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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2018): 20232736, 2024 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471563

RESUMEN

Evidence of social disengagement, network narrowing and social selectivity with advancing age in several non-human animals challenges our understanding of the causes of social ageing. Natural animal populations are needed to test whether social ageing and selectivity occur under natural predation and extrinsic mortality pressures, and longitudinal studies are particularly valuable to disentangle the contribution of within-individual ageing from the demographic processes that shape social ageing at the population level. Data on wild Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) were collected between 2013 and 2020 at the Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. We investigated the social behaviour of 61 adult females observed for 13 270 h to test several mechanistic hypotheses of social ageing and evaluated the consistency between patterns from mixed-longitudinal and within-individual analyses. With advancing age, females reduced the size of their social network, which could not be explained by an overall increase in the time spent alone, but by an age-related decline in mostly active, but also passive, behaviour, best demonstrated by within-individual analyses. A selective tendency to approach preferred partners was maintained into old age but did not increase. Our results contribute to our understanding of the driver of social ageing in natural animal populations and suggest that social disengagement and selectivity follow independent trajectories during ageing.


Asunto(s)
Macaca , Conducta Social , Animales , Femenino , Animales Salvajes , Envejecimiento , Red Social
2.
Cortex ; 2024 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553356

RESUMEN

Developmental research utilizes various different methodologies and measures to study the cognitive development of young children; however, the reliability and validity of such measures have been a critical issue in all areas of research practices. To address this problem, particularly in the area of research on infants' interests, we examined the convergent validity of previously reported measures of children's interests in natural object categories, as indexed by (1) parents' estimation of their child's interest in the categories, (2) extrinsic (overt choices in a task), (3) intrinsic (looking time toward objects), and (4) physiological (pupil dilation) responses to objects of different categories. Additionally, we also examined the discriminant validity of all the aforementioned measures against the well-established and validated measure of parents' estimations of children's vocabulary knowledge. Children completed two tasks: (a) an eye-tracking task, where they were presented with images from a range of defined categories, which collected indices of looking time and pupillary activity; (b) a sticker-choice task, where they were asked to choose between two sticker-images from two different categories belonging to the range of categories assessed in the previous task. Parents completed two questionnaires to estimate (i) their child's interests and (ii) vocabulary knowledge in the categories presented. We first analyzed the discriminant validity between the two parent measures, and found a significant positive association between them. Our successive analyses showed no strong or significant associations between any of our measures, apart from a significant positive association between children's looking time and parents' estimations of children's vocabulary knowledge. From our findings, we conclude that measures of infants' interests thus far may not have sufficient reliability to adequately capture any potential relationship between these measures, or index different components of interest in young children. We suggest next steps for further validation studies in infant research.

3.
Am J Primatol ; 85(9): e23536, 2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37504505

RESUMEN

Chimpanzees were once thought to sleep primarily in the trees, but recent studies indicate that some populations also construct terrestrial night nests. This behavior has relevance not only to understanding the behavioral diversity of Pan troglodytes, but also to the conservation of the species, given that nest encounter rates are often used to estimate great ape population densities. A proper estimate of decay rates for ground nests is necessary for converting the encounter rate of nests to the density of weaned chimpanzees. Here we present the results of the first systematic comparative study between the decay rates of arboreal and terrestrial chimpanzee nests, from the Bugoma Central Forest Reserve in western Uganda. We followed the decay of 56 ground and 51 tree nests in eight nest groups between April 2020 and October 2021. For 15 of the ground and 19 of the tree nests, we collected detailed information on the condition of the nests every two weeks; we checked the remaining 73 nests only twice. On average, ground nests lasted 238 days versus 276 days for tree nests (p = 0.05). Of the 107 total nests surveyed, 51% of tree and 64% of ground nests had disappeared after six months. Based on our results, we propose a modification of the formula used to convert nest density into chimpanzee density. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account potential differences in decay rates between ground versus tree nests, which will likely influence our understanding of the distribution of ground nesting behavior in chimpanzee across tropical Africa, as well as our estimations of the densities of ground nesting populations.


Asunto(s)
Pan troglodytes , Árboles , Animales , Densidad de Población , Uganda , Bosques , Comportamiento de Nidificación
4.
R Soc Open Sci ; 10(6): 230228, 2023 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37351495

RESUMEN

Categorizing individuals on the basis of familiarity is an adaptive way of dealing with the complexity of the social environment. It requires the use of conceptual familiarity and is considered higher order learning. Although, it is common among many species, ecological need might require and facilitate individual differentiation among heterospecifics. This may be true for laboratory populations just as much as for domesticated species and those that live in urban contexts. However, with the exception of a few studies, populations of laboratory animals have generally been given less attention. The study at hand, therefore, addressed the question whether a laboratory population of kea parrots (Nestor notabilis) were able to apply the concept of familiarity to differentiate between human faces in a two-choice discrimination task on the touchscreen. The results illustrated that the laboratory population of kea were indeed able to differentiate between familiar and unfamiliar human faces in a two-choice discrimination task. The results provide novel empirical evidence on abstract categorization capacities in parrots while at the same time providing further evidence of representational insight in kea.

5.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 15(4): 1673-1694, 2023 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37339769

RESUMEN

Contact tracing mobile applications (apps) were important in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. Most previous studies predicting contact tracing app use were cross-sectional and not theory-based. This study aimed at contributing to a better understanding of app use intentions and app use by applying an extended version of the protection motivation theory across two measurement points while accounting for the development of the pandemic. A total of N = 1525 participants from Switzerland (Mage = 53.70, SD = 18.73; 47% female; n = 270 completed both assessments) reported on risk perceptions, response efficacy, self-efficacy, social norms, trust in government, trust in the healthcare system, active search of COVID-19-related information, intentions for and actual (self-reported) app use. Analyses included country-specific incidences and death toll. Increases in response-efficacy, self-efficacy, trust in government, and the active search of COVID-19-related information predicted increased app-use intentions. Increases in self-efficacy, intentions, and the active search of COVID-19-related information predicted increased self-reported app use. Risk perceptions, incidence, and death toll were unrelated to both outcomes. Across an aggravation of the pandemic situation, intentions for and app use were primarily related to response-efficacy, self-efficacy, trust in government, and the active search of COVID-19-related information.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Aplicaciones Móviles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , COVID-19/prevención & control , Trazado de Contacto , Pandemias/prevención & control , Motivación
6.
Dev Sci ; 26(4): e13350, 2023 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440660

RESUMEN

The development of the unique, hierarchical, and endless combinatorial capacity in a human language requires neural maturation and learning through childhood. Compared with most non-human primates, where combinatorial capacity seems limited, chimpanzees present a complex vocal system comprising hundreds of vocal sequences. We investigated how such a complex vocal system develops and the processes involved. We recorded 10,929 vocal utterances of 98 wild chimpanzees aged 0-55 years, from Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. We developed customized Generalized non-Linear Models to estimate the ontogenetic trajectory of four structural components of vocal complexity: utterance length, diversity, probability of panting (requiring phonation across inhalation and exhalation), and probability of producing two adjacent panted units. We found chimpanzees need 10 years to reach adult levels of vocal complexity. In three variables, the steepest increase coincided with the age of first non-kin social interactions (2-5 years), and plateaued in sub-adults (8-10 years), as individuals integrate into adult social life. Producing two adjacent panted units may require more neuromuscular coordination of the articulators, as its emergence and steepest increase appear later in development. These results suggest prolonged maturational processes beyond those hitherto thought likely in species that do not learn their vocal repertoire. Our results suggest that multifaceted ontogenetic processes drive increases in vocal structural complexity in chimpanzees, particularly increases in social complexity and neuro-muscular maturation. As humans live in a complex social world, empirical support for the "social complexity hypothesis" may have relevance for theories of language evolution. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Chimpanzees need around 10 years to develop the vocal structural complexity present in the adult repertoire, way beyond the age of emergence of every single vocal unit. Multifaceted ontogenetic processes may drive increases in vocal structural complexity in chimpanzees, particularly increases in social complexity and neuro-muscular maturation. Non-linear increases in vocal complexity coincide with social developmental milestones. Vocal sequences requiring rapid articulatory change emerge later than other vocal sequences, suggesting neuro-muscular maturational processes continue through the juvenile years.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Voz , Animales , Adulto , Humanos , Niño , Pan troglodytes , Aprendizaje
7.
Dev Sci ; 26(4): e13361, 2023 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36545915

RESUMEN

Ostensive communication, communication motivated not only by an informative intention, but also by an intention to make this informative intention overt, is thought to be restricted to human signalers and to rely on metacognitive skills. On the receiver side, human infants and dogs have been found to selectively respond to human ostensive communication, even if it remains unclear whether they are able to discern the underlying intentions. At present only animals with extensive experiences with humans have demonstrated a response to human attention calling, suggesting that this sensitivity may be an exaptation of communicative skills allowing for context-specific responding to intraspecific signals. We investigated whether dogs could respond to subtle cues of ostension without clear attention-calling and how this skill varies across age and with different human-given signals. Using a two-way object choice task, we evaluated whether dogs of different ages followed, with their gaze and with their choices, ostensive human pointing and gaze more than a formally similar but non-ostensive gesture and a directional gaze cue. Dogs followed pointing more than gaze, and older dogs followed the directional cues more accurately than younger dogs. Independent of cue type, we found that dogs of all ages responded to human ostensive signals more than similar directional cues motivated by no communicative intention. Given that dogs are sensitive to subtle cues of ostensive communication from an early age, and that this does not appear to change with age, we suggest that living close to humans may have selected for this skill. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Like human infants, dogs followed human ostensive cues more than non-ostensive cues both by their approach behavior and their differential looking behavior. Dogs differentiated between ostensive and non-ostensive human cues from an early age on, without their attention having been called explicitly in advance. Dogs followed human-given pointing cues more than human-given gaze cues, independent of age or intention (ostensive or non-ostensive). The early developing sensitivity of dogs to human ostension suggests that living close to humans may have selected for this skill.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Gestos , Lactante , Humanos , Perros , Animales , Señales (Psicología) , Atención/fisiología , Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Intención
8.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 94(4-6): 173-206, 2023 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593407

RESUMEN

In order to achieve a better understanding of the factors that might have led our hominin ancestors to transition to a more terrestrial niche, including sleeping on the ground, we have conducted a study on the ground nesting behavior of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Chimpanzees, like all other species of great apes, build nests in which to sleep each night, but little is known about regional differences in their nesting habits. Previously, nesting on the ground was considered typical of gorillas, but rare in most populations of chimpanzees. Using data acquired during our extensive chimpanzee nesting survey conducted between 2004 and 2013 across a > 50 000 km2 region in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, we report a distinctive ground nesting behaviour of eastern chimpanzees (P. t. schweinfurthii). We have mapped the geographical distribution of ground nesting and compared its frequency at 20 survey areas on both sides of a large river, the Uele. We found that ground nests made up more than 1% of total nests at 15 of the 20 survey regions. For a subset of 16 of these regions, we utilized statistical models to investigate whether forest type and structure, as well as the abundance of carnivores and large herbivores, and the activities of humans impacted the frequency of ground nesting and nest height. We predicted that higher encounter rates of human and dangerous animal signs would be associated with lower rates of ground nesting as well as increased nest height. Overall, 10.4% of the Bili-Uéré chimpanzee nests were terrestrial, but the frequency of ground nesting varied extensively between the survey areas (0-29% of nests). The occurrence of ground nests was positively associated with denser forests (p = 0.004), herb patches (p < 0.001), and light gaps (p < 0.001). Light gaps (p < 0.001), herb patches (p = 0.044), and vine tangles (p = 0.016) also had a strong negative effect on nest height. Hunting by humans had a negative effect on the probability of the occurrence of ground nests (p = 0.001) and a positive one on nest height (p = 0.013), with a similar but likely marginal effect of large herbivores on nest height (p = 0.023). In addition, the chimpanzees nested at significantly lower heights with increasing distance from roads and settlements (p < 0.001). Carnivore encounter rates, however, had no significant impact on ground nest frequency or nest height. Our results indicate that ground nesting can no longer be considered a rare and patchily-occurring phenomenon in Pan troglodytes, but is instead a major component of the chimpanzee behavioural repertoire across a considerable fraction of the range of the Eastern subspecies. Our study highlights that neither the large body size of gorillas nor the taming of fire are necessary conditions for hominids to sleep overnight on the ground, even in areas inhabited by multiple species of large carnivore. Human hunting, however, appears to reduce the probability of ground nesting, or eliminate the behavior altogether.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento de Nidificación , Pan troglodytes , Humanos , Animales , República Democrática del Congo , Gorilla gorilla , Bosques
9.
PeerJ ; 10: e14535, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36540804

RESUMEN

The question whether or not tropical lianas infest host trees randomly or they exert host selection has implications for the structure and dynamics of tropical rainforests, particularly if colonization by lianas impacts host fitness. In this study, we present evidence that the Neotropical liana Marcgravia longifolia (Marcgraviaceae) infests host trees non-randomly. We identified host trees to species or genus level for 87 of the 100 M. longifolia individuals found in the study area of the Estación Biológica Quebrada Blanco (EBQB) in north-eastern Peruvian Amazonia. Data on host availability were taken from two 1-ha plots sampled at EBQB as part of a large-scale tree inventory in western Amazonia. Of the total of 88 tree genera with two or more individuals present in the inventory, 18 were represented amongst hosts. Host genera with a probability of colonization higher than expected by chance were Eschweilera (Lecythidaceae), Pouteria (Sapotaceae), Brosimum (Moraceae), and Hymenaea (Fabaceae). These findings suggest that M. longifolia exerts some level of host selectivity, but the mechanisms for this are completely unknown. Given the large number of animal species (41 bird species, three primate species) that are dispersing the seeds of M. longifolia and that have diverse ecological strategies, directed seed dispersal is unlikely to account for the observed patterns of host infestation.


Asunto(s)
Bosque Lluvioso , Clima Tropical , Animales , Probabilidad , Semillas , Perú
10.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1087, 2022 10 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224338

RESUMEN

According to the Strength-and-Vulnerability-Integration (SAVI) model, older people are more motivated to avoid negative affect and high arousal than younger people. To explore the biological roots of this effect, we investigate communicative interactions and social information processing in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) living at 'La Forêt des Singes' in Rocamadour, France. The study combines an analysis of the production of (N = 8185 signals, 84 signallers) and responses to communicative signals (N = 3672 events, 84 receivers) with a field experiment (N = 166 trials, 45 subjects). Here we show that older monkeys are not more likely to specifically ignore negative social information or to employ avoidance strategies in stressful situations, although they are overall less sociable. We suggest that the monkeys have only a limited capacity for self-regulation within social interactions and rather rely on general avoidance strategies to decrease the risk of potentially hazardous social interactions.


Asunto(s)
Autocontrol , Interacción Social , Animales , Cognición , Haplorrinos , Macaca/fisiología
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2015, 2022 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132065

RESUMEN

Older children with online schooling requirements, unsurprisingly, were reported to have increased screen time during the first COVID-19 lockdown in many countries. Here, we ask whether younger children with no similar online schooling requirements also had increased screen time during lockdown. We examined children's screen time during the first COVID-19 lockdown in a large cohort (n = 2209) of 8-to-36-month-olds sampled from 15 labs across 12 countries. Caregivers reported that toddlers with no online schooling requirements were exposed to more screen time during lockdown than before lockdown. While this was exacerbated for countries with longer lockdowns, there was no evidence that the increase in screen time during lockdown was associated with socio-demographic variables, such as child age and socio-economic status (SES). However, screen time during lockdown was negatively associated with SES and positively associated with child age, caregiver screen time, and attitudes towards children's screen time. The results highlight the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on young children's screen time.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Cuarentena/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tiempo de Pantalla , Factores de Edad , COVID-19/virología , Cuidadores , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Padres
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1510, 2022 01 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35087147

RESUMEN

Composite tool use (using more than one tool simultaneously to achieve an end) has played a significant role in the development of human technology. Typically, it depends on a number of specific and often complex spatial relations and there are thus very few reported cases in non-human animals (e.g., specific nut-cracking techniques in chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys). The innovative strategies underlying the innovation and spread of tool manufacture and associative tool use (using > 1 tools) across tool using animals is an important milestone towards a better understanding of the evolution of human technology. We tested Goffin's cockatoos on a composite tool problem, the 'Golf Club Task', that requires the use of two objects in combination (one used to control the free movement of a second) to get a reward. We demonstrate that these parrots can innovate composite tool use by actively controlling the position of the end effector and movement of both objects involved in a goal directed manner. The consistent use of different techniques by different subjects highlights the innovative nature of the individual solutions. To test whether the solution could be socially transmitted, we conducted a second study, which provided only tentative evidence for emulative learning. To our knowledge, this indicates that the cognitive preconditions for composite tool use have also evolved outside the primate lineage.

13.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1047292, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36605264

RESUMEN

Introduction: Cognitive flexibility is the ability of an individual to make behavioral adjustments in response to internal and/or external changes. While it has been reported in a wide variety of species, established paradigms to assess cognitive flexibility vary between humans and non-human animals, making systematic comparisons difficult to interpret. Methods: We developed a computer-based paradigm to assess cognitive flexibility in humans and non-human primates. Our paradigm (1) uses a classical reversal learning structure in combination with a set-shifting approach (4 stimuli and 3 rules) to assess flexibility at various levels; (2) it employs the use of motion as one of three possible contextual rules; (3) it comprises elements that allow a foraging-like and random interaction, i.e., instances where the animals operate the task without following a strategy, to potentially minimize frustration in favor of a more positive engagement. Results and Discussion: We show that motion can be used as a feature dimension (in addition to commonly used shape and color) to assess cognitive flexibility. Due to the way motion is processed in the primate brain, we argue that this dimension is an ideal candidate in situations where a non-binary rule set is needed and where participants might not be able to fully grasp other visual information of the stimulus (e.g., quantity in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). All participants in our experiment flexibly shifted to and from motion-based rules as well as color- and shape-based rules, but did so with different proficiencies. Overall, we believe that with such approach it is possible to better characterize the evolution of cognitive flexibility in primates, as well as to develop more efficient tools to diagnose and treat various executive function deficits.

14.
Ecol Evol ; 12(12): e9606, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36619712

RESUMEN

Characteristics of food availability and distribution are key components of a species' ecology. Objective ecological surveying used in animal behavior research does not consider aspects of selection by the consumer and therefore may produce imprecise measures of availability. We propose a method to integrate ecological sampling of an animal's environment into existing behavioral data collection systems by using the consumer as the surveyor. Here, we evaluate the consumer-centric method (CCM) of assessing resource availability for its ability to measure food resource abundance, distribution, and dispersion. This method catalogs feeding locations observed during behavioral observation and uses aggregated data to characterize these ecological metrics. We evaluated the CCM relative to traditional vegetation plot surveying using accumulated feeding locations across 3 years visited by a tropical frugivore, the bonobo (Pan paniscus), and compared it with data derived from over 200 vegetation plots across their 50 km2+ home ranges. We demonstrate that food species abundance estimates derived from the CCM are comparable to those derived from traditional vegetation plot sampling in less than 2 years of data collection, and agreement improved when accounting for aspects of consumer selectivity in objective vegetation plot sampling (e.g., tree size minima). Density correlated between CCM and plot-derived estimates and was relatively insensitive to home range inclusion and other species characteristics, however, it was sensitive to sampling frequency. Agreement between the methods in relative distribution of resources performed better across species than expected by chance, although measures of dispersion correlated poorly. Once tested in other systems, the CCM may provide a robust measure of food availability for use in relative food availability indices and can be incorporated into existing observational data collection. The CCM has an advantage over traditional sampling methods as it incorporates sampling biases relevant to the consumer, thereby serving as a promising method for animal behavioral research.

15.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 745627, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708104

RESUMEN

Behavioural cooperation is under intense research. Yet, popular experimental paradigms often employ artificial tasks, require training, or do not permit partner choice, possibly limiting their biological relevance. We developed the joint log-lift task, a social foraging paradigm in which animals have to jointly lift a log to each obtain a food reward. The task relies on an obligate strategy, meaning that the only way to benefit is to work jointly. We hypothesised that (1) animals learn to spontaneously solve the task, and that (2) kin and (3) more sociable individuals would engage more often together in the task and achieve greater success than non-kin and less sociable individuals, respectively. We presented the task to 8 groups of juvenile domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) in their home pen for 30 min daily. Over the course of 9 days, the pigs showed evidence of learning by progressively switching from individual to joint behaviours, leading to 68% (62 out of 91 pigs) spontaneously solving the task. Success was influenced by sociability, but not kinship. There were large differences in success among dyads, hinting at the possible role of social dynamics and inter-individual differences in the ability and/or motivation to solve the task. The joint log-lift task allows researchers to investigate spontaneous cooperative tendencies of individuals, dyads and groups in the home environment through ad libitum engagement with the apparatus. This ecologically relevant paradigm opens the way to investigate social foraging experimentally at large scale, by giving animals free choice about when and with whom to work jointly.

16.
Am J Primatol ; 83(12): e23338, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662462

RESUMEN

Species distributions are influenced by processes occurring at multiple spatial scales. It is therefore insufficient to model species distribution at a single geographic scale, as this does not provide the necessary understanding of determining factors. Instead, multiple approaches are needed, each differing in spatial extent, grain, and research objective. Here, we present the first attempt to model continent-wide great ape density distribution. We used site-level estimates of African great ape abundance to (1) identify socioeconomic and environmental factors that drive densities at the continental scale, and (2) predict range-wide great ape density. We collated great ape abundance estimates from 156 sites and defined 134 pseudo-absence sites to represent additional absence locations. The latter were based on locations of unsuitable environmental conditions for great apes, and on existing literature. We compiled seven socioeconomic and environmental covariate layers and fitted a generalized linear model to investigate their influence on great ape abundance. We used an Akaike-weighted average of full and subset models to predict the range-wide density distribution of African great apes for the year 2015. Great ape densities were lowest where there were high Human Footprint and Gross Domestic Product values; the highest predicted densities were in Central Africa, and the lowest in West Africa. Only 10.7% of the total predicted population was found in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Category I and II protected areas. For 16 out of 20 countries, our estimated abundances were largely in line with those from previous studies. For four countries, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, and South Sudan, the estimated populations were excessively high. We propose further improvements to the model to overcome survey and predictor data limitations, which would enable a temporally dynamic approach for monitoring great apes across their range based on key indicators.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , África Central , África Occidental , Animales , República Centroafricana , Recolección de Datos , Gorilla gorilla , Pan troglodytes
17.
Curr Biol ; 31(20): 4512-4520.e6, 2021 10 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469771

RESUMEN

The use of different tools to achieve a single goal is considered unique to human and primate technology. To unravel the origins of such complex behaviors, it is crucial to investigate tool use that is not necessary for a species' survival. These cases can be assumed to have emerged innovatively and be applied flexibly, thus emphasizing creativity and intelligence. However, it is intrinsically challenging to record tool innovations in natural settings that do not occur species-wide. Here, we report the discovery of two distinct tool manufacture methods and the use of tool sets in wild Goffin's cockatoos (Cacatua goffiniana). Up to three types of wooden tools, differing in their physical properties and each serving a different function, were manufactured and employed to extract embedded seed matter of Cerbera manghas. While Goffin's cockatoos do not depend on tool-obtained resources, repeated observations of two temporarily captive wild birds and indications from free-ranging individuals suggest this behavior occurs in the wild, albeit not species-wide. The use of a tool set in a non-primate implies convergent evolution of advanced tool use. Furthermore, these observations demonstrate how a species without hands can achieve dexterity in a high-precision task. The presence of flexible use and manufacture of tool sets in animals distantly related to humans significantly diversifies the phylogenetic landscape of technology and opens multiple avenues for future research. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Asunto(s)
Cacatúas , Loros , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Animales , Motivación , Filogenia
18.
Anim Cogn ; 24(6): 1339-1351, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110523

RESUMEN

The midsession reversal paradigm confronts an animal with a two-choice discrimination task where the reward contingencies are reversed at the midpoint of the session. Species react to the reversal with either win-stay/lose-shift, using local information of reinforcement, or reversal estimation, using global information, e.g. time, to estimate the point of reversal. Besides pigeons, only mammalian species were tested in this paradigm so far and analyses were conducted on pooled data, not considering possible individually different responses. We tested twelve kea parrots with a 40-trial midsession reversal test and additional shifted reversal tests with a variable point of reversal. Birds were tested in two groups on a touchscreen, with the discrimination task having either only visual or additional spatial information. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models to control for individual differences when analysing the data. Our results demonstrate that kea can use win-stay/lose-shift independently of local information. The predictors group, session, and trial number as well as their interactions had a significant influence on the response. Furthermore, we discovered notable individual differences not only between birds but also between sessions of individual birds, including the ability to quite accurately estimate the reversal position in alternation to win-stay/lose-shift. Our findings of the kea's quick and flexible responses contribute to the knowledge of diversity in avian cognitive abilities and emphasize the need to consider individuality as well as the limitation of pooling the data when analysing midsession reversal data.


Asunto(s)
Loros , Aprendizaje Inverso , Animales , Aprendizaje Discriminativo , Individualidad , Refuerzo en Psicología
19.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(2): 200228, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972834

RESUMEN

The ability to imitate has been deemed crucial for the emergence of human culture. Although non-human animals also possess culture, the acquisition mechanisms underlying behavioural variation between populations in other species is still under debate. It is especially controversial whether great apes can spontaneously imitate. Action- and subject-specific factors have been suggested to influence the likelihood of an action to be imitated. However, few studies have jointly tested these hypotheses. Just one study to date has reported spontaneous imitation in chimpanzees (Persson et al. 2017 Primates 59, 19-29), although important methodological limitations were not accounted for. Here, we present a study in which we (i) replicate the above-mentioned study addressing their limitations in an observational study of human-chimpanzee imitation; and (ii) aim to test the influence of action- and subject-specific factors on action copying in chimpanzees by providing human demonstrations of multiple actions to chimpanzees of varying rearing background. To properly address our second aim, we conducted a preparatory power analysis using simulated data. Contrary to Persson et al.'s study, we found extremely low rates of spontaneous chimpanzee imitation and we did not find enough cases of action matching to be able to apply our planned model with sufficient statistical power. We discuss possible factors explaining the lack of observed action matching in our experiments compared with previous studies.

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