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1.
Arch Dis Child ; 2024 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38925884

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Household damp exposure is an important public health issue. We aimed to assess the impact of the location of household damp on respiratory outcomes during early life. METHODS: Household damp exposure was ascertained in children recruited to the GO-CHILD multicentre birth cohort study. The frequency of respiratory symptoms, infections, healthcare utilisation and medication prescription for wheezing were collected by postal questionnaires at 12 and 24 months. Log binomial and ordered logistic regression models were fitted to the data. RESULTS: Follow-up was obtained in 1344 children between August 2010 and January 2016. Visible damp was present in a quarter of households (25.3%) with 1 in 12 children's bedrooms affected (8.3%). Damp in the bathroom, kitchen or living room was not associated with any respiratory or infection-related outcomes. Damp in the child's bedroom was associated with an increased risk of dry cough (8.7% vs 5.7%) (adjusted relative risk 1.56, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.27; p=0.021) and odds of primary care attendance for cough and wheeze (7.6% vs 4.4%) (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.76; p=0.009). There were also increased risk of inhaled corticosteroid (13.3% vs 5.9%) (adjusted RR 2.22, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.74; p=0.038) and reliever inhaler (8.3% vs 5.8%) (adjusted RR 2.01, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.79; p=0.018) prescription. CONCLUSION: Damp in the child's bedroom was associated with increased respiratory morbidity. In children presenting with recurrent respiratory symptoms, clinicians should enquire about both the existence and location of damp, the presence of which can help prioritise those families requiring urgent household damp assessment and remediation works.

5.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 59(1): 19-30, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37690457

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory infections and wheeze have a considerable impact on the health of young children and consume significant healthcare resources. We aimed to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on respiratory infections and symptoms in early childhood. METHODS: Environmental risk factors including: daycare attendance; breastfeeding; siblings; damp within the home; environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); child's bedroom flooring; animal exposure; road traffic density around child's home; and solid fuel pollution within home were assessed in children recruited to the GO-CHILD multicentre prospective birth cohort study. Follow-up information on respiratory infections (bronchiolitis, pneumonia, otitis media and cold or flu), wheeze and cough symptoms, healthcare utilisation and medication prescription was collected by postal questionnaires at 12 and 24 months. Log binomial and ordered logistic regression models were fitted to the data. RESULTS: Follow-up was obtained on 1344 children. Daycare was associated with increased odds of pneumonia (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-5.49), bronchiolitis (OR = 1.40, 1.02-1.90), otitis media (OR = 1.68, 1.32-2.14) and emergency department attendance for wheeze (RR = 1.81, 1.17-2.80). Breastfeeding beyond 6 months was associated with a reduced odds of bronchiolitis (OR = 0.55, 0.39-0.77) and otitis media (OR = 0.75, 0.59-0.99). Siblings at home was associated with an increased odds of bronchiolitis (OR = 1.65, 1.18-2.32) and risk of reliever inhaler prescription (RR = 1.37, 1.02-1.85). Visible damp was associated with an increased odds of wheeze (OR = 1.85, 1.11-3.19), and risk of reliever inhaler (RR = 1.73, 1.04-2.89) and inhaled corticosteroid prescription (RR = 2.61, 1.03-6.59). ETS exposure was associated with an increased odds of primary care attendance for cough or wheeze (OR = 1.52, 1.11-2.08). Dense traffic around the child's home was associated with an increased odds of bronchiolitis (OR = 1.32, 1.08-2.29). CONCLUSION: Environmental factors likely influence the wide variation in infection frequency and symptoms observed in early childhood. Larger population studies are necessary to further inform and guide public health policy to decrease the burden of respiratory infections and wheeze in young children.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiolitis , Otitis Media , Neumonía , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Animales , Humanos , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/etiología , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Bronquiolitis/complicaciones , Neumonía/complicaciones , Otitis Media/epidemiología , Otitis Media/etiología , Tos/complicaciones , Ruidos Respiratorios/etiología
7.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(11): 2824-2833, 2022 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35949104

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of the innate immune system. Polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene and promoter region are directly associated with MBL-deficiency. We sought to determine the association between MBL genotype on the frequency of common childhood respiratory infections, respiratory symptoms, and atopic outcomes in early childhood. METHODS: MBL2 gene variants were analyzed in newborns recruited to the GO-CHILD multicenter prospective cohort study. Follow-up for respiratory infection and atopy diagnoses and symptoms, healthcare utilization, and medication prescription were conducted by postal questionnaires at 12 and 24 months. RESULTS: Genotyping and follow-up were completed in 1004 children. Genotypes associated with MBL-deficiency were associated with an increased risk of bronchiolitis (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-2.85) and pneumonia (RR 2.46, 95% CI 1.16-5.22). MBL-deficient genotypes were associated with an increased risk of wheeze with shortness of breath episodes (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43), emergency department attendance (RR 1.90 95% CI 1.13-3.19), and hospital admission (RR 2.01, 95% CI 1.04-3.89) for wheeze. MBL-deficient genotypes were associated with a reduced risk of developing atopic dermatitis (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.98). CONCLUSION: The positive association between MBL-deficient genotypes and bronchiolitis and pneumonia, as well as a severe wheeze phenotype in some young children, supports the hypothesis that MBL is an important component of innate immunity in the vulnerable period before the maturation of the adaptive immune system. Identification of disease-modifying genotypes may help target preventative strategies in high-risk infants.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiolitis , Lectina de Unión a Manosa , Trastornos Respiratorios , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Bronquiolitis/genética , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Humanos , Lectina de Unión a Manosa/deficiencia , Lectina de Unión a Manosa/genética , Errores Innatos del Metabolismo , Estudios Prospectivos , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/genética
8.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 33(6): e13802, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754128

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations are a serious public health concern due to high healthcare resource utilization, work/school productivity loss, impact on quality of life, and risk of mortality. The genetic basis of asthma exacerbations has been studied in several populations, but no prior study has performed a multi-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (meta-GWAS) for this trait. We aimed to identify common genetic loci associated with asthma exacerbations across diverse populations and to assess their functional role in regulating DNA methylation and gene expression. METHODS: A meta-GWAS of asthma exacerbations in 4989 Europeans, 2181 Hispanics/Latinos, 1250 Singaporean Chinese, and 972 African Americans analyzed 9.6 million genetic variants. Suggestively associated variants (p ≤ 5 × 10-5 ) were assessed for replication in 36,477 European and 1078 non-European asthma patients. Functional effects on DNA methylation were assessed in 595 Hispanic/Latino and African American asthma patients and in publicly available databases. The effect on gene expression was evaluated in silico. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-six independent variants were suggestively associated with asthma exacerbations in the discovery phase. Two variants independently replicated: rs12091010 located at vascular cell adhesion molecule-1/exostosin like glycosyltransferase-2 (VCAM1/EXTL2) (discovery: odds ratio (ORT allele ) = 0.82, p = 9.05 × 10-6 and replication: ORT allele  = 0.89, p = 5.35 × 10-3 ) and rs943126 from pantothenate kinase 1 (PANK1) (discovery: ORC allele  = 0.85, p = 3.10 × 10-5 and replication: ORC allele  = 0.89, p = 1.30 × 10-2 ). Both variants regulate gene expression of genes where they locate and DNA methylation levels of nearby genes in whole blood. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-ancestry study revealed novel suggestive regulatory loci for asthma exacerbations located in genomic regions participating in inflammation and host defense.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Asma/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Hispánicos o Latinos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Calidad de Vida
9.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269478

RESUMEN

(1) Background. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which regulates physiological and cognitive processes, presents a promising therapeutic target for treating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Here we examine whether upregulating eCB tone has potential protective effects against HIV-1 Tat (a key HIV transactivator of transcription) protein-induced alterations in synaptic activity. (2) Methods. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed to assess inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission in prefrontal cortex slices of Tat transgenic male and female mice, in the presence and absence of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme inhibitor PF3845. Western blot and mass spectrometry analyses assessed alterations of cannabinoid receptor and enzyme protein expression as well as endogenous ligands, respectively, to determine the impact of Tat exposure on the eCB system. (3) Results. GABAergic activity was significantly altered upon Tat exposure based on sex, whereas the effectiveness of PF3845 to suppress GABAergic activity in Tat transgenic mice was not altered by Tat or sex and involved CB1R-related mechanisms that depended on calcium signaling. Additionally, our data indicated sex-dependent changes for AEA and related non-eCB lipids based on Tat induction. (4) Conclusion. Results highlight sex- and/or Tat-dependent alterations of GABAergic activity and eCB signaling in the prefrontal cortex of Tat transgenic mice and further increase our understanding about the role of FAAH inhibition in neuroHIV.


Asunto(s)
Cannabinoides , Infecciones por VIH , Amidohidrolasas , Animales , Cannabinoides/farmacología , Endocannabinoides/metabolismo , Inhibidores Enzimáticos , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Transgénicos , Piperidinas , Piridinas , Receptores de Cannabinoides , Transmisión Sináptica , Productos del Gen tat del Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257396, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550981

RESUMEN

Leukotrienes play a central pathophysiological role in both paediatric and adult asthma. However, 35% to 78% of asthmatics do not respond to leukotriene inhibitors. In this study we tested the role of the LTA4H regulatory variant rs2660845 and age of asthma onset in response to montelukast in ethnically diverse populations. We identified and genotyped 3,594 asthma patients treated with montelukast (2,514 late-onset and 1,080 early-onset) from seven cohorts (UKBiobank, GoSHARE, BREATHE, Tayside RCT, PAGES, GALA II and SAGE). Individuals under montelukast treatment experiencing at least one exacerbation in a 12-month period were compared against individuals with no exacerbation, using logistic regression for each cohort and meta-analysis. While no significant association was found with European late-onset subjects, a meta-analysis of 523 early-onset individuals from European ancestry demonstrated the odds of experiencing asthma exacerbations by carriers of at least one G allele, despite montelukast treatment, were increased (odds-ratio = 2.92, 95%confidence interval (CI): 1.04-8.18, I2 = 62%, p = 0.0412) compared to those in the AA group. When meta-analysing with other ethnic groups, no significant increased risk of asthma exacerbations was found (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 0.61-4.19, I2 = 85%, p = 0.342). Our study demonstrates that genetic variation in LTA4H, together with timing of asthma onset, may contribute to variability in montelukast response. European individuals with early-onset (≤18y) carrying at least one copy of rs2660845 have increased odd of exacerbation under montelukast treatment, presumably due to the up-regulation of LTA4H activity. These findings support a precision medicine approach for the treatment of asthma with montelukast.


Asunto(s)
Acetatos/uso terapéutico , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Ciclopropanos/uso terapéutico , Epóxido Hidrolasas/genética , Farmacogenética , Quinolinas/uso terapéutico , Sulfuros/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Alelos , Antiasmáticos/uso terapéutico , Asma/fisiopatología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Genotipo , Hospitalización , Humanos , Antagonistas de Leucotrieno/uso terapéutico , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Análisis de Regresión , Riesgo , Adulto Joven
12.
J Pers Med ; 11(8)2021 Jul 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442380

RESUMEN

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most common asthma controller medication. An important contribution of genetic factors in ICS response has been evidenced. Here, we aimed to identify novel genetic markers involved in ICS response in asthma. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the change in lung function after 6 weeks of ICS treatment was performed in 166 asthma patients from the SLOVENIA study. Patients with an improvement in lung function ≥8% were considered as ICS responders. Suggestively associated variants (p-value ≤ 5 × 10-6) were evaluated in an independent study (n = 175). Validation of the association with asthma exacerbations despite ICS use was attempted in European (n = 2681) and admixed (n = 1347) populations. Variants previously associated with ICS response were also assessed for replication. As a result, the SNP rs1166980 from the ROBO2 gene was suggestively associated with the change in lung function (OR for G allele: 7.01, 95% CI: 3.29-14.93, p = 4.61 × 10-7), although this was not validated in CAMP. ROBO2 showed gene-level evidence of replication with asthma exacerbations despite ICS use in Europeans (minimum p-value = 1.44 × 10-5), but not in admixed individuals. The association of PDE10A-T with ICS response described by a previous study was validated. This study suggests that ROBO2 could be a potential novel locus for ICS response in Europeans.

13.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(9): 1157-1171, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128573

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The polymorphism Arg16 in ß2 -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene has been associated with an increased risk of exacerbations in asthmatic children treated with long-acting ß2 -agonists (LABA). However, it remains unclear whether this increased risk is mainly attributed to this single variant or the combined effect of the haplotypes of polymorphisms at codons 16 and 27. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether the haplotype analysis could explain the association between the polymorphisms at codons 16 (Arg16Gly) and 27 (Gln27Glu) in ADRB2 and risk of asthma exacerbations in patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) plus LABA. METHODS: The study was undertaken using data from 10 independent studies (n = 5903) participating in the multi-ethnic Pharmacogenomics in Childhood Asthma (PiCA) consortium. Asthma exacerbations were defined as asthma-related use of oral corticosteroids or hospitalizations/emergency department visits in the past 6 or 12 months prior to the study visit/enrolment. The association between the haplotypes and the risk of asthma exacerbations was performed per study using haplo.stats package adjusted for age and sex. Results were meta-analysed using the inverse variance weighting method assuming random-effects. RESULTS: In subjects treated with ICS and LABA (n = 832, age: 3-21 years), Arg16/Gln27 versus Gly16/Glu27 (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05-1.87, I2  = 0.0%) and Arg16/Gln27 versus Gly16/Gln27 (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.05-1.94, I2  = 0.0%), but not Gly16/Gln27 versus Gly16/Glu27 (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.71-1.39, I2  = 0.0%), were significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations. The sensitivity analyses indicated no significant association between the ADRB2 haplotypes and asthma exacerbations in the other treatment categories, namely as-required short-acting ß2 -agonists (n = 973), ICS monotherapy (n = 2623), ICS plus leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA; n = 338), or ICS plus LABA plus LTRA (n = 686). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The ADRB2 Arg16 haplotype, presumably mainly driven by the Arg16, increased the risk of asthma exacerbations in patients treated with ICS plus LABA. This finding could be beneficial in ADRB2 genotype-guided treatment which might improve clinical outcomes in asthmatic patients.


Asunto(s)
Asma/genética , Asma/fisiopatología , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Adulto Joven
15.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 32(6): 1197-1207, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706416

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Some children with asthma experience exacerbations despite long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) treatment. While this variability is partly caused by genetic variation, no genome-wide study until now has investigated which genetic factors associated with risk of exacerbations despite LABA use in children with asthma. We aimed to assess whether genetic variation was associated with exacerbations in children treated with LABA from a global consortium. METHODS: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (meta-GWAS) was performed in 1,425 children and young adults with asthma (age 6-21 years) with reported regular use of LABA from six studies within the PiCA consortium using a random effects model. The primary outcome of each study was defined as any exacerbation within the past 6 or 12 months, including at least one of the following: 1) hospital admissions for asthma, 2) a course of oral corticosteroids or 3) emergency room visits because of asthma. RESULTS: Genome-wide association results for a total of 82 996 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, MAF ≥1%) with high imputation quality were meta-analysed. Eight independent variants were suggestively (P-value threshold ≤5 × 10-6 ) associated with exacerbations despite LABA use. CONCLUSION: No strong effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on exacerbations during LABA use were identified. We identified two loci (TBX3 and EPHA7) that were previously implicated in the response to short-acting beta2-agonists (SABA). These loci merit further investigation in response to LABA and SABA use.


Asunto(s)
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Administración por Inhalación , Adolescente , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/uso terapéutico , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Asma/genética , Niño , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Adulto Joven
16.
Eur Respir J ; 58(2)2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479111

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The A allele of rs1042713 (Arg16 amino acid) in the ß2-adrenoreceptor is associated with poor response to long-acting ß2-agonist (LABA) in young people with asthma. Our aim was to assess whether the prescribing of second-line controller with LABA or a leukotriene receptor antagonist according to Arg16Gly genotype would result in improvements in Pediatric Asthma-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). METHODS: We performed a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) via a primary care clinical research network covering England and Scotland. We enrolled participants aged 12-18 years with asthma taking inhaled corticosteroids. 241 participants (mean±sd age 14.7±1.91 years) were randomised (1:1) to receive personalised care (genotype directed prescribing) or standard guideline care. Following a 4-week run-in participants were followed for 12 months. The primary outcome measure was change in PAQLQ. Asthma control, asthma exacerbation frequency and healthcare utilisation were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Genotype-directed prescribing resulted in an improvement in PAQLQ compared to standard care (0.16, 95% CI 0.00-0.31; p=0.049), although this improvement was below the pre-determined clinical threshold of 0.25. The AA genotype was associated with a larger improvement in PAQLQ with personalised versus standard care (0.42, 95% CI 0.02-0.81; p=0.041). CONCLUSION: This is the first RCT demonstrating that genotype-driven asthma prescribing is associated with a significant improvement in a clinical outcome compared to standard care. Adolescents with the AA homozygous genotype benefited most. The potential role of such ß2-adrenoceptor genotype directed therapy in younger and more severe childhood asthma warrants further exploration.


Asunto(s)
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Administración por Inhalación , Adolescente , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Alelos , Antiasmáticos/uso terapéutico , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Asma/genética , Niño , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inglaterra , Genotipo , Humanos
18.
Eur Respir J ; 57(5)2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303529

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Substantial variability in response to asthma treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) has been described among individuals and populations, suggesting the contribution of genetic factors. Nonetheless, only a few genes have been identified to date. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with asthma exacerbations despite ICS use in European children and young adults and to validate the findings in non-Europeans. Moreover, we explored whether a gene-set enrichment analysis could suggest potential novel asthma therapies. METHODS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of asthma exacerbations was tested in 2681 children of European descent treated with ICS from eight studies. Suggestive association signals were followed up for replication in 538 European asthma patients. Further evaluation was performed in 1773 non-Europeans. Variants revealed by published GWAS were assessed for replication. Additionally, gene-set enrichment analysis focused on drugs was performed. RESULTS: 10 independent variants were associated with asthma exacerbations despite ICS treatment in the discovery phase (p≤5×10-6). Of those, one variant at the CACNA2D3-WNT5A locus was nominally replicated in Europeans (rs67026078; p=0.010), but this was not validated in non-European populations. Five other genes associated with ICS response in previous studies were replicated. Additionally, an enrichment of associations in genes regulated by trichostatin A treatment was found. CONCLUSIONS: The intergenic region of CACNA2D3 and WNT5A was revealed as a novel locus for asthma exacerbations despite ICS treatment in European populations. Genes associated were related to trichostatin A, suggesting that this drug could regulate the molecular mechanisms involved in treatment response.


Asunto(s)
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Administración por Inhalación , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Antiasmáticos/uso terapéutico , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Niño , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Adulto Joven
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