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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 699, 2021 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622348

RESUMEN

In response to the Minamata Convention on Mercury, international organizations, governments, nonprofit organizations, and other institutions as well as individuals have worked to promote the development and implementation of safe and environmentally healthy practices, processes, and products. It is expected that the accumulation of mercury in the natural environment will decrease in volume each year. However, even after Hg ceases to be used, the Hg already accumulated in forests will continue to pose an ecological risk. Forest fires are serious events, partly because they release accumulated Hg from the environment. In this study, the effects of forest fires on the accumulation and chemical species of Hg in soil, related to the mobilization of Hg, were investigated. The research was conducted in secondary forests located near artisanal small-scale gold mining sites, where Hg is used for the amalgamation of gold in Camarines Norte, Philippines. The results showed that the original Hg accumulation level in the burned forest was not as high as that in the control forest, and that burn severity might have affected only the surface soil (0-5 cm). However, the proportion of water-soluble Hg, which was derived from ash, was increased by fire. Therefore, it is suggested that forest fires not only increase the release of Hg into the atmosphere but also increase the outflow risk to the aquatic system through rainfall.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Incendios Forestales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Oro , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Minería , Suelo
2.
J Diabetes Investig ; 12(11): 2102-2103, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963823

RESUMEN

Diabetic patients sometimes present generalized pruritus. Severe itching can cause an itch-scratch cycle, resulting in distress and impaired quality of life, but skin ulceration is a rare manifestation.

3.
J Diabetes Metab Disord ; 19(1): 281-287, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550177

RESUMEN

Purpose: This exploratory study compared the lower-limb muscle mass (thigh muscle mass [TMM] and lower-leg muscle mass [LLMM]) in type 2 diabetic patients with and without diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Methods: A total of 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, hospitalized for glycemic control, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. TMM and LLMM were measured using the bioelectrical impedance method. The muscle mass value was normalized by the bodyweight, and the total muscle mass was calculated by combining the muscle mass on the left and right (%TMM and %LLMM). DPN was evaluated according to the Japanese criteria. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, laboratory data, exercise habits, medication, related index of diabetes, and diabetic complications were analyzed. Results: Sixty patients, comprising of 32 males (47.8%) and 28 females (44.4%) with type 2 diabetes (46.2%), had DPN. The %TTM and %LLMM were significantly lower in type 2 diabetic patients with DPN than in those without DPN. Multiple regression analysis identified DPN, age, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as the determinants of %TMM, and DPN and HbA1c were identified as the determinants of %LLMM in type 2 diabetic patients. Discussion: The %TMM and %LLMM were significantly decreased in type 2 diabetic patients with DPN. DPN was found to be the strongest determinant of %TMM and %LLMM. Preventing and improving DPN, through active physical therapy, may increase the muscle mass of the lower limbs.

4.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(6): 296-303, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487621

RESUMEN

Oligo L-lactates (oligolactates) that have low molecular weights less than 2000 have been reported to inhibit tumor growth and extend the survival of experimental animals. Because oligolactates are scarcely soluble in water, they require a solvent or a solubilizing agent, such as a surfactant, to be dissolved in water. However, these agents are generally cytotoxic, an in vitro assay appropriate to evaluate the inhibitory effect on tumor growth has not been developed yet. Here, we prepared a solid nanodispersion of oligolactates using an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method to evaluate its tumor inhibitory activity in vitro without a solvent or surfactant. Polyol solutions containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as a continuous phase. The formation of nanoparticles depended on the concentrations of polyol and PVA in the continuous phase. The nanoparticles with a particle size of approximately 100 nm were obtained using 10-15% PVA and 60% propylene glycol. The obtained aqueous nanodispersion of oligolactates inhibited the growth of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in vitro, whereas the medium alone did not affect tumor cell growth. Therefore, oligo(L-lactate) nanoparticles may be useful in the research and development of oligolactates as a remedy for cancer.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Lactatos/administración & dosificación , Melanoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutáneas/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Composición de Medicamentos/métodos , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Emulsiones , Humanos , Melanoma/patología , Ratones , Nanopartículas/química , Tamaño de la Partícula , Polímeros/química , Alcohol Polivinílico/química , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología
5.
Intern Med ; 57(13): 1945-1946, 2018 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29491305
6.
Am J Hypertens ; 31(8): 876-885, 2018 07 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547880

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Considering sex differences, salt sensitivity, and insulin resistance (IR), the effect of sodium restriction and increased potassium intake on blood pressure remains unclear in normotensive Asian individuals, compared to that in hypertensive patients. METHODS: To assess the influence of sodium and potassium intake in normotensive individuals, we evaluated the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion rate in 3,392 drug-naïve normotensive Japanese individuals (average age: 48.4 years) and analyzed its relation to blood pressure using multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a 10-mmol/day increment in urinary sodium excretion related to an elevation in systolic blood pressure of 0.16 mm Hg in men and 0.37 mm Hg in women, after adjusting for known risk factors to salt sensitivity, including age, body mass index, serum creatinine, homeostasis model assessment of IR, and urinary potassium excretion. For urinary potassium excretion, a 10-mmol/day increment was associated with a decrease in systolic blood pressure, -0.54 mm Hg in men and -1.49 mm Hg in women, respectively. Furthermore, involvement of IR on blood pressure was observed only in women. CONCLUSIONS: In drug-naïve normotensive individuals, the effects of a lower-salt and higher-potassium diet, and IR on blood pressure, were more evident in women. These results suggest that to prevent the new onset of hypertension and its complications, the balances of a sodium restriction and an increased potassium intake are important even in normotensive individuals, independent of known risk factors for salt sensitivity, especially in women.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Dieta Hiposódica , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Resistencia a la Insulina , Potasio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Sodio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/etiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Potasio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Sodio en la Dieta/efectos adversos
7.
Acta Med Okayama ; 72(1): 9-15, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463933

RESUMEN

Resistance training is effective against type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but the effect of resistance training on toe pinch force (TPF) is unknown. Here we investigated the effect of short-term toe resistance training on TPF in patients with T2DM, in a prospective, parallel-group, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Twelve patients with T2DM who were hospitalized to improve glycemic control were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated to the intervention (n=6) and control (n=6) groups. The intervention group performed traditional aerobic exercise and 4 newly developed toe-resistance training exercises. The control group performed aerobic exercise only. After 2 weeks of the exercise intervention program, we evaluated anthropometric parameters, clinical parameters, motor function, and muscle parameters in each patient. After the exercise intervention program, the TPF and toe muscle quality, isometric knee extension force, and knee muscle quality were significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. Two weeks of toe-resistance training significantly increased the TPF in the T2DM patients. Toe resistance training is thus recommended in clinical practice for patients with T2DM.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Fuerza Muscular , Entrenamiento de Fuerza , Dedos del Pie , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
8.
Drug Discov Ther ; 12(6): 347-354, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674769

RESUMEN

Controlled release microparticles in a sub-gram-scale batch were fabricated using a ball mill, dry coating technique, to coat the water-soluble core material. This process also guaranteed the maintenance of the containment's integrity during the dry coating process. Quinine (average diameter, ca. 10 µm) and carnauba wax were used as the core and coating material, respectively. We evaluated the influence of process time, milling speed, and quinine-to-carnauba wax ratio on the particle size of the coated particles and their in vitro drug release profiles. Scanning electron microscopic observations suggested that the small wax particles attached to the core (quinine) particles resulted in a smooth film during the dry coating process. The size distribution of the coated particles agreed with the theoretically estimated size distribution. The in vitro release test demonstrated that the coated particles released quinine over 2 h in a biphasic mode. These results suggest that dry coating of microparticles less than 50 µm (D99) is feasible on a several-grams-batch scale. This new ball mill-coating technique also enables a guaranteed containment, a prerequisite for the manufacturing of highly bioactive or biohazard substances.


Asunto(s)
Composición de Medicamentos/métodos , Quinina/química , Rastreo Diferencial de Calorimetría , Cápsulas , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada , Excipientes , Tamaño de la Partícula , Solubilidad , Agua , Ceras/química
9.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 22(3): 647-652, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181659

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the toe pinch force (TPF) of type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy by disease stage, and to clarify the factors affecting the TPF. METHODS: Seventy-four men with diabetic nephropathy (age: 62.7 ± 8.9 years, duration of diabetes: 14.2 ± 8.6 years) were enrolled. According to the staging of diabetic nephropathy, TPF and knee extension force (KEF) were compared among three groups: normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and overt nephropathy. In addition, we investigated factors influencing TPF and KEF by performing multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Normoalbuminuria group, microalbuminuria group, and overt nephropathy group included 26, 25, and 23 patients, respectively. The TPF of the overt nephropathy group (3.15 ± 0.75 kg) was significantly lower than that of the normoalbuminuria (4.2 ± 0.7 kg, p < 0.001) and microalbuminuria groups (3.65 ± 0.81 kg, p = 0.022). The KEF of the overt nephropathy group (37.1 ± 8.3 kgf) was significantly lower than that of the normoalbuminuria group (44.8 ± 8.3 kgf, p = 0.010). Multiple regression analysis revealed that diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and diabetic nephropathy were determinant factors of the TPF; and age, body mass index, and diabetic nephropathy were determinant factors of the KEF. CONCLUSION: We found in male patients with diabetic nephropathy, the TPF and KEF decreased with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, our findings suggest diabetic nephropathy and DPN are critically involved in the reduction of TPF and KEF.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatología , Nefropatías Diabéticas/fisiopatología , Fuerza Muscular , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Nefropatías Diabéticas/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dedos del Pie
10.
Acta Med Okayama ; 71(2): 143-149, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420896

RESUMEN

We compared the toe pinch force in men with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sixty-eight male T2DM patients and 35 apparently healthy men matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. We compared the toe pinch force between the subjects with and without T2DM, and we evaluated the effect of diabetic polyneuropathy on toe pinch force in the patients. The toe pinch force of the T2DM patients was significantly lower than that of the subjects without diabetes (3.12±1.22 kg vs. 4.40±1.19 kg, p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that T2DM was a determinant of reduced toe pinch force. In addition, the toe pinch force of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy was significantly lower than that of patients without diabetic polyneuropathy (2.31±0.93 kg vs. 3.70±1.07 kg, p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that diabetic polyneuropathy was a determinant of the toe pinch force in men with T2DM, even after adjusting for age, BMI, HbA1c, and duration of diabetes. Reduced toe pinch force is a fundamental feature of motor dysfunction in men with T2DM, and diabetic polyneuropathy might be associated with toe pinch force in these patients.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatología , Nefropatías Diabéticas/fisiopatología , Fuerza Muscular , Dedos del Pie/fisiopatología , Anciano , Análisis de Varianza , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Neuropatías Diabéticas/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
11.
Diabetol Int ; 8(4): 392-396, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603345

RESUMEN

Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of short-term toe resistance training on toe pinch force and toe muscle quality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 12 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were hospitalized to improve glycemic control (8 men and 4 women, duration of diabetes 12.2 ± 9.5 years) were enrolled in this pilot study. Exercise therapy was performed with conventional aerobic exercise and four newly developed toe resistance training exercises for 2 weeks. Changes in anthropometric parameters, blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and muscle parameters, i.e. muscle mass, toe pinch force and toe muscle quality were evaluated after the exercise program. Results: There were no significant differences of body weight, body mass index, BP, heart rate, and upper/lower muscle mass after exercise performance. However, toe pinch force was significantly increased (pre: 2.92 ± 1.19 kg, post: 3.65 ± 1.58 kg, p = 0.007). Toe muscle quality (toe pinch force/lower leg muscle mass) were also significantly increased (pre: 2.15 ± 0.86 kg/kg, post: 2.72 ± 1.26 kg/kg, p = 0.009). Conclusions: Two weeks of toe resistance training significantly increased toe pinch force and toe muscle quality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Toe resistance training is might be essential for treating patients with diabetes mellitus in clinical practice.

12.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 21(4): 179-85, 2016 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26879315

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relations between toe pinch force and other muscle strength parameters in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 40 men with type 2 diabetes (age: 53.4 ± 13.1 years, duration of diabetes: 8.5 ± 8.1 years) who needed exercise training were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. We evaluated the clinical parameters and 4 muscle strength parameters, which were toe pinch force, handgrip strength, isometric knee extension force, and isometric ankle dorsiflexion force. RESULTS: The HbA1c, toe pinch force, handgrip strength, isometric knee extension force, and isometric ankle dorsiflexion force were 10.1 ± 2.4 %, 3.2 ± 1.2 kg, 37.3 ± 7.0 kg, 39.6 ± 11.4 kgf, and 17.0 ± 6.3 kgf, respectively. Toe pinch force was significantly correlated with handgrip strength (r = 0.365, p = 0.0206), isometric knee extension force (r = 0.668, p < 0.0001), and isometric ankle dorsiflexion force (r = 0.514, p = 0.0007). All muscle strength parameters were significantly lower in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy than in those without polyneuropathy. CONCLUSION: Although toe pinch force was significantly correlated with the other muscle strength parameters, the correlation was not so strong. However, evaluation of toe pinch force might be recommended for assessment of distal limb muscle strength in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patología , Fuerza Muscular , Dedos del Pie/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Tobillo/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Fuerza de la Mano , Humanos , Japón , Rodilla/fisiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto
13.
Drug Discov Ther ; 10(6): 307-313, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28090069

RESUMEN

The feasibility of fabricating Janus particles based on phase separation between a hard fat and a biocompatible polymer was investigated. The solvent evaporation method used involved preparing an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion with a mixture of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), hard fat, and an organic solvent as the oil phase and a polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution as the water phase. The Janus particles were formed when the solvent was evaporated to obtain certain concentrations of PLGA and hard fat in the oil phase, at which phase separation was estimated to occur based on the phase diagram analysis. The hard fat hemisphere was proven to be the oil phase using a lipophilic dye Oil Red O. When the solvent evaporation process was performed maintaining a specific volume during the emulsification process; Janus particles were formed within 1.5 h. However, the formed Janus particles were destroyed by stirring for over 6 h. In contrast, a few Janus particles were formed when enough water to dissolve the oil phase solvent was added to the emulsion immediately after the emulsification process. The optimized volume of the solvent evaporation medium dominantly formed Janus particles and maintained the conformation for over 6 h with stirring. These results indicate that the formation and stability of Janus particles depend on the rate of solvent evaporation. Therefore, optimization of the solvent evaporation rate is critical to obtaining stable PLGA and hard fat Janus particles.


Asunto(s)
Química Farmacéutica , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Grasas/química , Ácido Láctico/química , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Solventes/química , Anisotropía , Absorción Intestinal , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico-Ácido Poliglicólico , Volatilización
18.
Med Mol Morphol ; 42(3): 189-94, 2009 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19784748

RESUMEN

Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) of the thyroid gland is rare and benign, and it neither recurs nor metastasizes. In this lesion, tumor cells are arranged in trabeculae, in association with hyalinizing mass in the stroma. The origin and nature of the hyalinizing mass are still controversial. We report here a case of HTT with cytological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings, focused in particular on the hyalinizing mass. Cytologically, tumor cells exhibiting many intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions and nuclear grooves were found in association with light green-positive, irregular, fluffy membranous structures on touch smear. Staining with antibody to collagen type IV was positive in these membranous structures. Histopathologically, tumor cells exhibited many intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions, and were positive for staining with antibodies to S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, thyroglobulin, and vimentin. The hyalinizing eosinophilic mass, which was positive for PAS reaction, and for staining by antibody to collagen type IV, gradually increased in the areas surrounding tumor cells. This mass then appeared to replace the tumor cells, and exhibited a peculiar filiform pattern. We demonstrated ultrastructurally that this pattern was composed of long, irregular, fine cytoplasmic processes of tumor cells and basal lamina-like substance in the hyalinizing mass. In fact, the homogeneous hyalinizing mass, similar to basal lamina-like substance, contained many degenerated cytoplasmic processes at the ultrastructural level. These results suggested that the key cytological finding in differentiating HTT from papillary carcinoma is the fluffy membranous structure, although nuclear pseudoinclusions are important as well. The filiform pattern noted at light microscopic level consisted of long cytoplasmic processes of tumor cells and hyalinized mass at the ultrastructural level.


Asunto(s)
Hialina , Neoplasias de la Tiroides , Biomarcadores de Tumor/metabolismo , Biopsia con Aguja , Femenino , Humanos , Hialina/metabolismo , Hialina/ultraestructura , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/patología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/ultraestructura
19.
Endocr J ; 56(9): 1049-58, 2009.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19738363

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the G/G genotype of a resistin gene promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at -420 (rs1862513) and glycemic control by pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes. In Study 1, 121 type 2 diabetic patients were treated with pioglitazone (15 or 30 mg/day) for 12 weeks, in addition to previous medication. In Study 2, 63 patients who had been treated with pioglitazone for 12 weeks were examined retrospectively. In Study 1, multiple regression analysis revealed that the G/G but not C/G genotype was correlated with a reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared to C/C. When adjusted for age, gender, and BMI, the G/G genotype was an independent factor for the reduction of FPG (P=0.020) and HOMA-IR (P =0.012). When studies 1 and 2 were combined by adjusting the studies, age, gender, and BMI, the reduction of HbA1c was correlated with the G/G genotype (beta=-0.511, P=0.044). Therefore, this pilot study suggests that the G/G genotype of resistin SNP -420 may be an independent predictor of the reduction of fasting plasma glucose and HOMA-IR by pioglitazone.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/análisis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Resistina/genética , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Homeostasis/efectos de los fármacos , Homocigoto , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/prevención & control , Hipoglucemiantes/administración & dosificación , Resistencia a la Insulina , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Farmacogenética/métodos , Proyectos Piloto , Pioglitazona , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Resistina/sangre , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tiazolidinedionas/administración & dosificación , Resultado del Tratamiento
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