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1.
Nature ; 607(7917): 74-80, 2022 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794267

RESUMEN

Vortices are the hallmarks of hydrodynamic flow. Strongly interacting electrons in ultrapure conductors can display signatures of hydrodynamic behaviour, including negative non-local resistance1-4, higher-than-ballistic conduction5-7, Poiseuille flow in narrow channels8-10 and violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law11. Here we provide a visualization of whirlpools in an electron fluid. By using a nanoscale scanning superconducting quantum interference device on a tip12, we image the current distribution in a circular chamber connected through a small aperture to a current-carrying strip in the high-purity type II Weyl semimetal WTe2. In this geometry, the Gurzhi momentum diffusion length and the size of the aperture determine the vortex stability phase diagram. We find that vortices are present for only small apertures, whereas the flow is laminar (non-vortical) for larger apertures. Near the vortical-to-laminar transition, we observe the single vortex in the chamber splitting into two vortices; this behaviour is expected only in the hydrodynamic regime and is not anticipated for ballistic transport. These findings suggest a new mechanism of hydrodynamic flow in thin pure crystals such that the spatial diffusion of electron momenta is enabled by small-angle scattering at the surfaces instead of the routinely invoked electron-electron scattering, which becomes extremely weak at low temperatures. This surface-induced para-hydrodynamics, which mimics many aspects of conventional hydrodynamics including vortices, opens new possibilities for exploring and using electron fluidics in high-mobility electron systems.

2.
Nature ; 593(7860): 528-534, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040212

RESUMEN

Van der Waals heterostructures display numerous unique electronic properties. Nonlocal measurements, wherein a voltage is measured at contacts placed far away from the expected classical flow of charge carriers, have been widely used in the search for novel transport mechanisms, including dissipationless spin and valley transport1-9, topological charge-neutral currents10-12, hydrodynamic flows13 and helical edge modes14-16. Monolayer1-5,10,15-19, bilayer9,11,14,20 and few-layer21 graphene, transition-metal dichalcogenides6,7 and moiré superlattices8,10,12 have been found to display pronounced nonlocal effects. However, the origin of these effects is hotly debated3,11,17,22-24. Graphene, in particular, exhibits giant nonlocality at charge neutrality1,15-19, a striking behaviour that has attracted competing explanations. Using a superconducting quantum interference device on a tip (SQUID-on-tip) for nanoscale thermal and scanning gate imaging25, here we demonstrate that the commonly occurring charge accumulation at graphene edges23,26-31 leads to giant nonlocality, producing narrow conductive channels that support long-range currents. Unexpectedly, although the edge conductance has little effect on the current flow in zero magnetic field, it leads to field-induced decoupling between edge and bulk transport at moderate fields. The resulting giant nonlocality at charge neutrality and away from it produces exotic flow patterns that are sensitive to edge disorder, in which charges can flow against the global electric field. The observed one-dimensional edge transport is generic and nontopological and is expected to support nonlocal transport in many electronic systems, offering insight into the numerous controversies and linking them to long-range guided electronic states at system edges.

3.
Nature ; 581(7806): 47-52, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376964

RESUMEN

The recently discovered flat electronic bands and strongly correlated and superconducting phases in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene (MATBG)1,2 crucially depend on the interlayer twist angle, θ. Although control of the global θ with a precision of about 0.1 degrees has been demonstrated1-7, little information is available on the distribution of the local twist angles. Here we use a nanoscale on-tip scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID-on-tip)8 to obtain tomographic images of the Landau levels in the quantum Hall state9 and to map the local θ variations in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)-encapsulated MATBG devices with relative precision better than 0.002 degrees and a spatial resolution of a few moiré periods. We find a correlation between the degree of θ disorder and the quality of the MATBG transport characteristics and show that even state-of-the-art devices-which exhibit correlated states, Landau fans and superconductivity-display considerable local variation in θ of up to 0.1 degrees, exhibiting substantial gradients and networks of jumps, and may contain areas with no local MATBG behaviour. We observe that the correlated states in MATBG are particularly fragile with respect to the twist-angle disorder. We also show that the gradients of θ generate large gate-tunable in-plane electric fields, unscreened even in the metallic regions, which profoundly alter the quantum Hall state by forming edge channels in the bulk of the sample and may affect the phase diagram of the correlated and superconducting states. We thus establish the importance of θ disorder as an unconventional type of disorder enabling the use of twist-angle gradients for bandstructure engineering, for realization of correlated phenomena and for gate-tunable built-in planar electric fields for device applications.

4.
Nanoscale ; 12(5): 3174-3182, 2020 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967152

RESUMEN

Scanning nanoscale superconducting quantum interference devices (nanoSQUIDs) are of growing interest for highly sensitive quantitative imaging of magnetic, spintronic, and transport properties of low-dimensional systems. Utilizing specifically designed grooved quartz capillaries pulled into a sharp pipette, we have fabricated the smallest SQUID-on-tip (SOT) devices with effective diameters down to 39 nm. Integration of a resistive shunt in close proximity to the pipette apex combined with self-aligned deposition of In and Sn, has resulted in SOTs with a flux noise of 42 nΦ0 Hz-1/2, yielding a record low spin noise of 0.29 µB Hz-1/2. In addition, the new SOTs function at sub-Kelvin temperatures and in high magnetic fields of over 2.5 T. Integrating the SOTs into a scanning probe microscope allowed us to image the stray field of a single Fe3O4 nanocube at 300 mK. Our results show that the easy magnetization axis direction undergoes a transition from the 〈111〉 direction at room temperature to an in-plane orientation, which could be attributed to the Verwey phase transition in Fe3O4.

5.
Nature ; 576(7786): E6, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772389

RESUMEN

An Amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

6.
Nature ; 575(7784): 628-633, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634903

RESUMEN

Topology is a powerful recent concept asserting that quantum states could be globally protected against local perturbations1,2. Dissipationless topologically protected states are therefore of major fundamental interest as well as of practical importance in metrology and quantum information technology. Although topological protection can be robust theoretically, in realistic devices it is often susceptible to various dissipative mechanisms, which are difficult to study directly because of their microscopic origins. Here we use scanning nanothermometry3 to visualize and investigate the microscopic mechanisms that undermine dissipationless transport in the quantum Hall state in graphene. Simultaneous nanoscale thermal and scanning gate microscopy shows that the dissipation is governed by crosstalk between counterpropagating pairs of downstream and upstream channels that appear at graphene boundaries as a result of edge reconstruction. Instead of local Joule heating, however, the dissipation mechanism comprises two distinct and spatially separated processes. The work-generating process that we image directly, which involves elastic tunnelling of charge carriers between the quantum channels, determines the transport properties but does not generate local heat. By contrast, the heat and entropy generation process-which we visualize independently-occurs nonlocally upon resonant inelastic scattering from single atomic defects at graphene edges, and does not affect transport. Our findings provide an insight into the mechanisms that conceal the true topological protection, and suggest routes towards engineering more robust quantum states for device applications.

7.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 85, 2017 07 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28729642

RESUMEN

Quantized magnetic vortices driven by electric current determine key electromagnetic properties of superconductors. While the dynamic behavior of slow vortices has been thoroughly investigated, the physics of ultrafast vortices under strong currents remains largely unexplored. Here, we use a nanoscale scanning superconducting quantum interference device to image vortices penetrating into a superconducting Pb film at rates of tens of GHz and moving with velocities of up to tens of km/s, which are not only much larger than the speed of sound but also exceed the pair-breaking speed limit of superconducting condensate. These experiments reveal formation of mesoscopic vortex channels which undergo cascades of bifurcations as the current and magnetic field increase. Our numerical simulations predict metamorphosis of fast Abrikosov vortices into mixed Abrikosov-Josephson vortices at even higher velocities. This work offers an insight into the fundamental physics of dynamic vortex states of superconductors at high current densities, crucial for many applications.Ultrafast vortex dynamics driven by strong currents define eletromagnetic properties of superconductors, but it remains unexplored. Here, Embon et al. use a unique scanning microscopy technique to image steady-state penetration of super-fast vortices into a superconducting Pb film at rates of tens of GHz and velocities up to tens of km/s.

8.
Nature ; 539(7629): 407-410, 2016 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27786173

RESUMEN

Energy dissipation is a fundamental process governing the dynamics of physical, chemical and biological systems. It is also one of the main characteristics that distinguish quantum from classical phenomena. In particular, in condensed matter physics, scattering mechanisms, loss of quantum information or breakdown of topological protection are deeply rooted in the intricate details of how and where the dissipation occurs. Yet the microscopic behaviour of a system is usually not formulated in terms of dissipation because energy dissipation is not a readily measurable quantity on the micrometre scale. Although nanoscale thermometry has gained much recent interest, existing thermal imaging methods are not sensitive enough for the study of quantum systems and are also unsuitable for the low-temperature operation that is required. Here we report a nano-thermometer based on a superconducting quantum interference device with a diameter of less than 50 nanometres that resides at the apex of a sharp pipette: it provides scanning cryogenic thermal sensing that is four orders of magnitude more sensitive than previous devices-below 1 µK Hz-1/2. This non-contact, non-invasive thermometry allows thermal imaging of very low intensity, nanoscale energy dissipation down to the fundamental Landauer limit of 40 femtowatts for continuous readout of a single qubit at one gigahertz at 4.2 kelvin. These advances enable the observation of changes in dissipation due to single-electron charging of individual quantum dots in carbon nanotubes. They also reveal a dissipation mechanism attributable to resonant localized states in graphene encapsulated within hexagonal boron nitride, opening the door to direct thermal imaging of nanoscale dissipation processes in quantum matter.

9.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12566, 2016 08 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558907

RESUMEN

Atomically sharp oxide heterostructures exhibit a range of novel physical phenomena that are absent in the parent compounds. A prominent example is the appearance of highly conducting and superconducting states at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. Here we report an emergent phenomenon at the LaMnO3/SrTiO3 interface where an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator abruptly transforms into a nanoscale inhomogeneous magnetic state. Upon increasing the thickness of LaMnO3, our scanning nanoSQUID-on-tip microscopy shows spontaneous formation of isolated magnetic nanoislands, which display thermally activated moment reversals in response to an in-plane magnetic field. The observed superparamagnetic state manifests the emergence of thermodynamic electronic phase separation in which metallic ferromagnetic islands nucleate in an insulating antiferromagnetic matrix. We derive a model that captures the sharp onset and the thickness dependence of the magnetization. Our model suggests that a nearby superparamagnetic-ferromagnetic transition can be gate tuned, holding potential for applications in magnetic storage and spintronics.

10.
Sci Rep ; 5: 7598, 2015 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25564043

RESUMEN

The dynamics of quantized magnetic vortices and their pinning by materials defects determine electromagnetic properties of superconductors, particularly their ability to carry non-dissipative currents. Despite recent advances in the understanding of the complex physics of vortex matter, the behavior of vortices driven by current through a multi-scale potential of the actual materials defects is still not well understood, mostly due to the scarcity of appropriate experimental tools capable of tracing vortex trajectories on nanometer scales. Using a novel scanning superconducting quantum interference microscope we report here an investigation of controlled dynamics of vortices in lead films with sub-Angstrom spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity. We measured, for the first time, the fundamental dependence of the elementary pinning force of multiple defects on the vortex displacement, revealing a far more complex behavior than has previously been recognized, including striking spring softening and broken-spring depinning, as well as spontaneous hysteretic switching between cellular vortex trajectories. Our results indicate the importance of thermal fluctuations even at 4.2 K and of the vital role of ripples in the pinning potential, giving new insights into the mechanisms of magnetic relaxation and electromagnetic response of superconductors.

11.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 83(7): 073702, 2012 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22852696

RESUMEN

We describe a new type of scanning probe microscope based on a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) that resides on the apex of a sharp tip. The SQUID-on-tip is glued to a quartz tuning fork which allows scanning at a tip-sample separation of a few nm. The magnetic flux sensitivity of the SQUID is 1.8 µΦ(0)/√Hz and the spatial resolution is about 200 nm, which can be further improved. This combination of high sensitivity, spatial resolution, bandwidth, and the very close proximity to the sample provides a powerful tool for study of dynamic magnetic phenomena on the nanoscale. The potential of the SQUID-on-tip microscope is demonstrated by imaging of the vortex lattice and of the local ac magnetic response in superconductors.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(24): 247001, 2011 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22243019

RESUMEN

The local effect of the Josephson vortices on the vortex lattice melting process in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ) crystals in the presence of an in-plane field H(ab) is studied by differential magneto-optical imaging. The melting process is found to commence along the Josephson vortex stacks, forming a mesomorphic phase of periodic liquid and solid lamellas, the direction and spacing of which are controlled by H(ab). The reduction of the local melting field H(m) along the Josephson vortex stacks is more than an order of magnitude larger than the reduction of the average bulk H(m) by HH(ab).

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 101(15): 157003, 2008 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18999628

RESUMEN

A low concentration of columnar defects is reported to transform a first-order vortex lattice melting line in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 crystals into alternating segments of first- and second-order transitions separated by two critical points. As the density of columnar defects is increased, the critical points shift apart and the range of the intermediate second-order transition expands. The measurement of equilibrium magnetization and the mapping of the melting line down to 27 K was made possible by employment of the shaking technique.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 99(8): 087001, 2007 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17930974

RESUMEN

Vortex matter in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8) with a low concentration of tilted columnar defects (CDs) was studied using magneto-optical measurements and molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that while the dynamic properties are significantly affected by tilting the magnetic field away from the CDs, the thermodynamic transitions are angle independent. The simulations indicate that vortex pancakes remain localized on the CDs even at large tilting angles. This preserves the vortex thermodynamics, while vortex pinning is considerably weakened due to kink sliding.


Asunto(s)
Campos Magnéticos , Termodinámica , Aleaciones , Magnetismo , Modelos Químicos , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Transición de Fase , Mutación Puntual , Porosidad
15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 98(16): 167004, 2007 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17501454

RESUMEN

We study the oxygen doping dependence of the equilibrium first-order melting and second-order glass transitions of vortices in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O 8+delta. Doping affects both anisotropy and disorder. Anisotropy scaling is shown to collapse the melting lines only where thermal fluctuations are dominant. Yet, in the region where disorder breaks that scaling, the glass lines are still collapsed. A quantitative fit to melting and replica symmetry-breaking lines of a 2D Ginzburg-Landau model further reveals that disorder amplitude weakens with doping, but to a lesser degree than thermal fluctuations, enhancing the relative role of disorder.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 98(10): 107001, 2007 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17358558

RESUMEN

Magneto-optical measurements of transient vortex states in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta show enhanced effects of metastability in prism-shaped as compared to platelet crystals including a significant shift of the second magnetization peak and qualitatively different dynamics. In contrast to platelets, where dislocations are generated only at the sample edges, we propose that in prism samples the dislocations are generated dynamically in the entire sample due to distributed surface barriers. As a result, a dynamic phase transition from a Bragg glass to a metastable disordered phase may occur well below the thermodynamic transition field.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 95(25): 257004, 2005 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16384498

RESUMEN

The thermodynamic phase diagram of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 was mapped by measuring local equilibrium magnetization M(H,T) in the presence of vortex shaking. Two equally sharp first-order magnetization steps are revealed in a single temperature sweep, manifesting a liquid-solid-liquid sequence. In addition, a second-order glass transition line is revealed by a sharp break in the equilibrium M(T) slope. The first- and second-order lines intersect at intermediate temperatures, suggesting the existence of four phases: Bragg glass and vortex crystal at low fields, glass and liquid at higher fields.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 95(14): 147201, 2005 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16241690

RESUMEN

Local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization of single crystals of Mn12-acetate indicate that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity that is roughly 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. We argue that this phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 93(9): 097002, 2004 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15447129

RESUMEN

Using a differential magneto-optical technique to visualize the flow of transport currents, we reveal a new delocalization line within the reversible vortex liquid region in the presence of a low density of columnar defects. This line separates a homogeneous vortex liquid, in which all the vortices are delocalized, from a heterogeneous "nanoliquid" phase, in which interconnected nanodroplets of vortex liquid are caged in the pores of a solid skeleton formed by vortices pinned on columnar defects. The nanoliquid phase displays high correlation along the columnar defects but no transverse critical current.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 90(14): 147001, 2003 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12731938

RESUMEN

We present a systematic study of the topology of the vortex solid phase in superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 samples with low doses of columnar defects. A new state of vortex matter imposed by the presence of geometrical contours associated with the random distribution of columns is found. The results show that the first-order liquid-solid transition in this vortex matter does not require a structural symmetry change.

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