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1.
J Asthma ; : 1-6, 2024 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520686

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The utility of two disease-severity indices, namely bronchiectasis severity index (BSI) and FACED score in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the BSI and FACED scores with immunological parameters (serum IgE [total and A. fumigatus-specific], A. fumigatus-specific IgG, blood eosinophil count), and high-attenuation mucus on chest computed tomography in ABPA. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the correlation between BSI and FACED scores and correlate the BSI/FACED scores with the bronchiectasis health questionnaire (BHQ) and Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). METHODS: We included treatment-naïve ABPA subjects with bronchiectasis in a prospective observational study. We computed the BSI and FACED scores for each subject before initiating treatment. The subjects also completed two quality-of-life questionnaires (BHQ and SGRQ). RESULTS: We included 91 subjects. The mean (standard deviation) BSI and FACED scores were 3.43 (3.39) and 1.43 (1.27). We found no correlation between BSI or FACED with any immunological parameter or high-attenuation mucus. There was a strong correlation between BSI and FACED scores (r = 0.76, p < 0.001). We found a weak correlation between BSI and BHQ/SGRQ and FACED and SGRQ. CONCLUSION: We found no correlation between BSI and FACED with immunological parameters in ABPA. However, we found a significant correlation between BSI and FACED and a weak correlation between SGRQ and BHQ. ABPA likely requires a separate disease-severity scoring system.

2.
Respiration ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Observational data suggest that the 19-gauge (G) needle for endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) offers a higher diagnostic yield in sarcoidosis than the 22-G needle. No randomized trial has compared the yield of the two needles. METHODS: We randomized consecutive subjects with suspected sarcoidosis and enlarged thoracic lymph nodes to undergo EBUS-TBNA with either the 19-G or the 22-G needle. We compared the study groups for diagnostic sensitivity (primary outcome) assessed by the yield of granulomas in subjects finally diagnosed with sarcoidosis. We also compared the sample adequacy, difficulty performing the needle puncture assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS), the subject's cough intensity on an operator-rated VAS, and procedure-related complications (secondary outcomes). RESULTS: We randomized 150 (mean age, 43.0 years; 55% women) subjects and diagnosed sarcoidosis in 116 subjects. The diagnostic sensitivity of the 19-G needle (45/60, 75.0%) was not higher (p=0.52) than the 22-G needle (39/56, 69.6%). We obtained adequate aspirates in 90.0% and 85.7% of subjects in the respective groups (p=0.48). The operators had greater difficulty puncturing lymph nodes with the 19-G needle (p=0.03), while operator-assessed cough intensity was similar in the groups (p=0.41). Transient hypoxemia was the only complication encountered during EBUS-TBNA (two subjects in either group). CONCLUSIONS: We did not find the 19-G needle superior to the 22-G in diagnostic sensitivity, specimen adequacy, or safety of EBUS-TBNA in sarcoidosis. Puncturing the lymph nodes was more difficult with the 19-G needle. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04770948.

3.
Mycoses ; 67(3): e13711, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414309

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Post-tuberculosis lung abnormality (PTLA) is the most common risk factor for developing chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). However, the prevalence and incidence of CPA in PTLA patients in India remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to ascertain the incidence and prevalence of CPA in subjects with PTLA. METHODS: We identified a cohort of pulmonary tuberculosis who completed anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) before November 2019 from the records of the 12 tuberculosis treatment centers attached to the national program. We recorded the clinical and demographic details. We performed computed tomography (CT) of the chest and estimated serum A. fumigatus-specific IgG. We categorised subjects as PTLA with or without CPA using a composite of clinical, radiological, and microbiological features. We resurveyed the subjects at 6 months (or earlier) for the presence of new symptoms. We calculated the prevalence and the incidence rate (per 100-person years) of CPA. RESULTS: We included 117 subjects with PTLA, with a median of 3 years after ATT completion. Eleven subjects had CPA in the initial survey, and one additional case developed CPA during the second survey. The prevalence of CPA in PTLA subjects was 10.3% (12/117). The total observation period was 286.7 person-years. The median (interquartile range) time to develop CPA after ATT completion was 12.5 (5-36.7) months. We found the CPA incidence rate (95% confidence interval) of 4.2 (1.8-6.5) per 100-person years. CONCLUSION: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis complicates 10% of PTLA subjects after successful outcomes with ATT. Four new CPA cases may develop per 100-persons years of observation after ATT completion. We suggest screening patients with PTLA who develop new symptoms for CPA.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Pulmonares , Aspergilosis Pulmonar , Tuberculosis Pulmonar , Humanos , Incidencia , Prevalencia , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/complicaciones , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Aspergilosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Pulmonares/complicaciones , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/complicaciones , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/microbiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enfermedad Crónica
4.
Mycoses ; 67(2): e13700, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369615

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgG estimation is crucial for diagnosing allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). A point-of-care LDBio immunochromatographic lateral flow assay (LFA) had 0%-90% sensitivity to detect IgG/IgM antibodies against A. fumigatus. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of LDBio-LFA in diagnosing ABPA, using the modified ISHAM-ABPA working group criteria as the reference standard. The secondary objective was to compare the diagnostic performance between LDBio-LFA and A. fumigatus-specific IgG (cut-offs, 27 and 40 mgA/L), using a multidisciplinary team (blinded to A. fumigatus-IgG and LDBio-LFA results) diagnosis of ABPA as the reference standard. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled adult subjects with asthma and ABPA. We performed the LDBio-LFA per the manufacturer's recommendations. We used the commercially available automated fluorescent enzyme immunoassay for measuring serum A. fumigatus-specific IgG. We used the same serum sample to perform both index tests. The tests were performed by technicians blinded to the results of other tests and clinical diagnoses. RESULTS: We included 123 asthmatic and 166 ABPA subjects, with a mean ± SD age of 37.4 ± 14.4 years. Bronchiectasis and high-attenuation mucus were seen in 93.6% (146/156) and 24.3% (38/156) of the ABPA subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of LDBio-LFA in diagnosing ABPA were 84.9% and 82.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of serum A. fumigatus-specific IgG ≥27 mgA/L was 13% better than LDBio-LFA, with no difference in specificity. There was no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity between LDBio-LFA and serum A. fumigatus-IgG ≥40 mgA/L. CONCLUSION: LDBio-LFA is a valuable test for diagnosing ABPA. However, a negative test should be confirmed using an enzyme immunoassay.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Asma , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aspergillus fumigatus , Inmunoglobulina E , Anticuerpos Antifúngicos , Aspergillus , Asma/complicaciones , Asma/diagnóstico , Inmunoglobulina G
5.
Eur Respir J ; 63(4)2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38423624

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) working group proposed recommendations for managing allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) a decade ago. There is a need to update these recommendations due to advances in diagnostics and therapeutics. METHODS: An international expert group was convened to develop guidelines for managing ABPA (caused by Aspergillus spp.) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM; caused by fungi other than Aspergillus spp.) in adults and children using a modified Delphi method (two online rounds and one in-person meeting). We defined consensus as ≥70% agreement or disagreement. The terms "recommend" and "suggest" are used when the consensus was ≥70% and <70%, respectively. RESULTS: We recommend screening for A. fumigatus sensitisation using fungus-specific IgE in all newly diagnosed asthmatic adults at tertiary care but only difficult-to-treat asthmatic children. We recommend diagnosing ABPA in those with predisposing conditions or compatible clinico-radiological presentation, with a mandatory demonstration of fungal sensitisation and serum total IgE ≥500 IU·mL-1 and two of the following: fungal-specific IgG, peripheral blood eosinophilia or suggestive imaging. ABPM is considered in those with an ABPA-like presentation but normal A. fumigatus-IgE. Additionally, diagnosing ABPM requires repeated growth of the causative fungus from sputum. We do not routinely recommend treating asymptomatic ABPA patients. We recommend oral prednisolone or itraconazole monotherapy for treating acute ABPA (newly diagnosed or exacerbation), with prednisolone and itraconazole combination only for treating recurrent ABPA exacerbations. We have devised an objective multidimensional criterion to assess treatment response. CONCLUSION: We have framed consensus guidelines for diagnosing, classifying and treating ABPA/M for patient care and research.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva , Adulto , Niño , Animales , Humanos , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/tratamiento farmacológico , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Pulmonar Invasiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Itraconazol/uso terapéutico , Micología , Prednisolona , Inmunoglobulina E
6.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13679, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214399

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mechanisms underlying COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) remain unclear. We use a transcriptomic analysis of the innate immune cells to investigate the host immune and metabolic response pathways in patients with CAPM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled subjects with CAPM (n = 5), pulmonary mucormycosis (PM) without COVID-19 (n = 5), COVID-19 (without mucormycosis, n = 5), healthy controls (n = 5) without comorbid illness and negative for SARS-CoV-2. Peripheral blood samples from cases were collected before initiating antifungal therapy, and neutrophils and monocytes were isolated. RNA sequencing was performed using Illumina HiSeqX from monocytes and neutrophils. Raw reads were aligned with HISAT-2 pipeline and DESeq2 was used for differential gene expression. Gene ontology (GO) and metabolic pathway analysis were performed using Shiny GO application and R packages (ggplot2, Pathview). RESULTS: The derangement of core immune and metabolic responses in CAPM patients was noted. Pattern recognition receptors, dectin-2, MCL, FcRγ receptors and CLEC-2, were upregulated, but signalling pathways such as JAK-STAT, IL-17 and CARD-9 were downregulated; mTOR and MAP-kinase signalling were elevated in monocytes from CAPM patients. The complement receptors, NETosis, and pro-inflammatory responses, such as S100A8/A9, lipocalin and MMP9, were elevated. The major metabolic pathways of glucose metabolism-glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, HIF signalling and iron metabolism-ferroptosis were also upregulated in CAPM. CONCLUSIONS: We identified significant alterations in the metabolic pathways possibly leading to cellular iron overload and a hyperglycaemic state. Immune responses revealed altered recognition, signalling, effector functions and a pro-inflammatory state in monocytes and neutrophils from CAPM patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/microbiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Inmunidad Innata
7.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 30(2): 156-166, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37902135

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-tuberculosis lung disease (PTLD) is an increasingly recognized and debilitating consequence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of PTLD with airflow obstruction (PTLD-AFO), focusing on its burden, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, and management strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The relationship between PTLD and airflow obstruction is complex and multifactorial. Approximately 60% of the patients with PTLD have some spirometric abnormality. Obstruction is documented in 18-22% of PTLD patients. The host susceptibility and host response to mycobacterium drive the pathogenic mechanism of PTLD. A balance between inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and fibrotic pathways decides whether an individual with PTB would have PTLD after microbiological cure. An obstructive abnormality in PTLD-AFO is primarily due to destruction of bronchial walls, aberrant healing, and reduction of mucosal glands. The most common finding on computed tomography (CT) of thorax in patients with PTLD-AFO is bronchiectasis and cavitation. Therefore, the 'Cole's vicious vortex' described in bronchiectasis applies to PTLD. A multidisciplinary approach is required for diagnosis and treatment. The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributed to PTLD represent about 50% of the total estimated burden of DALYs due to tuberculosis (TB). Patients with PTLD require comprehensive care that includes psychosocial support, pulmonary rehabilitation, and vaccination against respiratory pathogens. In the absence of trials evaluating different treatments for PTLD-AFO, therapy is primarily symptomatic. SUMMARY: PTLD with airflow obstruction has considerable burden and causes a significant morbidity and mortality. However, many aspects of PTLD-AFO still need to be answered. Studies are required to evaluate different phenotypes, especially concerning Aspergillus -related complications. The treatment should be personalized based on the predominant phenotype of airflow obstruction. Extensive studies to understand the exact burden, pathogenesis, and treatment of PTBLD-AFO are needed.


Asunto(s)
Bronquiectasia , Enfermedades Pulmonares , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Tuberculosis Pulmonar , Humanos , Pulmón , Enfermedades Pulmonares/complicaciones , Bronquiectasia/complicaciones
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 30(3): 368-374, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and at 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1724 cases (CAPM [n = 122], CAROM [n = 1602]) and 3911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (aOR, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes mellitus, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid, and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM reported a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56 of the 107 [52.3%] vs. 413 of the 1356 [30.5%]; p = 0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, whereas surgery was associated with better survival. DISCUSSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios de Cohortes , Glucocorticoides , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , India/epidemiología , Hipoxia/complicaciones
9.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 45(1): 114-127, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154470

RESUMEN

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a complex hypersensitivity reaction to airway colonization by Aspergillus fumigatus in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. The pathophysiology of ABPA involves a complex interplay between the fungus and the host immune response, which causes persistent inflammation and tissue damage. Patients present with chronic cough, wheezing, and dyspnea due to uncontrolled asthma. Characteristic symptoms include the expectoration of brownish mucus plugs. Radiographic findings often reveal fleeting pulmonary infiltrates, bronchiectasis, and mucus impaction. However, the definitive diagnosis of ABPA requires a combination of clinical, radiological, and immunological findings. The management of ABPA aims to reduce symptoms, prevent disease progression, and minimize the future risk of exacerbations. The treatment approach involves systemic glucocorticoids or antifungal agents to suppress the inflammatory response or fungal growth and prevent exacerbations. Biological agents may be used in patients with severe disease or glucocorticoid dependence. This review provides an overview of the clinical manifestations and current treatment options for ABPA.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Asma , Bronquiectasia , Fibrosis Quística , Humanos , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/tratamiento farmacológico , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Aspergillus fumigatus , Fibrosis Quística/complicaciones , Bronquiectasia/tratamiento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico
10.
Indian J Cancer ; 2023 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38078444

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BM) are common in metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, routine neuroimaging in asymptomatic patients with metastatic NSCLC is controversial as there is no conclusive evidence of benefit from the detection and treatment of asymptomatic BM. Herein, we evaluated the prevalence of asymptomatic BM and its treatment implications in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, metastatic, nonsquamous NSCLC (NS-NSCLC) were included. Subjects who already had clinical or radiological features suggestive of BM were excluded from the study. All eligible subjects underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Management of the detected BM was at the discretion of the treating clinicians. RESULTS: Among 809 subjects who were screened, 100 (12.4%) were included in the study and underwent MRI. BM was present in 30 (30%) of the subjects and absent in the remaining 70 subjects. A majority of BM were multiple (70%), involved the frontal lobe commonly (73.3%), and had a mean (standard deviation) size of 13.2 (7.3) mm. Detection of BM resulted in a treatment alteration in 17 (17%) of the study subjects (brain irradiation, n = 17, change in targeted therapy, n = 3) with BM. There was no difference in survival of patients who underwent treatment alteration for management of BM compared to those who did not (P = 0.132). CONCLUSIONS: About one-third of patients with metastatic NS-NSCLC had BM in MRI despite the absence of symptoms. Despite treatment of the majority of the patients with BM with brain irradiation, there was no demonstrable survival benefit. Hence, we conclude that although routine neuroimaging of asymptomatic patients with newly diagnosed metastatic NSCLC may result in treatment alteration (primarily brain irradiation) in a small proportion of patients, it may not influence outcomes in resource-constrained settings.

11.
Lung India ; 40(6): 527-536, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37961961

RESUMEN

Background: The prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in Indian asthmatic patients remains unknown. We systematically reviewed the literature for estimating the prevalence of Aspergillus sensitization (AS) and ABPA in Indian subjects with bronchial asthma. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies from India reporting the prevalence of AS or ABPA in at least 50 asthmatics. The primary outcome of our study was to assess the prevalence of ABPA. The secondary outcomes were to evaluate the prevalence of AS in asthma and ABPA in Aspergillus-sensitized asthma. We pooled the prevalence estimates using a random effects model and examined the factors influencing the prevalence using multivariate meta-regression. Results: Of the 8,383 records retrieved, 34 studies with 14,580 asthmatics met the inclusion criteria. All the studies were from tertiary centers. The pooled prevalence of ABPA in asthmatics (26 studies; 5,554 asthmatics) was 16.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 12.5-20.4]. The pooled prevalence of AS in asthma (29 studies; 13,405 asthmatics) was 30.9% (95% CI, 25.3-36.6), while the prevalence of ABPA in AS (20 studies; 1,493 asthmatics) was 48.2% (95% CI, 39.6-56.8). Meta-regression identified studies published after 2009 (OR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.28) and studies with severe asthmatics (OR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26) as the only factors associated with higher ABPA prevalence. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of ABPA in Indian asthmatic subjects at tertiary centers, underscoring the need for screening all asthmatic subjects in special asthma and chest clinics for ABPA.

14.
17.
Eur Respir J ; 62(3)2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37690784

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend 20-40 mg·day-1 of oral prednisolone for treating pulmonary sarcoidosis. Whether the higher dose (40 mg·day-1) can improve outcomes remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted an investigator-initiated, single-centre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03265405). Consecutive subjects with pulmonary sarcoidosis were randomised (1:1) to receive either high-dose (40 mg·day-1 initial dose) or low-dose (20 mg·day-1 initial dose) oral prednisolone, tapered over 6 months. The primary outcome was the frequency of relapse or treatment failure at 18 months from randomisation. Key secondary outcomes included the time to relapse or treatment failure, overall response, change in forced vital capacity (FVC, in litres) at 6 and 18 months, treatment-related adverse effects and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores using the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire and Fatigue Assessment Scale. FINDINGS: We included 86 subjects (43 in each group). 42 and 43 subjects completed treatment in the high-dose and low-dose groups, respectively, while 37 (86.0%) and 41 (95.3%), respectively, completed the 18-month follow-up. 20 (46.5%) subjects had relapse or treatment failure in the high-dose group and 19 (44.2%) in the low-dose group (p=0.75). The mean time to relapse/treatment failure was similar between the groups (high-dose 307 days versus low-dose 269 days, p=0.27). The overall response, the changes in FVC at 6 and 18 months and the incidence of adverse effects were also similar. Changes in HRQoL scores did not differ between the study groups. INTERPRETATION: High-dose prednisolone was not superior to a lower dose in improving outcomes or the HRQoL in sarcoidosis and was associated with similar adverse effects.


Asunto(s)
Prednisolona , Sarcoidosis Pulmonar , Humanos , Prednisolona/administración & dosificación , Calidad de Vida , Sarcoidosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Sarcoidosis Pulmonar/psicología , Adulto Joven , Adulto
18.
Allergol Int ; 72(4): 507-520, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37633774

RESUMEN

Fungal sensitization is highly prevalent in severe asthma. The relationship between fungus and asthma, especially Aspergillus fumigatus, has been the subject of extensive research. The ubiquitous presence of A. fumigatus, its thermotolerant nature, the respirable size of its conidia, and its ability to produce potent allergens are pivotal in worsening asthma control. Due to the diverse clinical manifestations of fungal asthma and the lack of specific biomarkers, its diagnosis remains intricate. Diagnosing fungal asthma requires carefully assessing the patient's clinical history, immunological tests, and imaging. Depending on the severity, patients with fungal asthma require personalized treatment plans, including inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators, and antifungal therapy. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the association between Aspergillus and asthma by reviewing the relevant literature and highlighting key findings. We discuss the diagnosis of various entities included in fungal asthma. We also debate whether newer definitions, including allergic fungal airway disease, offer any additional advantages over the existing ones. Finally, we provide the current treatment options for the individual entities, including A. fumigatus-associated asthma, severe asthma with fungal sensitization, and allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Asma , Micosis , Humanos , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/tratamiento farmacológico , Aspergillus fumigatus , Alérgenos , Sistema Respiratorio
19.
Mycoses ; 66(11): 953-959, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37555291

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The long-term outcomes of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are poorly characterised. METHODS: We retrospectively included treatment-naïve subjects of acute stage ABPA-complicating asthma from three randomised trials. All the subjects received oral prednisolone for 4 months and were monitored every 6 weeks for 6 months and then every 6 months. Our primary objective was to estimate the incidence rate and the frequency of subjects experiencing ABPA exacerbation. The key secondary objectives were to evaluate the factors predicting ABPA exacerbation and the changes in serum total IgE seen during treatment. RESULTS: We included 182 subjects. Eighty-one (44.5%) patients experienced 120 exacerbations during 512 patient-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of ABPA exacerbations was 234/1000 patient-years. Most (73/81, 90.1%) subjects experienced ABPA exacerbation within three years of stopping therapy. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, peripheral blood eosinophil count ≥1000 cells/µL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-4.67), the extent of bronchiectasis (aOR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18), age (aOR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), and female sex (aOR 2.16; 95% CI, 1.10-4.24) independently predicted ABPA exacerbation after adjusting for serum total IgE and high-attenuation mucus. The best cut-off for serum total IgE after 6 weeks for identifying treatment response and ABPA exacerbations was a 20% decline and a 50% increase, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ABPA exacerbations were common within 3 years of stopping treatment. Age, female sex, peripheral blood eosinophilia and the extent of bronchiectasis predicted ABPA exacerbations. The optimal serum total IgE cut-off for defining ABPA response and exacerbations is a 20% decline and a 50% increase, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica , Asma , Bronquiectasia , Femenino , Humanos , Aspergilosis Broncopulmonar Alérgica/complicaciones , Aspergillus fumigatus , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Asma/complicaciones , Bronquiectasia/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios de Seguimiento , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Inmunoglobulina E , Estudios Retrospectivos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
20.
Mycopathologia ; 188(5): 705-711, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37550433

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The role of C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) for diagnosing chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) remains unknown. Herein, we investigate the diagnostic performance of serum ESR and CRP in CPA. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of treatment-naïve subjects with CPA and diseased controls (post-tuberculosis lung disease on CT thorax). We treated CPA subjects with six months of oral itraconazole. Our primary objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ESR and CRP in diagnosing CPA. The key secondary objective was to study the change in the inflammatory markers with treatment. RESULTS: We included 434 subjects and 20 diseased controls. The sensitivity and specificity of ESR (n = 434) and CRP (at cut-off value of 10 mg/L, n = 308) in diagnosing CPA were 42.9% and 65%, and 52.3% and 65%, respectively. Both ESR and CRP had erratic trend following treatment. ESR and CRP declined or remained stable in approximately 60% of subjects but increased in approximately 40% of the subjects despite treatment. CONCLUSION: Serum CRP and ESR have limited utility in diagnosing and following subjects with CPA.

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