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1.
Nano Lett ; 18(8): 4861-4865, 2018 08 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995419

RESUMEN

We report experimental evidence of ballistic hole transport in one-dimensional quantum wires gate-defined in a strained SiGe/Ge/SiGe quantum well. At zero magnetic field, we observe conductance plateaus at integer multiples of 2 e2/ h. At finite magnetic field, the splitting of these plateaus by Zeeman effect reveals largely anisotropic g-factors with absolute values below 1 in the quantum-well plane, and exceeding 10 out-of-plane. This g-factor anisotropy is consistent with a heavy-hole character of the propagating valence-band states, which is in line with a predominant confinement in the growth direction. Remarkably, we observe quantized ballistic conductance in device channels up to 600 nm long. These findings mark an important step toward the realization of novel devices for applications in quantum spintronics.

2.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(9): 09LT01, 2018 03 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381143

RESUMEN

We have investigated hole transport in quantum wires formed by electrostatic confinement in strained germanium two-dimensional layers. The ballistic conductance characteristics show the regular staircase of quantum levels with plateaux at n2e 2/h, where n is an integer, e is the fundamental unit of charge and h is Planck's constant. However as the carrier concentration is reduced, the quantised levels show a behaviour that is indicative of the formation of a zig-zag structure and new quantised plateaux appear at low temperatures. In units of 2e 2/h the new quantised levels correspond to values of n = 1/4 reducing to 1/8 in the presence of a strong parallel magnetic field which lifts the spin degeneracy but does not quantise the wavefunction. A further plateau is observed corresponding to n = 1/32 which does not change in the presence of a parallel magnetic field. These values indicate that the system is behaving as if charge was fractionalised with values e/2 and e/4, possible mechanisms are discussed.

3.
Opt Express ; 25(21): 25374-25385, 2017 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29041205

RESUMEN

GeSn alloys with Sn contents of 8.4 % and 10.7 % are grown pseudomorphically on Ge buffers on Si (001) substrates. The alloys as-grown are compressively strained, and therefore indirect bandgap. Undercut GeSn on Ge microdisk structures are fabricated and strained by silicon nitride stressor layers, which leads to tensile strain in the alloys, and direct bandgap photoluminescence in the 3-5 µm gas sensing window of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of pseudomorphic layers and external stress mitigates the need for plastic deformation to obtain direct bandgap alloys. It is demonstrated, that the optically pumped light emission overlaps with the methane absorption lines, suggesting that GeSn alloys are well suited for mid-infrared integrated gas sensors on Si chips.

4.
J Microsc ; 268(3): 288-297, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972660

RESUMEN

We compare transmission electron microscopical analyses of the onset of islanding in the germanium-on-silicon (Ge/Si) system for three different Si substrate orientations: (001), (11¯0) and (11¯1)Si. The Ge was deposited by reduced pressure chemical vapour deposition and forms islands on the surface of all Si wafers; however, the morphology (aspect ratio) of the deposited islands is different for each type of wafer. Moreover, the mechanism for strain relaxation is different for each type of wafer owing to the different orientation of the (111) slip planes with the growth surface. Ge grown on (001)Si is initially pseudomorphically strained, yielding small, almost symmetrical islands of high aspect ratio (clusters or domes) on top interdiffused SiGe pedestals, without any evidence of plastic relaxation by dislocations, which would nucleate later-on when the islands might have coalesced and then the Matthews-Blakeslee limit is reached. For (11¯0)Si, islands are flatter and more asymmetric, and this is correlated with plastic relaxation of some islands by dislocations. In the case of growth on (11¯1)Si wafers, there is evidence of immediate strain relaxation taking place by numerous dislocations and also twinning. In the case of untwined film/substrate interfaces, Burgers circuits drawn around certain (amorphous-like) regions show a nonclosure with an edge-type a/4[1¯12] Burgers vector component visible in projection along [110]. Microtwins of multiples of half unit cells in thickness have been observed which occur at the growth interface between the Si(11¯1) buffer layer and the overlying Ge material. Models of the growth mechanisms to explain the interfacial configurations of each type of wafer are suggested.

5.
Sci Rep ; 5: 17398, 2015 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26620423

RESUMEN

The control of electronic and thermal transport through material interfaces is crucial for numerous micro and nanoelectronics applications and quantum devices. Here we report on the engineering of the electro-thermal properties of semiconductor-superconductor (Sm-S) electronic cooler junctions by a nanoscale insulating tunnel barrier introduced between the Sm and S electrodes. Unexpectedly, such an interface barrier does not increase the junction resistance but strongly reduces the detrimental sub-gap leakage current. These features are key to achieving high cooling power tunnel junction refrigerators, and we demonstrate unparalleled performance in silicon-based Sm-S electron cooler devices with orders of magnitudes improvement in the cooling power in comparison to previous works. By adapting the junctions in strain-engineered silicon coolers we also demonstrate efficient electron temperature reduction from 300 mK to below 100 mK. Investigations on junctions with different interface quality indicate that the previously unexplained sub-gap leakage current is strongly influenced by the Sm-S interface states. These states often dictate the junction electrical resistance through the well-known Fermi level pinning effect and, therefore, superconductivity could be generally used to probe and optimize metal-semiconductor contact behaviour.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 114(19): 196602, 2015 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26024188

RESUMEN

We report an experimental demonstration of room-temperature spin transport in n-type Ge epilayers grown on a Si(001) substrate. By utilizing spin pumping under ferromagnetic resonance, which inherently endows a spin battery function for semiconductors connected with a ferromagnet, a pure spin current is generated in the n-Ge at room temperature. The pure spin current is detected by using the inverse spin-Hall effect of either a Pt or Pd electrode on n-Ge. From a theoretical model that includes a geometrical contribution, the spin diffusion length in n-Ge at room temperature is estimated to be 660 nm. Moreover, the spin relaxation time decreases with increasing temperature, in agreement with a recently proposed theory of donor-driven spin relaxation in multivalley semiconductors.

7.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 27(2): 022201, 2015 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25469938

RESUMEN

We present the observation of weak antilocalization due to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction, through magnetoresistance measurements performed at low temperatures and low magnetic fields on a high mobility (777,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) p-Ge/SiGe quantum well heterostructure. The measured magnetoresistance over a temperature range of 0.44 to 11.2 K shows an apparent transition from weak localization to weak antilocalization. The temperature dependence of the zero field conductance correction is indicative of weak localization using the simplest model, despite the clear existence of weak antilocalization. The Rashba interaction present in this material, and the absence of the un-tuneable Dresselhaus interaction, indicates that Ge quantum well heterostructures are highly suitable for semiconductor spintronic applications, particularly the proposed spin field effect transistor.

8.
Opt Express ; 22(16): 19284-92, 2014 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25321013

RESUMEN

Low-voltage swing (≤1.0 V) high-contrast ratio (6 dB) electro-absorption modulation covering 1460 to 1560 nm wavelength has been demonstrated using Ge/SiGe quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) diodes grown on a silicon substrate. The heterolayers for the devices were designed using an 8-band k.p Poisson-Schrödinger solver which demonstrated excellent agreement with the experimental results. Modelling and experimental results demonstrate that by changing the quantum well width of the device, low power Ge/SiGe QCSE modulators can be designed to cover the S- and C-telecommunications bands.

9.
Opt Lett ; 36(21): 4158-60, 2011 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22048350

RESUMEN

We report modulation of the absorption coefficient at 1.3 µm in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well heterostructures on silicon via the quantum-confined Stark effect. Strain engineering was exploited to increase the direct optical bandgap in the Ge quantum wells. We grew 9 nm-thick Ge quantum wells on a relaxed Si0.22Ge0.78 buffer and a contrast in the absorption coefficient of a factor of greater than 3.2 was achieved in the spectral range 1290-1315 nm.

10.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 66(3 Pt 2B): 036705, 2002 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12366296

RESUMEN

A method to calculate a smooth electrical conductivity versus mobility plot ("mobility spectrum") from the classical magnetoconductivity tensor in heterogeneous structures with the help of a "maximum entropy principle" has been developed. In this approach the closeness of the fit and the entropy of the mobility spectrum are optimized. The spectrum is then the most probable one with the least influence of the personal bias of the investigator for any given set of experimental data and is maximally noncommittal with regard to the unmeasured data. The advantages of the maximum entropy mobility spectrum analysis as compared to the conventional mobility spectrum analysis are demonstrated using a synthetic dataset.

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