabilidad del ARN , ARN Mensajero/biosíntesis , ARN Mensajero/genética , Factor de von Willebrand/biosíntesis , Factor de von Willebrand/genética
Hum Genomics ; 12(1): 18, 2018 04 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631625


BACKGROUND: In individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), exon skipping treatment to restore a wild-type phenotype or correct the frame shift of the mRNA transcript of the dystrophin (DMD) gene are mutation-specific. To explore the molecular characterization of DMD rearrangements and predict the reading frame, we simultaneously screened all 79 DMD gene exons of 45 unrelated male DMD patients using a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay for deletion/duplication patterns. Multiplex PCR was used to confirm single deletions detected by the MLPA. RESULTS: There was an obvious diagnostic delay, with an extremely statistically significant difference between the age at initial symptoms and the age of clinical evaluation of DMD cases (t value, 10.3; 95% confidence interval 5.95-8.80, P < 0.0001); the mean difference between the two groups was 7.4 years. Overall, we identified 147 intragenic rearrangements: 46.3% deletions and 53.7% duplications. Most of the deletions (92.5%) were between exons 44 and 56, with exon 50 being the most frequently involved (19.1%). Eight new rearrangements, including a mixed deletion/duplication and double duplications, were linked to seven cases with DMD. Of all the cases, 17.8% had duplications with no hot spots. In addition, confirmation of the reading frame hypothesis helped account for new DMD rearrangements in this study. We found that 81% of our Saudi patients would potentially benefit from exon skipping, of which 42.9% had a mutation amenable to skipping of exon 51. CONCLUSIONS: Our study could generate considerable data on mutational rearrangements that may promote future experimental therapies in Saudi Arabia.

Diagnóstico Tardío , Distrofina/genética , Reordenamiento Génico/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Exones/genética , Femenino , Eliminación de Gen , Duplicación de Gen , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/diagnóstico , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatología , Mutación , ARN Mensajero/genética , Arabia Saudita