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2.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-10, 2022 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061992

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: High-impact chronic pain (HICP) is a recently proposed metric that indicates the presence of a severe and troubling pain-related condition. Surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is designed to halt disease transition independent of chronic pain status. To date, the prevalence of HICP in individuals with CSM and their HICP transition from presurgery is unexplored. The authors sought to define HICP prevalence, transition, and outcomes in patients with CSM who underwent surgery and identify predictors of these HICP transition groups. METHODS: CSM surgical recipients were categorized as HICP at presurgery and 3 months if they exhibited pain that lasted 6-12 months or longer with at least one major activity restriction. HICP transition groups were categorized and evaluated for outcomes. Multivariate multinomial modeling was used to predict HICP transition categorization. RESULTS: A majority (56.1%) of individuals exhibited HICP preoperatively; this value declined to 15.9% at 3 months (71.6% reduction). The presence of HICP was also reflective of other self-reported outcomes at 3 and 12 months, as most demonstrated notable improvement. Higher severity in all categories of self-reported outcomes was related to a continued HICP condition at 3 months. Both social and biological factors predicted HICP translation, with social factors being predominant in transitioning to HICP (from none preoperatively). CONCLUSIONS: Many individuals who received CSM surgery changed HICP status at 3 months. In a surgical population where decisions are based on disease progression, most of the changed status went from HICP preoperatively to none at 3 months. Both social and biological risk factors predicted HICP transition assignment.

3.
World Neurosurg ; 2022 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051639

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) may use anterior or posterior approaches. Our objective was to compare baseline differences and validated postoperative patient-reported outcome measures between anterior and posterior approaches. METHODS: The NeuroPoint Quality Outcomes Database was queried retrospectively to identify patients with symptomatic CSM treated at 14 high-volume sites. Demographic, comorbidity, socioeconomic, and outcome measures were compared between treatment groups at baseline and 3 and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Of the 1151 patients with CSM in the cervical registry, 791 (68.7%) underwent anterior surgery and 360 (31.3%) underwent posterior surgery. Significant baseline differences were observed in age, comorbidities, myelopathy severity, unemployment, and length of hospital stay. After adjusting for these differences, anterior surgery patients had significantly lower Neck Disability Index (NDI) and a higher proportion reaching a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in NDI (p=0.005 at 3 months; p=0.003 at 12 months). Although modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores were lower in anterior surgery patients at 3 and 12 months (p<0.001 and p=0.022, respectively), no differences were seen in MCID or change from baseline. Greater EQ-5D improvement at 3 months after anterior vs. posterior surgery (p=0.024) was not sustained at 12 months and was insignificant on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest analysis to date of CSM surgery data, significant baseline differences existed for patients undergoing anterior versus posterior surgery for CSM. After adjusting for these differences, patients undergoing anterior surgery were more likely to achieve clinically significant improvement in NDI at short- and long-term follow-up.

4.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 47(1): E10-E15, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991517

RESUMEN

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between revision surgery rates for adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) and Roussouly type after L4-5 transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Revision surgery for ASD is known to occur after spinal fusion; however, it is unclear whether rates of ASD are associated with certain Roussouly types. METHODS: Patients who underwent L4-5 TLIF for spondylolisthesis at the University of California San Francisco from January 2006 to December 2016 with minimum 2-year follow-up were retrospectively analyzed by Roussouly type. Revision surgery for ASD was noted and correlated by Roussouly type. Spinopelvic parameters were also measured for correlation. A value of P < 0.05 was significant. RESULTS: There were 174 patients who met inclusion criteria, (59 males and 115 females). The average age was 62.3 (25-80) years. A total of 132 patients had grade I spondylolisthesis, and 42 had grade II. Mean follow-up was 45.2 months (24-497). A total of 22 patients (12.6%) underwent revision surgery for ASD after L4-5 TLIF. When classified by Roussouly type, revision surgery rates for ASD were: 1, 14.3%; 2, 22.6%; 3, 4.9%; and 4, 15.6% (P = 0.013). Type 3 spines with normal PI-LL (8.85°â€Š±â€Š6.83°) had the lowest revision surgery rate (4.9%), and type 2 spines with PI-LL mismatch (11.06°â€Š±â€Š8.81°) had the highest revision surgery rate (22.6%), a four-fold difference (P = 0.013). The PI-LL mismatch did not change significantly in each type postoperatively (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We found that there may be a correlation between Roussouly type and revision surgery for ASD after L4-5 TLIF for spondylolisthesis, with type 2 spines having the highest rate. Spinopelvic parameters may also correlate with revision surgery for ASD after L4-5 TLIF.Level of Evidence: 4.


Asunto(s)
Fusión Vertebral , Espondilolistesis , Femenino , Humanos , Vértebras Lumbares/diagnóstico por imagen , Vértebras Lumbares/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reoperación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Fusión Vertebral/efectos adversos , Espondilolistesis/diagnóstico por imagen , Espondilolistesis/cirugía , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Neurosurg Focus ; 51(6): E2, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852318

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There is a learning curve for surgeons performing "awake" spinal surgery. No comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the selection of ideal candidates for awake spinal fusion or decompression. The authors sought to formulate an algorithm to aid in patient selection for surgeons who are in the startup phase of awake spinal surgery. METHODS: The authors developed an algorithm for selecting patients appropriate for awake spinal fusion or decompression using spinal anesthesia supplemented with mild sedation and local analgesia. The anesthetic protocol that was used has previously been reported in the literature. This algorithm was formulated based on a multidisciplinary team meeting and used in the first 15 patients who underwent awake lumbar surgery at a single institution. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients who underwent decompression or lumbar fusion using the awake protocol were reviewed. The mean patient age was 61 ± 12 years, with a median BMI of 25.3 (IQR 2.7) and a mean Charlson Comorbidity Index of 2.1 ± 1.7; 7 patients (47%) were female. Key patient inclusion criteria were no history of anxiety, 1 to 2 levels of lumbar pathology, moderate stenosis and/or grade I spondylolisthesis, and no prior lumbar surgery at the level where the needle is introduced for anesthesia. Key exclusion criteria included severe and critical central canal stenosis or patients who did not meet the inclusion criteria. Using the novel algorithm, 14 patients (93%) successfully underwent awake spinal surgery without conversion to general anesthesia. One patient (7%) was converted to general anesthesia due to insufficient analgesia from spinal anesthesia. Overall, 93% (n = 14) of the patients were assessed as American Society of Anesthesiologists class II, with 1 patient (7%) as class III. The mean operative time was 115 minutes (± 60 minutes) with a mean estimated blood loss of 46 ± 39 mL. The median hospital length of stay was 1.3 days (IQR 0.1 days). No patients developed postoperative complications and only 1 patient (7%) required reoperation. The mean Oswestry Disability Index score decreased following operative intervention by 5.1 ± 10.8. CONCLUSIONS: The authors propose an easy-to-use patient selection algorithm with the aim of assisting surgeons with patient selection for awake spinal surgery while considering BMI, patient anxiety, levels of surgery, and the extent of stenosis. The algorithm is specifically intended to assist surgeons who are in the learning curve of their first awake spinal surgery cases.

7.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-14, 2021 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905727

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: With the expanding indications for and increasing popularity of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for lumbar spinal fusion, large-scale outcomes analysis to compare MIS approaches with open procedures is warranted. METHODS: The authors queried the Quality Outcomes Database for patients who underwent elective lumbar fusion for degenerative spine disease. They performed optimal matching, at a 1:2 ratio between patients who underwent MIS and those who underwent open lumbar fusion, to create two highly homogeneous groups in terms of 33 baseline variables (including demographic characteristics, comorbidities, symptoms, patient-reported scores, indications, and operative details). The outcomes of interest were overall satisfaction, decrease in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and back and leg pain, as well as hospital length of stay (LOS), operative time, reoperations, and incidental durotomy rate. Satisfaction was defined as a score of 1 or 2 on the North American Spine Society scale. Minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in ODI was defined as ≥ 30% decrease from baseline. Outcomes were assessed at the 3- and 12-month follow-up evaluations. RESULTS: After the groups were matched, the MIS and open groups consisted of 1483 and 2966 patients, respectively. Patients who underwent MIS fusion had higher odds of satisfaction at 3 months (OR 1.4, p = 0.004); no difference was demonstrated at 12 months (OR 1.04, p = 0.67). Lumbar stenosis, single-level fusion, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification System grade, and absence of spondylolisthesis were most prominently associated with higher odds of satisfaction with MIS compared with open surgery. Patients in the MIS group had slightly lower ODI scores at 3 months (mean difference 1.61, p = 0.006; MCID OR 1.14, p = 0.0495) and 12 months (mean difference 2.35, p < 0.001; MCID OR 1.29, p < 0.001). MIS was also associated with a greater decrease in leg and back pain at both follow-up time points. The two groups did not differ in operative time and incidental durotomy rate; however, LOS was shorter for the MIS group. Revision surgery at 12 months was less likely for patients who underwent MIS (4.1% vs 5.6%, p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: In patients who underwent lumbar fusion for degenerative spinal disease, MIS was associated with higher odds of satisfaction at 3 months postoperatively. No difference was demonstrated at the 12-month follow-up. MIS maintained a small, yet consistent, superiority in decreasing ODI and back and leg pain, and MIS was associated with a lower reoperation rate.

9.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-14, 2021 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740175

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term radiographic and clinical benefits of circumferential minimally invasive surgery (cMIS) and hybrid (i.e., minimally invasive anterior or lateral interbody fusion with an open posterior approach) techniques to correct adult spinal deformity (ASD). However, it is not known if these benefits are maintained over longer periods of time. This study evaluated the 2- and 3-year outcomes of cMIS and hybrid correction of ASD. METHODS: A multicenter database was retrospectively reviewed for patients undergoing cMIS or hybrid surgery for ASD. Patients were ≥ 18 years of age and had one of the following: maximum coronal Cobb angle (CC) ≥ 20°, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 5 cm, pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch (PI-LL) ≥ 10°, or pelvic tilt (PT) > 20°. Radiographic parameters were evaluated at the latest follow-up. Clinical outcomes were compared at 2- and 3-year time points and adjusted for age, preoperative CC, levels operated, levels with interbody fusion, presence of L5-S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion, and upper and lower instrumented vertebral level. RESULTS: Overall, 197 (108 cMIS, 89 hybrid) patients were included with 187 (99 cMIS, 88 hybrid) and 111 (60 cMIS, 51 hybrid) patients evaluated at 2 and 3 years, respectively. The mean (± SD) follow-up duration for cMIS (39.0 ± 13.3 months, range 22-74 months) and hybrid correction (39.9 ± 16.8 months, range 22-94 months) were similar for both cohorts. Hybrid procedures corrected the CC greater than the cMIS technique (adjusted p = 0.022). There were no significant differences in postoperative SVA, PI-LL, PT, and sacral slope (SS). At 2 years, cMIS had lower Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores (adjusted p < 0.001), greater ODI change as a percentage of baseline (adjusted p = 0.006), less visual analog scale (VAS) back pain (adjusted p = 0.006), and greater VAS back pain change as a percentage of baseline (adjusted p = 0.001) compared to hybrid techniques. These differences were no longer significant at 3 years. At 3 years, but not 2 years, VAS leg pain was lower for cMIS compared to hybrid techniques (adjusted p = 0.032). Those undergoing cMIS had fewer overall complications compared to hybrid techniques (adjusted p = 0.006), but a higher odds of pseudarthrosis (adjusted p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: In this review of a multicenter database for patients undergoing cMIS and hybrid surgery for ASD, hybrid procedures were associated with a greater CC improvement compared to cMIS techniques. cMIS was associated with superior ODI and back pain at 2 years, but this difference was no longer evident at 3 years. However, cMIS was associated with superior leg pain at 3 years. There were fewer complications following cMIS, with the exception of pseudarthrosis.

10.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740180

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) results in significant morbidity. The duration of symptoms prior to surgical intervention may be associated with postoperative surgical outcomes and functional recovery. The authors' objective was to investigate whether delayed surgical treatment for DCM is associated with worsened postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Data from 1036 patients across 14 surgical centers in the Quality Outcomes Database were analyzed. Baseline demographic characteristics and findings of preoperative and postoperative symptom evaluations, including duration of symptoms, were assessed. Postoperative functional outcomes were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale. Symptom duration was classified as either less than 12 months or 12 months or greater. Univariable and multivariable regression were used to evaluate for the associations between symptom duration and postoperative outcomes. RESULTS: In this study, 513 patients (49.5%) presented with symptom duration < 12 months, and 523 (50.5%) had symptoms for 12 months or longer. Patients with longer symptom duration had higher BMI and higher prevalence of anxiety and diabetes (all p < 0.05). Symptom duration ≥ 12 months was associated with higher average baseline NDI score (41 vs 36, p < 0.01). However, improvements in NDI scores from baseline were not significantly different between groups at 3 months (p = 0.77) or 12 months (p = 0.51). Likewise, the authors found no significant differences between groups in changes in mJOA scores from baseline to 3 months or 12 months (both p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Surgical intervention resulted in improved mJOA and NDI scores at 3 months, and this improvement was sustained in both patients with short and longer initial symptom duration. Patients with DCM can still undergo successful surgical management despite delayed presentation.

11.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-10, 2021 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715673

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques can effectively stabilize and decompress many thoracolumbar injuries with decreased morbidity and tissue destruction compared with open approaches. Nonetheless, there is limited direction regarding the breadth and limitations of MIS techniques for thoracolumbar injuries. Consequently, the objectives of this study were to 1) identify the range of current practice patterns for thoracolumbar trauma and 2) integrate expert opinion and literature review to develop an updated treatment algorithm. METHODS: A survey describing 10 clinical cases with a range of thoracolumbar injuries was sent to 12 surgeons with expertise in spine trauma. The survey results were summarized using descriptive statistics, along with the Fleiss kappa statistic of interrater agreement. To develop an updated treatment algorithm, the authors used a modified Delphi technique that incorporated a literature review, the survey results, and iterative feedback from a group of 14 spine trauma experts. The final algorithm represented the consensus opinion of that expert group. RESULTS: Eleven of 12 surgeons contacted completed the case survey, including 8 (73%) neurosurgeons and 3 (27%) orthopedic surgeons. For the 4 cases involving patients with neurological deficits, nearly all respondents recommended decompression and fusion, and the proportion recommending open surgery ranged from 55% to 100% by case. Recommendations for the remaining cases were heterogeneous. Among the neurologically intact patients, MIS techniques were typically recommended more often than open techniques. The overall interrater agreement in recommendations was 0.23, indicating fair agreement. Considering both literature review and expert opinion, the updated algorithm indicated that MIS techniques could be used to treat most thoracolumbar injuries. Among neurologically intact patients, percutaneous instrumentation without arthrodesis was recommended for those with AO Spine Thoracolumbar Classification System subtype A3/A4 (Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score [TLICS] 4) injuries, but MIS posterior arthrodesis was recommended for most patients with AO Spine subtype B2/B3 (TLICS > 4) injuries. Depending on vertebral body integrity, anterolateral corpectomy or mini-open decompression could be used for patients with neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Spine trauma experts endorsed a range of strategies for treating thoracolumbar injuries but felt that MIS techniques were an option for most patients. The updated treatment algorithm may provide a foundation for surgeons interested in safe approaches for using MIS techniques to treat thoracolumbar trauma.

12.
Neurosurgery ; 89(6): 1033-1041, 2021 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634113

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Trials of lumbar spondylolisthesis are difficult to compare because of the heterogeneity in the populations studied. OBJECTIVE: To define patterns of clinical presentation. METHODS: This is a study of the prospective Quality Outcomes Database spondylolisthesis registry, including patients who underwent single-segment surgery for grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Twenty-four-month patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were collected. A k-means clustering analysis-an unsupervised machine learning algorithm-was used to identify clinical presentation phenotypes. RESULTS: Overall, 608 patients were identified, of which 507 (83.4%) had 24-mo follow-up. Clustering revealed 2 distinct cohorts. Cluster 1 (high disease burden) was younger, had higher body mass index (BMI) and American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) grades, and globally worse baseline PROs. Cluster 2 (intermediate disease burden) was older and had lower BMI and ASA grades, and intermediate baseline PROs. Baseline radiographic parameters were similar (P > .05). Both clusters improved clinically (P < .001 all 24-mo PROs). In multivariable adjusted analyses, mean 24-mo Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Numeric Rating Scale Back Pain (NRS-BP), Numeric Rating Scale Leg Pain, and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) were markedly worse for the high-disease-burden cluster (adjusted-P < .001). However, the high-disease-burden cluster demonstrated greater 24-mo improvements for ODI, NRS-BP, and EQ-5D (adjusted-P < .05) and a higher proportion reaching ODI minimal clinically important difference (MCID) (adjusted-P = .001). High-disease-burden cluster had lower satisfaction (adjusted-P = .02). CONCLUSION: We define 2 distinct phenotypes-those with high vs intermediate disease burden-operated for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Those with high disease burden were less satisfied, had a lower quality of life, and more disability, more back pain, and more leg pain than those with intermediate disease burden, but had greater magnitudes of improvement in disability, back pain, quality of life, and more often reached ODI MCID.

13.
Neurosurg Focus ; 51(4): E6, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598123

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Ankylosing spondylitis, the most common spondyloarthritis, fuses individual spinal vertebrae into long segments. The unique biomechanics of the ankylosed spine places patients at unusually high risk for unstable fractures secondary to low-impact mechanisms. These injuries are unique within the spine trauma population and necessitate thoughtful management. Therefore, the authors aimed to present a richly annotated data set of operative AS spine fractures with a significant portion of patients with simultaneous dual noncontiguous fractures. METHODS: Patients with ankylosing spondylitis with acute fractures who received operative management between 2012 and 2020 were reviewed. Demographic, admission, surgical, and outcome parameters were retrospectively collected and reviewed. RESULTS: In total, 29 patients were identified across 30 different admissions. At admission, the mean age was 71.7 ± 11.8 years. The mechanism of injury in 77% of the admissions was a ground-level fall; 30% also presented with polytrauma. Of admissions, 50% were patient transfers from outside hospitals, whereas the other half presented primarily to our emergency departments. Fifty percent of patients sustained a spinal cord injury, and 35 operative fractures were identified and treated in 32 surgeries. The majority of fractures clustered around the cervicothoracic (C4-T1, 48.6%) and thoracolumbar (T8-L3, 37.11%) junctions. Five patients (17.2%) had simultaneous dual noncontiguous operative fractures; these patients were more likely to have presented with a higher-energy mechanism of injury such as a bicycle or motor vehicle accident compared with patients with a single operative fracture (60% vs 8%, p = 0.024). On preoperative MRI, 56.3% of the fractures had epidural hematomas (EDHs); 25% were compressive of the underlying neural elements, which dictated the number of laminectomy levels performed (no EDH, 2.1 ± 2.36; noncompressive EDH, 2.1 ± 1.85; and compressive EDH, 7.4 ± 4 [p = 0.003]). The mean difference in instrumented levels was 8.7 ± 2.6 with a mean estimated blood loss (EBL) of 1183 ± 1779.5 mL. Patients on a regimen of antiplatelet therapy had a significantly higher EBL (2635.7 mL vs 759.4 mL, p = 0.015). Overall, patients had a mean hospital length of stay of 15.2 ± 18.5 days; 5 patients died during the same admission or after transfer to an outside hospital. Nine of 29 patients (31%) had died by the last follow-up (the mean follow-up was 596.3 ± 878.9 days). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AS who have been found to have unstable spine fractures warrant a thorough diagnostic evaluation to identify secondary fractures as well as compressive EDHs. These patients experienced prolonged inpatient hospitalizations with significant morbidity and mortality.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral , Espondilitis Anquilosante , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Vértebras Cervicales/lesiones , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Espondilitis Anquilosante/complicaciones , Espondilitis Anquilosante/diagnóstico por imagen , Espondilitis Anquilosante/cirugía , Vértebras Torácicas/lesiones
14.
Neurosurgery ; 89(Supplement_1): S33-S41, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490879

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are no current recommendations for preoperative pulmonary evaluation and management of patients undergoing elective spine surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this guideline is to determine preoperative risk factors for perioperative and postoperative pulmonary adverse events and to determine the optimal preoperative evaluation and management of at-risk patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database and the Cochrane Library for studies relevant to postoperative pulmonary adverse events in patients undergoing spine surgery. Clinical studies evaluating preoperative patient risk factors and preoperative diagnostic and treatment interventions were selected for review. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 152 abstracts relevant to the PICO (patient/population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes) questions included in this chapter. The task force selected 65 articles for full-text review, and 24 were selected for inclusion in this systematic review. Twenty-three articles addressed preoperative patient risk factors. One article addressed preoperative diagnostic studies of pulmonary function. There were no studies meeting the inclusion criteria for preoperative pulmonary treatment. CONCLUSION: There is substantial evidence for multiple preoperative patient factors that predict an increased risk of a postoperative pulmonary adverse event. Individuals with these risk factors (functional dependence, advanced age [≥65 yr], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, weight loss, and obstructive sleep apnea) who are undergoing spine surgery should be counseled regarding the potential increased risk of a perioperative and postoperative pulmonary adverse events. There is insufficient evidence to support any specific preoperative diagnostic test for predicting the risk of postoperative pulmonary adverse events or any treatment intervention that reduces risk. It is suggested, however, to consider appropriate preoperative pulmonary diagnostic testing and treatment to address active pulmonary symptoms of existing or suspected disease.The full guidelines can be accessed at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/browse-guidelines-detail/5-preoperative-pulmonary-evaluation-optimization.

15.
Neurosurgery ; 89(Supplement_1): S1-S8, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490881

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorders in the United States have rapidly increased, yet little is known about the relationship between preoperative opioid duration and dose and patient outcomes after spine surgery. Likewise, the utility of preoperative opioid weaning is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this evidence-based clinical practice guideline is to determine if duration and dose of preoperative opioids or preoperative opioid weaning is associated with patient-reported outcomes or adverse events after elective spine surgery for degenerative conditions. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the National Library of Medicine/PubMed database and Embase for studies relevant to opioid use among adult patients undergoing spine surgery. Clinical studies evaluating preoperative duration, dose, and opioid weaning and outcomes were selected for review. RESULTS: A total of 41 of 845 studies met the inclusion criteria and none were Level I evidence. The use of any opioids before surgery was associated with longer postoperative opioid use, and longer duration of opioid use was associated with worse outcomes, such as higher complications, longer length of stay, higher costs, and increased utilization of resources. There is insufficient evidence to support the efficacy of opioid weaning on postoperative opioid use, improving outcome, or reducing adverse events after spine surgery. CONCLUSION: This evidence-based clinical guideline provides Grade B recommendations that preoperative opioid use and longer duration of preoperative opioid use are associated with chronic postoperative opioid use and worse outcome after spine surgery. Insufficient evidence supports the efficacy of an opioid wean before spine surgery (Grade I).The full guidelines can be accessed at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/browse-guidelines-detail/1-preoperative-opioid-evaluation.

16.
Neurosurgery ; 89(Supplement_1): S19-S25, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490883

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease that commonly affects the elderly. Degenerative spinal disease that may require surgical intervention is also prevalent in this susceptible population. If undiagnosed or untreated before spine surgery, osteoporosis may result in an increased risk of postoperative adverse events. Nontreatment of osteoporosis preoperatively may be related to a poor understanding of bone physiology, a lack of standardized treatment algorithms, limited cost-effective interventions, and reluctance by spine surgeons to be the primary provider of osteoporosis management. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this evidence-based review is to develop guidelines for the preoperative assessment and treatment of osteoporosis in patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the National Library of Medicine/PubMed database and Embase for studies relevant to preoperative diagnostic studies that predict increased risk of osteoporosis-related postoperative adverse events and whether the preoperative treatment of low bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with osteoporosis improves outcome. RESULTS: Out of 281 studies, 17 met the inclusion criteria and were included for systematic review. The task force affirmed a Grade B recommendation that preoperative osteoporosis testing with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (T-score < -2.5), a computed tomography scan (Hounsfield units <97.9), and serum vitamin D3 level (<20 ng/mL) predict an increased risk of osteoporosis-related adverse events after spine surgery. The task force determined a Grade B recommendation that preoperative osteoporosis treatment with teriparatide increases BMD, induces earlier and more robust fusion, and may improve select patient outcomes. There is insufficient evidence regarding preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates alone and postoperative outcome. CONCLUSION: This evidence-based clinical guideline provides a recommendation that patients with suspected osteoporosis undergo preoperative assessment and be appropriately counseled about the risk of postoperative adverse events if osteoporosis is confirmed. In addition, preoperative optimization of BMD with select treatments improves certain patient outcomes.The full guidelines can be accessed at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/browse-guidelines-detail/3-preoperative-osteoporosis-assessment.

17.
Neurosurgery ; 89(Supplement_1): S26-S32, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490884

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Preoperative malnutrition has been implicated in adverse events after elective surgery, potentially impacting patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: As a potentially modifiable risk factor, we sought to determine which assessments of nutritional status were associated with specific adverse events after spine surgery. In addition, we explored if a preoperative nutritional improvement intervention may be beneficial in lowering the rates of these adverse events. METHODS: The literature search yielded 115 abstracts relevant to the PICO (patient/population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes) questions included in this chapter. The task force selected 105 articles for full text review, and 13 met criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. RESULTS: Malnutrition, assessed preoperatively by a serum albumin <3.5 g/dL or a serum prealbumin <20 mg/dL, is associated with a higher rate of surgical site infections (SSIs), other wound complications, nonunions, hospital readmissions, and other medical complications after spine surgery. A multimodal nutrition management protocol decreases albumin and electrolyte deficiencies in patients with normal preoperative nutritional status. It also improves overall complication rates but does not specifically impact SSIs. CONCLUSION: It is recommended to assess nutritional status using either serum albumin or prealbumin preoperatively in patients undergoing spine surgery.The full guidelines can be accessed at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/browse-guidelines-detail/4-preoperative-nutritional-assessment.

18.
Neurosurgery ; 89(Supplement_1): S9-S18, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490886

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patient factors (increased body mass index [BMI], smoking, and diabetes) may impact outcomes after spine surgery. There is a lack of consensus regarding which factors should be screened for and potentially modified preoperatively to optimize outcome. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this evidence-based clinical practice guideline is to determine if preoperative patient factors of diabetes, smoking, and increased BMI impact surgical outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature for studies relevant to spine surgery was performed using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database and the Cochrane Library. Clinical studies evaluating the impact of diabetes or increased BMI with reoperation and/or surgical site infection (SSI) were selected for review. In addition, the impact of preoperative smoking on patients undergoing spinal fusion was reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 699 articles met inclusion criteria and 64 were included in the systematic review. In patients with diabetes, a preoperative hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >7.5 mg/dL is associated with an increased risk of reoperation or infection after spine surgery. The review noted conflicting studies regarding the relationship between increased BMI and SSI or reoperation. Preoperative smoking is associated with increased risk of reoperation (Grade B). There is insufficient evidence that cessation of smoking before spine surgery decreases the risk of reoperation. CONCLUSION: This evidence-based guideline provides a Grade B recommendation that diabetic individuals undergoing spine surgery should have a preoperative HbA1c test before surgery and should be counseled regarding the increased risk of reoperation or infection if the level is >7.5 mg/dL. There is conflicting evidence that BMI correlates with greater SSI rate or reoperation rate (Grade I). Smoking is associated with increased risk of reoperation (Grade B) in patients undergoing spinal fusion.The full guidelines can be accessed at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/browse-guidelines-detail/2-preoperative-surgical-risk-assessement.

19.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534963

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Reduction of Meyerding grade is often performed during fusion for spondylolisthesis. Although radiographic appearance may improve, correlation with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is rarely reported. In this study, the authors' aim was to assess the impact of spondylolisthesis reduction on 24-month PRO measures after decompression and fusion surgery for Meyerding grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. METHODS: The Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) was queried for patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis with a minimum 24-month follow-up, and quantitative correlation between Meyerding slippage reduction and PROs was performed. Baseline and 24-month PROs, including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EQ-5D, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS)-back pain (NRS-BP), NRS-leg pain (NRS-LP), and satisfaction (North American Spine Society patient satisfaction questionnaire) scores were noted. Multivariable regression models were fitted for 24-month PROs and complications after adjusting for an array of preoperative and surgical variables. Data were analyzed for magnitude of slippage reduction and correlated with PROs. Patients were divided into two groups: < 3 mm reduction and ≥ 3 mm reduction. RESULTS: Of 608 patients from 12 participating sites, 206 patients with complete data were identified in the QOD and included in this study. Baseline patient demographics, comorbidities, and clinical characteristics were similarly distributed between the cohorts except for depression, listhesis magnitude, and the proportion with dynamic listhesis (which were accounted for in the multivariable analysis). One hundred four (50.5%) patients underwent lumbar decompression and fusion with slippage reduction ≥ 3 mm (mean 5.19, range 3 to 11), and 102 (49.5%) patients underwent lumbar decompression and fusion with slippage reduction < 3 mm (mean 0.41, range 2 to -2). Patients in both groups (slippage reduction ≥ 3 mm, and slippage reduction < 3 mm) reported significant improvement in all primary patient reported outcomes (all p < 0.001). There was no significant difference with regard to the PROs between patients with or without intraoperative reduction of listhesis on univariate and multivariable analyses (ODI, EQ-5D, NRS-BP, NRS-LP, or satisfaction). There was no significant difference in complications between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Significant improvement was found in terms of all PROs in patients undergoing decompression and fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis. There was no correlation with clinical outcomes and magnitude of Meyerding slippage reduction.

20.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-12, 2021 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560634

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Circumferential minimally invasive spine surgery (cMIS) for adult scoliosis has become more advanced and powerful, but direct comparison with traditional open correction using prospectively collected data is limited. The authors performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected, multicenter adult spinal deformity data. The authors directly compared cMIS for adult scoliosis with open correction in propensity-matched cohorts using health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) measures and surgical parameters. METHODS: Data from a prospective, multicenter adult spinal deformity database were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were age > 18 years, minimum 1-year follow-up, and one of the following characteristics: pelvic tilt (PT) > 25°, pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) > 10°, Cobb angle > 20°, or sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 5 cm. Patients were categorized as undergoing cMIS (percutaneous screws with minimally invasive anterior interbody fusion) or open correction (traditional open deformity correction). Propensity matching was used to create two equal groups and to control for age, BMI, preoperative PI-LL, pelvic incidence (PI), T1 pelvic angle (T1PA), SVA, PT, and number of posterior levels fused. RESULTS: A total of 154 patients (77 underwent open procedures and 77 underwent cMIS) were included after matching for age, BMI, PI-LL (mean 15° vs 17°, respectively), PI (54° vs 54°), T1PA (21° vs 22°), and mean number of levels fused (6.3 vs 6). Patients who underwent three-column osteotomy were excluded. Follow-up was 1 year for all patients. Postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) (p = 0.50), Scoliosis Research Society-total (p = 0.45), and EQ-5D (p = 0.33) scores were not different between cMIS and open patients. Maximum Cobb angles were similar for open and cMIS patients at baseline (25.9° vs 26.3°, p = 0.85) and at 1 year postoperation (15.0° vs 17.5°, p = 0.17). In total, 58.3% of open patients and 64.4% of cMIS patients (p = 0.31) reached the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in ODI at 1 year. At 1 year, no differences were observed in terms of PI-LL (p = 0.71), SVA (p = 0.46), PT (p = 0.9), or Cobb angle (p = 0.20). Open patients had greater estimated blood loss compared with cMIS patients (1.36 L vs 0.524 L, p < 0.05) and fewer levels of interbody fusion (1.87 vs 3.46, p < 0.05), but shorter operative times (356 minutes vs 452 minutes, p = 0.003). Revision surgery rates between the two cohorts were similar (p = 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: When cMIS was compared with open adult scoliosis correction with propensity matching, HRQOL improvement, spinopelvic parameters, revision surgery rates, and proportions of patients who reached MCID were similar between cohorts. However, well-selected cMIS patients had less blood loss, comparable results, and longer operative times in comparison with open patients.

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