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Rev. Psicol. Saúde ; 12(1): 115-126, jan.-abr. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1092163


Depression represents a common public health problem in the world. Depression in the elderly appears to follow a vulnerability-stress model, with an interaction between individual vulnerabilities, including genetic factors, age-related cognitive and neurobiological changes, and a variety of stressful events that occur more frequently in advanced ages, such as grief, financial problems, and reduction in autonomy/functionality. In the last decades, several studies have indicated that exercise can be effective in preventing or reducing depressive symptoms, both in healthy and psychiatric populations. Due to the scientific community's interest in the efficacy and safety of physical exercise as complementary therapy for depressed elderly patients, we conduct an opinion study on the subject. Despite the researchers' efforts, in the last decades little progress has been made in verifying the efficacy of exercise in geriatric depression.

A depressão representa um problema comum de saúde pública no mundo. A depressão em idosos parece seguir um modelo de vulnerabilidade-estresse, com uma interação entre vulnerabilidades individuais, incluindo fatores genéticos, mudanças cognitivas e neurobiológicas relacionadas à idade, e uma variedade de eventos estressantes que ocorrem mais frequentemente em idades avançadas, como luto, problemas financeiros e redução da autonomia/funcionalidade. Nas últimas décadas, vários estudos indicaram que o exercício pode ser eficaz na prevenção ou redução dos sintomas depressivos, tanto em populações saudáveis como psiquiátricas. Devido ao interesse da comunidade científica na eficácia e segurança do exercício físico como terapia complementar para idosos deprimidos; realizamos um estudo de opinião sobre o assunto. Apesar dos esforços dos pesquisadores, nas últimas décadas pouco progresso foi feito na verificação da eficácia do exercício na depressão geriátrica.

La depresión representa un problema común de salud pública en el mundo. La depresión en los ancianos parece seguir un modelo de vulnerabilidad-estrés, con una interacción entre las vulnerabilidades individuales, incluidos factores genéticos, cambios cognitivos y neurobiológicos relacionados con la edad, y una variedad de eventos estresantes que ocurren con mayor frecuencia en edades avanzadas, como el duelo, problemas financieros y reducción de la autonomía/funcionalidad. En las últimas décadas, varios estudios han indicado que el ejercicio puede ser eficaz para prevenir o reducir los síntomas depresivos, tanto en poblaciones sanas como psiquiátricas. Debido al interés de la comunidad científica en la eficacia y seguridad del ejercicio físico como terapia complementaria para pacientes ancianos deprimidos, realizamos un estudio de opinión sobre el tema. A pesar de los esfuerzos de los investigadores, en las últimas décadas se ha avanzado poco en la verificación de la eficacia del ejercicio en la depresión geriátrica.

Eur J Pharmacol ; 874: 172911, 2020 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045604


Cannabis and, to a lesser extent, synthetic cannabinoids are used during adolescence, a period in which multiple brain areas are still undergoing development. Among such areas is the hypothalamus, which is implicated in the control of sleep-wake cycle. In the present report, we show that exposing adolescent rats to the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55, 212-2 (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg, i.p) for 14 days during adolescence (i.e., from post-natal day 30-44) resulted in significant sleep disturbances when the animals became adult (post-natal day 80). These included decreased wakefulness and enhanced rapid eye movement sleep. Furthermore, we found that labeling for NeuN, a marker of postmitotic neurons, was significantly increased the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus of rats treated with WIN 55, 212-2. The results suggest that excessive cannabinoid receptor activation during adolescence can persistently influence sleep patterns and neuronal activity later in life.

Curr Neuropharmacol ; 18(2): 97-108, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368874


Aging is an inevitable process that involves changes across life in multiple neurochemical, neuroanatomical, hormonal systems, and many others. In addition, these biological modifications lead to an increase in age-related sickness such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and sleep disturbances, among others that affect activities of daily life. Demographic projections have demonstrated that aging will increase its worldwide rate in the coming years. The research on chronic diseases of the elderly is important to gain insights into this growing global burden. Novel therapeutic approaches aimed for treatment of age-related pathologies have included the endocannabinoid system as an effective tool since this biological system shows beneficial effects in preclinical models. However, and despite these advances, little has been addressed in the arena of the endocannabinoid system as an option for treating sleep disorders in aging since experimental evidence suggests that some elements of the endocannabinoid system modulate the sleep-wake cycle. This article addresses this less-studied field, focusing on the likely perspective of the implication of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of sleep problems reported in the aged. We conclude that beneficial effects regarding the putative efficacy of the endocannabinoid system as therapeutic tools in aging is either inconclusive or still missing.

Brain Res Bull ; 155: 166-173, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838151


Cannabidiolic acid methyl ester (HU-580) is a more stable compound than cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) which has been shown to be effective in reducing nausea, anxiety, depression behaviors in animal models. Here we extend the investigation of this compound to determine its effect on the sleep-wake cycle in male Wistar rats. HU-580 dose-dependently (0.1, 1.0 or 100 µg/Kg, i.p.) prolonged wakefulness (W) and decreased slow wave sleep (SWS) duration whereas rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) showed no statistical change. In addition, the brain microdialysis probes either placed at nucleus accumbens (NAc) or into the basal forebrain in freely moving animals were used to evaluate the effects of HU-580 treatment on neurotransmitters related to the sleep-wake cycle modulation. HU-580 enhanced extracellular levels of dopamine, serotonin collected from NAc while adenosine and acetylcholine were increased in basal forebrain. In summary, HU-580 seems to possess wake-promoting pharmacological properties and enhances the levels of wake-related neurochemicals. This is the first report of effects of HU-580 on sleep modulation expanding the very limited existent data on the neurobiological effects of HU-580 on rats.

J Strength Cond Res ; 34(1): 89-96, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329154


Lattari, E, Rosa Filho, BJ, Fonseca Junior, SJ, Murillo-Rodriguez, E, Rocha, N, Machado, S, and Maranhão Neto, GA. Effects on volume load and ratings of perceived exertion in individuals' advanced weight training after transcranial direct current stimulation. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 89-96, 2020-The aim of this study was investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on volume load and ratings of perceived exertion. Fifteen young healthy individuals, aged between 20 and 30 years in advanced strength training were recruited. Test and retest of the 10 maximum repetitions (10RM) were performed to determine the reliability of load used. Subjects performed 3 experimental conditions in a randomized, double-blinded crossover design: anodic stimulation (a-tDCS), cathodic stimulation (c-tDCS), and sham (2 mA for 20 minutes targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex left). Immediately after the experimental conditions, subjects completed 1 set of maximum repetitions with 10RM load (volume load) and answered to OMNI-RES (poststimulation) (level of significance p ≤ 0.05). The volume load showed main effect for condition (F(2, 28) = 164.801; p < 0.001). In poststimulation, a-tDCS was greater than c-tDCS (p ≤ 0.001) and sham (p ≤ 0.001). For ratings of perceived exertion (OMNI-RES), the results showed main effect for condition (F(2, 28) = 9.768; p ≤ 0.05). In poststimulation, c-tDCS was greater than a-tDCS (p ≤ 0.05) and sham (p ≤ 0.05). We conclude that the use of a-tDCS may promote increase in volume load for the LP45 exercise. Moreover, higher volume loads are necessary to maximize muscle strength and anabolism.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 18(9): 705-712, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642794


BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy are among the symptoms of narcolepsy, a sleep disorder caused by the loss of hypocretin/orexin (HCRT/OX) neurons placed into the Hypothalamus (LH). Several treatments for managing narcolepsy include diverse drugs to induce alertness, such as antidepressants, amphetamine, or modafinil, etc. Recent evidence has shown that cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic derived from Cannabis sativa, shows positive therapeutic effects in neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson´s disease. Furthermore, CBD provokes alertness and enhances wake-related neurochemicals in laboratory animals. Thus, it is plausible to hypothesize that excessive somnolence observed in narcolepsy might be blocked by CBD. OBJECTIVE: Here, we determined whether the systemic injection of CBD (5mg/kg, i.p.) would block the excessive sleepiness in a narcoleptic model. METHODS: To test this idea, the neurotoxin hypocretin-2-saporin (HCRT2/SAP) was bilaterally injected into the LH of rats to eliminate HCRT leading to the establishment of narcoleptic-like behavior. Since excessive somnolence in HCRT2/SAP lesioned rats has been observed during the lights-off period, CBD was administered at the beginning of the dark phase. RESULTS: Hourly analysis of sleep data showed that CBD blocked the sleepiness during the lights-off period across 7h post-injection in lesioned rats. CONCLUSION: Taking together, these preliminary findings suggest that CBD might prevent sleepiness in narcolepsy.

Rev. Psicol. Saúde ; 11(2): 145-152, maio-ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1020434


Developing an approach to predict happiness based on individual conditions and actions could enable us to select daily behaviors for enhancing well-being in life. Therefore, we propose a novel approach of applying machine learning, a branch of the field of artificial intelligence, to a variety of information concerning people's lives (i.e., a lifelog). We asked a participant (a healthy young man) to record 55 lifelog items (e.g., positive mood, negative events, sleep time etc.) in his daily life for about eight months using smartphone apps and a smartwatch. We then constructed a predictor to estimate the degree of happiness from the multimodal lifelog data using a support vector machine, which achieved 82.6% prediction accuracy. This suggests that our approach can predict the behaviors that increase individuals' happiness in their daily lives, thereby contributing to improvement in their happiness. Future studies examining the usability and clinical applicability of this approach would benefit from a larger and more diverse sample size.

Desenvolver uma abordagem para prever a felicidade com base em condições e ações individuais pode nos permitir selecionar comportamentos diários para melhorar o bem-estar na vida. Portanto, propomos uma nova abordagem de aplicação da aprendizagem de máquina, um ramo do campo da inteligência artificial, para uma variedade de informações sobre a vida das pessoas (ou seja, um lifelog). Pedimos a um participante (um jovem saudável) que registrasse 55 itens de vida útil (por exemplo, humor positivo, eventos negativos, tempo de sono etc.) em sua vida diária por cerca de oito meses usando aplicativos de smartphones e um relógio inteligente. Em seguida, construímos um preditor para estimar o grau de felicidade dos dados de vida multimodal usando uma máquina de vetores de suporte, que atingiu 82,6% de precisão de previsão. Isso sugere que nossa abordagem pode prever os comportamentos que aumentam a felicidade dos indivíduos em suas vidas diárias, contribuindo para uma melhoria em sua felicidade. Estudos futuros examinando a usabilidade e a aplicabilidade clínica dessa abordagem se beneficiariam de um tamanho de amostra maior e mais diversificado.

El desarrollar un enfoque para predecir la felicidad, basado en las condiciones y acciones individuales, nos permitiría seleccionar comportamientos habituales para mejorar el bienestar en la vida. Por lo tanto, proponemos un novedoso enfoque de aplicación del aprendizaje automático, una rama del campo de la Inteligencia Artificial, a una variedad de información de la vida de las personas (es decir, un lifelog). Se le pidió a un participante (un sujeto joven sano) que registrara 55 elementos de lifelog (por ejemplo, humor positivo, eventos negativos, tiempo de sueño etc.) en su vida diaria, durante aproximadamente ocho meses, usando aplicaciones de teléfonos inteligentes, y un reloj inteligente. Posteriormente, construimos un predictor para estimar el grado de felicidad, a partir de los datos lifelog multimodales, utilizando un equipo de vectores de soporte, que logró una precisión de predicción del 82.6%. Estos datos sugieren que nuestro enfoque, puede predecir los comportamientos que incrementan la felicidad de las personas en su vida diaria, contribuyendo así, a una mejora en su felicidad. Los futuros estudios que examinen la usabilidad, y la aplicabilidad clínica de este enfoque, se beneficiarían al analizar un tamaño de muestra más grande, y más diversa.

Front Psychiatry ; 10: 261, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057446


Aim: The following work aims to investigate the putative correlation between early trauma and cognitive functions, as well as psychotic symptoms and cognitive functions, in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods: A quantitative assessment was performed with 20 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) criteria and who were in ongoing outpatient treatment in Psychosocial Care Centres in Brazil. Clinical measurements comprised a semistructured clinical interview, a screening questionnaire for common mental disorders, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF). Cognitive assessment included Beta III test, Concentrated Attention (CA) test, Color Trails Test (CTT), and Visual Face Memory (VFM) test. Results: Age-adjusted analysis showed a negative correlation between early trauma and visual memory performance (r = -0.585, p = 0.007) and negative symptoms and attention performance (r = -0.715, p = 0.000). Conclusion: Although a cause-effect relationship cannot be firmly stated, an association between early trauma experience and cognitive impairment such as visual memory, as well as a relationship between negative symptoms and attention domains, is suggested by our preliminary findings. Future studies with larger sample sizes and prospective design will clarify the long-term effects of early exposure to trauma and its clinical meaning in terms of developing psychotic-related illness.

Front Neurosci ; 13: 237, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930741


Histone methylation/demethylation plays an important modulatory role in chromatin restructuring, RNA transcription and is essential for controlling a plethora of biological processes. Due to many human diseases have been related to histone methylation/demethylation, several compounds such as 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) or 3-((6-(4,5-Dihydro-1H-benzo[d]azepin-3(2H)-yl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)propanoic acid; N-[2-(2-pyridinyl)-6-(1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3H-3-benzazepin-3-yl)-4-pyrimidinyl]-ß-Alanine (GSK-J1), have been designed to inhibit histone methylase or suppress histone demethylase, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the effects on the sleep-wake cycle and sleep-related neurochemical levels after systemic injections of DZNep or GSK-J1 given during the light or dark phase in rats. DZNep dose-dependently (0.1, 1.0, or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) prolonged wakefulness (W) duration while decreased slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) time spent during the lights-on period with no changes observed in dark phase. In opposite direction, GSK-J1 (0.1, 1.0, or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) injected at the beginning of the lights-on period induced no statistical changes in W, SWS, or REMS whereas if administered at darkness, we found a diminution in W and an enhancement in SWS and REMS. Finally, brain microdialysis experiments in freely moving animals were used to evaluate the effects of DZNep or GSK-J1 treatments on contents of sleep-related neurochemicals. The results showed that DZNep boosted extracellular levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, adenosine, and acetylcholine if injected at the beginning of the lights-on period whereas GSK-J1 exerted similar outcomes but when administered at darkness. In summary, DZNep and GSK-J1 may control the sleep-wake cycle and sleep-related neurochemicals through histone methylation/demethylation activity.

Front Psychol ; 10: 235, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837914


There is preliminary evidence suggesting that hippocampal functioning is associated with attachment style. However, it is unknown if attachment is also associated with hippocampal-related cognitive function such as spatial learning and recall. This study aims to verify if attachment dimensions are associated with spatial learning and recall. Sixty-five female participants were recruited and were evaluated using the Adult Attachment Scale-R and tested on a virtual maze navigation task (VMT) at one moment (exploratory trial + 3 trials) and 24 h later (3 trials). There was a significant Moment × Trial × Close-Depend interaction for the outcome time, F(2,126) = 3.807, p = 0.025, with post hoc analysis indicating that the High Close-Depend group displayed significant improvements between Trial 1 and Trial 3 in the post-test assessment. Conversely, the Low Close-Depend group displayed significant improvements between Trial 1and Trial 3 but on the pre-test assessment. Furthermore, the Low Close-Depend group presented significant better performance in pre-test Trial 3 in comparison to the High Close-Depend group. Thereby, it seems that low comfort with proximity and trust in others is associated with reduced spatial recall, although spatial learning performance was actually superior in these participants. It is possible that reduced exposure to social interaction and meaningful relationships may be reduced in the Low Close-Depend group, leading to modifications in hippocampal function and, ultimately, reduced spatial recall. Oppositely, participants in the High Close-Depend group may not display typical spatial learning in the proposed task as they are more willing to freely explore the presented environment.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 179: 113-123, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822492


The use of Cannabis for medical purposes is rapidly expanding and is usually employed as a self-medication for the treatment of insomnia disorder. However, the effect on sleep seems to depend on multiple factors such as composition of the Cannabis, dosage and route of administration. Vaporization is the recommended route for the administration of Cannabis for medical purposes; however, there is no published research about the effects of vaporized Cannabis on sleep, neither in laboratory animals, nor in humans. Because previous reports suggested that low doses of THC have sedating effects, the aim of the present study was to characterize in rats, the acute effects on sleep induced by the administration of low doses of THC by means of vaporization of a specific type of Cannabis (THC 11.5% and negligible amounts of other cannabinoids). For this purpose, polysomnographic recordings in chronically prepared rats were performed during 6 h in the light and dark phases. Animals were treated with 0 (control), 40, 80 and 200 mg of Cannabis immediately before the beginning of recordings; the THC plasma concentrations with these doses were low (up to 6.7 ng/mL with 200 mg). A quantitative EEG analyses by means of the spectral power and coherence estimations was also performed for the highest Cannabis dose. Compared to control, 200 mg of Cannabis increased NREM sleep time during the light phase, but only during the first hour of recording. Interestingly, no changes on sleep were observed during the dark (active) phase or with lower doses of Cannabis. Cannabis 200 mg also produced EEG power reductions in different cortices, mainly for high frequency bands during W and REM sleep, but only during the light phase. On the contrary, a reduction in the sleep spindles intra-hemispheric coherence was observed during NREM sleep, but only during the dark phase. In conclusion, administration of low doses of THC by vaporization of a specific type of Cannabis produced a small increment of NREM sleep, but only during the light (resting) phase. This was accompanied by subtle modifications of high frequency bands power (during the light phase) and spindle coherence (during the dark phase), which are associated with cognitive processing. Our results reassure the importance of exploring the sleep-promoting properties of Cannabis.

Curr Med Chem ; 26(25): 4775-4785, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182852


OBJECTIVE: Aging is a natural biological phenomenon that occurs in human beings. With increasing of age, there is an appearance of deleterious changes related to progression onto pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, hearing and vision impairments, as well as sleep disorders. It is important to recognize that some sleep disturbances reported by aged subjects include insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, among others. Moreover, accumulating evidence indicates that coexistence of medical issues with sleep disorders constitutes clinical challenges for treatment of comorbidities in elderly. Here, we have attempted to review and summarize the available literature that assesses the sleep disturbances in aging. In addition, we highlight the management of sleep disorders associated with aging. Due to the particular health condition of aged adults, the development of effective pharmacological interventions for sleep disorders treatment in aging is warranted. METHODS: Review of studies retrieved from the PubMed. RESULTS: The sleep-wake cycle includes abnormalities classified as sleep disorders. Comorbidity between sleep disturbances and aging-related health issues will represent a public health challenge to be addressed in the near future. Moreover, this scenario will suggest an area that requires further drug investigation and design of new pharmacological and pharmaceutical strategies to treat sleep disorders in the elderly population. CONCLUSION: The review highlights the sleep disturbances in aging. We focus on current knowledge in medicinal chemistry and further design of new treatments tools for managing sleep disturbances in the aged population.

Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/tratamiento farmacológico , Química Farmacéutica , Diseño de Fármacos , Humanos
Brain Res ; 1700: 181-189, 2018 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201258


BACKGROUND: Obesity is the result of the interaction of multiple variables, including the excessive increase of sugar-sweetened beverages consumption. Diets aimed to treat obesity have suggested the use of artificial sweeteners. However, recent evidence has shown several health deficits after intake of artificial sweeteners, including effects in neuronal activity. Therefore, the influence of artificial sweeteners consumption such as Splenda, on the expression of c-Fos and neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN) in hypothalamus and hippocampus remains to be determined. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects on c-Fos or NeuN expression in hypothalamus and hippocampus of Splenda-treated rats. METHODS: Splenda was diluted in water (25, 75 or 250 mg/100 mL) and orally given to rats during 2 weeks ad libitum. Next, animals were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were collected for analysis of c-Fos or NeuN immunoreactivity. RESULTS: Consumption of Splenda provoked an inverted U-shaped dose-effect in c-Fos expression in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus while similar findings were observed in dentate gyrus of hippocampus. In addition, NeuN immunoreactivity was enhanced in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus at 25 or 75 mg/100 mL of Splenda intake whereas an opposite effect was observed at 250 mg/100 mL of artificial sweetener consumption. Lastly, NeuN positive neurons were increased in CA2/CA3 fields of hippocampus from Splenda-treated rats (25, 75 or 250 mg/100 mL). CONCLUSION: Consuming Splenda induced effects in neuronal biomarkers expression. To our knowledge, this study is the first description of the impact of intake Splenda on c-Fos and NeuN immunoreactivity in hypothalamus and hippocampus in rats.

Hipocampo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipotálamo/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Sacarosa/análogos & derivados , Edulcorantes/administración & dosificación , Animales , Antígenos Nucleares/metabolismo , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Inmunohistoquímica , Masculino , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/metabolismo , Neuronas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-fos/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas Wistar , Sacarosa/administración & dosificación
Trials ; 19(1): 364, 2018 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986761


BACKGROUND: Latest research demonstrates a significant improvement in stress-related symptoms in psychological disorders as a result of exercise training (ET). Controlled clinical trials further validate the significance of ET by demonstrating lower salivary cortisol levels in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after intervention. A significant change in cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels can already be found after an 8-12-week ET program. The proposed study aims to investigate the impact of an 8-week ET on PTSD symptoms and changes in cortisol levels in a juvenile refugee sample from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) at an Ugandan refugee settlement. It is the first to implement an ET intervention in a resource-poor, post-conflict setting. METHODS/DESIGN: In a randomized controlled trial, 198 adolescent participants aged 13-16 years from the DRC who, suffer from PTSD, will be investigated. The participants are based at the Nakivale refugee settlement, an official refugee camp in Uganda, Africa, which is among the largest in the world. The participants will be randomized into an Exercise Training (ET) group with a maximum heart rate (HRmax) of > 60%, an Alternative Intervention (AI) group with low-level exercises, and a Waiting-list Control (WC) group. After the 8-week interventional phase, changes in cortisol awakening response (CAR) and DHEA in the ET group that correspond to an improvement in PTSD symptoms are expected that remain at follow-up after 3 months. DISCUSSION: To date, there is no controlled and reliable longitudinal study examining the effects of an ET program on symptom severity in individuals with PTSD that can be explained with a harmonization of cortisol secretion. The presented study design introduces an intervention that can be implemented with little expenditure. It aims to provide a promising low-threshold and cost-effective treatment approach for the application in resource-poor settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Trials Register, ID: DRKS00014280 . Registered prospectively on 15 March 2018.

Terapia por Ejercicio , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Refugiados , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Adolescente , Deshidroepiandrosterona/sangre , Comités de Ética Clínica , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/fisiología , Sistema Hipófiso-Suprarrenal/fisiología , Proyectos de Investigación , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/sangre , Resultado del Tratamiento
Neurochem Res ; 43(8): 1511-1518, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876791


Cannabis sativa is a plant that contains more than 500 components, of which the most studied are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Several studies have indicated that CBD displays neurobiological effects, including wake promotion. Moreover, experimental evidence has shown that injections of CBD enhance wake-related compounds, such as monoamines (dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine). However, no clear evidence is available regarding the effects of CBD on additional wake-related neurochemicals such as acetylcholine (ACh). Here, we demonstrate that systemic injections of CBD (0, 5, 10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.) at the beginning of the lights-on period, increase the extracellular levels of ACh collected from the basal forebrain and measured by microdialysis and HPLC means. Moreover, the time course effects on the contents of ACh were present 5 h post-injection of CBD. Altogether, these data demonstrate that CBD increases ACh levels in a brain region related to wake control. This study is the first to show the effects of ACh levels in CBD-treated rats and suggests that the basal forebrain might be a site of action of CBD for wakefulness modulation.

Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo Basal/efectos de los fármacos , Cannabidiol/farmacología , Animales , Cannabidiol/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Ratas Wistar , Factores de Tiempo , Vigilia/efectos de los fármacos , Promotores de la Vigilia/administración & dosificación , Promotores de la Vigilia/farmacología
J Mol Neurosci ; 65(1): 10-16, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732484


The molecular technology known as clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) is revolutionizing the field of medical research and deepening our understanding of numerous biological processes. The attraction of CRISPR/Cas9 lies in its ability to efficiently edit DNA or modulate gene expression in living eukaryotic cells and organisms, a technology that was once considered either too expensive or scientifically risky. CRISPR/Cas9 has been successfully applied in agriculture to develop the next generation of disease-resistant plants. Now, the capability of gene editing has been translated to the biomedical area, focusing on the future of medicine faced with drug-resistant microbes by selectively targeting genes involved in antibiotic resistance, for example, or finding the ultimate strategy for cancer or HIV. In this regard, it was recently demonstrated that an injection of cancer-fighting CRISPR-modified white blood cells in a patient suffering from metastatic lung cancer could lead to promising results. Researchers and bioethicists are debating questions about the regulation of CRISPR/Cas9 that must be addressed. While legal challenges surround the use of this technique for genetically modifying cell lines in humans, we review the basic understanding of CRISPR/Cas9 and discuss how this technology could represent a candidate for treatment of non-communicable diseases in nutrition, such as obesity.

Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edición Génica/métodos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Obesidad/genética , Animales , Humanos , Obesidad/terapia