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1.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 759-767, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884277

RESUMEN

The ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency of international concern and has affected management plans of many autoimmune disorders. Immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies are pivotal in the management of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), potentially placing patients at an increased risk of contracting infections such as COVID-19. The optimal management strategy of NMOSD during the COVID-19 era remains unclear. Here, however, we examined the evidence of NMOSD disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) use during the present period and highlighted different scenarios including treatment of relapses as well as initiation and maintenance of DMTs in order to optimize care of NMOSD patients in the COVID-19 era.

2.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 651-662, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801722

RESUMEN

The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major public health challenge of global concern since December 2019, when the virus was recognized in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in China and epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic. Given the novelty of COVID-19 and the lack of specific anti-virus therapies, the current management is essentially supportive. There is an absence of consensus on guidelines or treatment strategies for complex disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), in which the risk of infections is higher than in the general population. This is due to the overall impairment of the immune system typical of autoimmune diseases, in addition to accumulation of disabilities, and the iatrogenic effect generated by corticosteroids and the recommended disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). DMTs have different modes of action, but all modulate and interfere with the patient's immune response, thereby raising concerns about adverse effects, such as an increased susceptibility to infections. In this review, we analyze the evidence for use of DMTs during the current critical period and ratify an algorithmic approach for management to optimize care between keeping DMTs, with their infection hazards, or coming off them, with the risk of disease activation. We also provide an algorithmic approach to the management of breakthrough activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
J Pain Res ; 13: 537-545, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210609

RESUMEN

Background: Studies have shown that interferon-beta (IFN-ß) treatment is associated with headaches in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Headaches can affect quality of life and overall function of patients with MS. We examined the frequency, relationships, patterns, and characteristics of headaches in response to IFN-ß in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective, longitudinal analysis with 1-year follow-up. The study comprised 796 patients with RRMS treated with IFN-ß (mean age 30.84±8.98 years) at 5 tertiary referral center outpatient clinics in Egypt between January 2015 and December 2017. Headaches were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders ICHD-3 (beta version), and data were collected through an interviewer-administered Arabic-language-validated questionnaire with an addendum specifically designed to investigate the temporal relationship between commencement of interferon treatment, and headache onset and characteristics. Results: Two hundred seventy-six patients had pre-existing headaches, and 356 experienced de novo headaches. Of 122 patients who experienced headaches before IFN-ß treatment, 55 reported headaches that worsened following onset of IFN-ß treatment. In patients with post-IFN-ß headaches, 329 had headaches that persisted for >3 months, 51 had chronic headaches, and 278 had episodic headaches, and 216 of these patients required preventive therapies. Univariate analysis showed a >6- and an approximately 5-fold increased risk of headache among those treated with intramuscular (IM) INF-ß-1a (OR 6.51; 95% CI: 3.73-10.01; P-value <0.0001) and 44 µg of SC INF-ß-1a (OR 5.44; 95% CI: 3.15-9.37; P-value <0.0001), respectively, compared with that in patients who received 22 µg of SC INF-ß-1a. Conclusion: Interferon-ß therapy aggravated pre-existing headaches and caused primary headaches in patients with MS. Headache risk was greater following treatment with IM INF-ß-1a and 44 µg SC INF-ß-1a.

4.
J Neurol Sci ; 409: 116582, 2020 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812847

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify timing for initiation of anticoagulation therapy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with non-valvular AF as regards safety and efficacy by detecting the rate of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and recurrent ischemic symptoms (RIS) during follow-up. METHODS: This is a prospective observational cohort study conducted at King Fahd Hospital of the University including 120 patients with AIS/TIAs from July 2016 till July 2018. We compared patients who received anticoagulants 1-6 days (Group I (45.83%), 7-14 days, Group II (35%), and > 14 days after the ischemic event (Group III (19.17%). Follow-up was at least 3 months and included identifying ICH or RIS. RESULT: ICH has occurred in 26.67% (n = 32) patients with a highly statistically significant association with time of treatment (P-value = .01) being higher in group I (n = 17) compared to only 1 case in group III. Subgroup analyses on the ICH patients (n = 32) has revealed statistical significant association with higher NIHSS score (P = .001). Also, the type of anticoagulants used between three groups pointed to an association existence (p = .02), however, the direction of this association cannot be determined. There was no statistical significant association between RIS (occurred in 4.16% (n = 5) with time of treatment (P = .754). Functional outcome at 3-6 months measured by mRS did not differ between 3 groups (worst mRS in group I). CONCLUSION: Early initiation of anticoagulation after stroke, especially in cases of large infarction, is associated with significant risk of ICH. This risk is highest with warfarin and lowest with DOAC.

5.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 14: 631-640, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503547

RESUMEN

Introduction: Although the frequency of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) has increased in recent decades, it is still highly uncommon, which creates a need for the involvement of more registries from various clinical centers. Objective: To characterize the demographic, clinical, and paraclinical features of Egyptian patients with POMS. Patients and methods: A retrospective chart review study was undertaken on 237 Egyptian patients with demyelinating events which started before the age of 18 years who attended one of five tertiary referral centers in Cairo, Egypt. Results: Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed in 186 patients, 47 (25.27%) patients had disease onset before the age of 12 years; "early-onset pediatric multiple sclerosis (EOPMS)". The mean age of disease onset was (14.13±2.49 years), with a female:male ratio of 1.62:1, none of the enrolled patients had a primary progressive course (PPMS), whereas 10 patients (5.38%) had a secondary progressive form. Approximately two-thirds of the patients had monofocal disease onset, and less than 10% presented with encephalopathy; most of them had EOPMS. Motor weakness was the presenting symptom in half of the patients, whereas cerebellar presentation was detected in 34.95%, mainly in EOPMS. Seizures (not related to encephalopathy) were more frequent in those with EOPMS. Initial brain magnetic resonance images were positive in all patients, with detected atypical lesions in 29.03%, enhanced lesions in 35.48%, black holes in 13.98%, and infratentorial in 34.41%. Cervical cord involvement was found in 68.28%. More than two-thirds of the patients received either immunomodulatory or immunosuppressant (IS) treatment throughout their disease course, and about half of them received their treatment within the first year from symptoms onset, with a more favorable outcome, and patients with highly active disease received natalizumab, fingolimod, or other IS. Conclusion: The results from this registry - the largest for MS in the Arab region to date - are comparable to other registries. Immunomodulatory therapies in POMS are well tolerated and efficacious and they can improve the long-term outcome in children.

6.
J Neurosci Rural Pract ; 8(4): 677-679, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29204040

RESUMEN

Compression of the neural structures in spine by an intradural arachnoid cyst is a rare entity. At times such a cyst is an incidental finding. Spinal epidural injection is one of the few rare etiological factors for its development. Symptomatic cysts can present with variable neurological manifestations depending on the spinal level involved. This includes back pain, lower limb weakness, and sphincteric dysfunction. If asymptomatic, they can be followed radiologically. Surgical decompression along with a histological diagnosis is reserved for cysts that are enlarging, symptomatic or the ones for whom the diagnosis is uncertain. Incomplete excision of cyst wall or simple fenestration and decompression mandates close follow-up, clinically and radiologically for further recurrences.

7.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 13: 1895-1903, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765711

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease with a heterogeneous presentation and diverse disease course. Recent studies indicate a rising prevalence of MS in the Middle East. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographics and disease features of Egyptian patients attending four tertiary referral MS centers in Cairo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study on 1,581 patients between 2001 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed and data were identified and extracted in a standardized electronic registry. RESULTS: The mean age of disease onset was 26.6±7.8 years, with the majority being female (2.11:1). Relapsing-remitting MS was the most common type (75.1%). The main presenting symptom was motor weakness (43.9%), which was also the most frequent symptom during the disease course. Family history of MS was found in 2.28%. Higher initial Expanded Disability Status Scale score, black holes, and infratentorial lesions on initial magnetic resonance imaging were independent factors for disease progression by univariate analysis (OR 3.87 [95% CI 1.84-6.51], 4.14 [95% CI 3.08-5.58], 4.07 [95% CI 3.21-4.99], respectively); however, in multivariate analysis, only infratentorial lesions were an independent risk for disease progression (OR 6, 95% CI 2.99-12.02; P=0.0005). CONCLUSION: The results from this registry - the largest for MS in the Arab region to date - are comparable to other registries with slight differences.

8.
J Clin Neurosci ; 21(9): 1606-11, 2014 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24913933

RESUMEN

One of the presumed pathological mechanisms of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the failure of apoptosis of autoreactive T lymphocytes. This study aimed to determine the relationship of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA gene expression ratio and serum TRAIL levels with MS and brain atrophy. This study was conducted on 53 relapsing-remitting Egyptian MS patients and 25 matched healthy volunteers. The expression of TRAIL in peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, serum levels of soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and brain MRI measured "black holes" and the bicaudate ratio as a measure of brain atrophy in all patients. The serum TRAIL level was lower in MS patients compared to controls but no difference was seen in the TRAIL mRNA gene expression ratio. No significant correlation was detected between the serum TRAIL level and the TRAIL mRNA expression ratio in either group. No statistically significant correlation was found between serum TRAIL levels or the TRAIL mRNA expression ratio with the number of black holes or the bicaudate ratio on MRI. Apoptosis of T lymphocytes is decreased in MS patients, which could be useful when designing treatments. There was no difference in the TRAIL mRNA gene expression ratio between MS patients and controls.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/patología , Esclerosis Múltiple Recurrente-Remitente/metabolismo , Esclerosis Múltiple Recurrente-Remitente/patología , Ligando Inductor de Apoptosis Relacionado con TNF/metabolismo , Adulto , Atrofia , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Egipto , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Expresión Génica , Humanos , Linfocitos/metabolismo , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa
9.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 29(2): 194-8, 2012 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22469687

RESUMEN

Sleep-related breathing disorders are said to be common in patients with established cerebrovascular accidents. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and characteristics of sleep-related breathing disorders in ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attacks. All patients were subjected to neurologic assessment, Berlin questionnaire (Arabic version), brain computed tomographic scan, and polysomnography along 6 to 8 hours overnight with special emphasis to apnea/hypopnea indices. All assessments were done for 30 patients who had stroke and transient ischemic attacks as well as 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Overall, 13.3% of patients had mild sleep apnea (apnea/hypopnea index, >5), 13.3% had moderate sleep apnea (apnea/hypopnea index, >15), and 34% had severe sleep apnea (apnea/hypopnea index, >30). The sensitivity and specificity of Berlin questionnaire for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis were 55% and 100%, respectively, for mild sleep apnea, 56.3% and 85.7% for moderate sleep apnea, 66.7% and 83.3% for severe condition. Berlin questionnaire is a moderate sensitive but highly specific screening test for sleep apnea in cerebrovascular diseases. Those who scored high risk should consider polysomnography to specify the type and severity of apnea.


Asunto(s)
Ataque Isquémico Transitorio/complicaciones , Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño/complicaciones , Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polisomnografía , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Neurodegener Dis ; 9(2): 81-6, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22133543

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mechanisms and immune activation have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-associated diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. PURPOSE: The evaluation of inflammatory markers in patients with dementia, and to determine whether these markers can be used to differentiate between vascular dementia (VD) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty demented patients (10 AD and 10 VD) and 20 non-demented controls were subjected to clinical evaluation, MRI brain scans and laboratory tests, including interleukin (IL) 6, C-reactive protein and serum protein electrophoresis. RESULTS: The results of this study revealed that serum levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein were significantly elevated among patients with both types of dementia compared to normal elderly subjects. Although the mean IL-6 level was higher in patients with AD compared to patients with VD, this difference was not significant. The cutoff value at which the serum level of IL-6 gave maximum sensitivity and specificity was 14.25 pg/ml. Moreover, α1- and α2-globulins were able to discriminate between AD and VD (being significantly higher in AD). CONCLUSION: IL-6 levels could be used to differentiate dementia from normal aging. Moreover, α1- and α2-globulins could differentiate between AD and VD. It can be concluded that inflammation plays an important role in both types of dementia.


Asunto(s)
alfa-Globulinas/análisis , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/sangre , Biomarcadores/sangre , Demencia Vascular/sangre , Interleucina-6/sangre , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Área Bajo la Curva , Biomarcadores/análisis , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Inflamación/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Curva ROC , Factores de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
11.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 15(3): 241-6, 2011 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21169042

RESUMEN

Guillain-Barré syndrome often follows an antecedent gastrointestinal or respiratory illness but, in rare cases, follows vaccination. This study was conducted to identify preceding events, demographic, clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome after post-poliomyelitis eradication era in Egypt. This is a prospective study of all children with GBS (no = 50) admitted to pediatric Cairo University Hospital between January 2006 and June 2007 (70.42% of all acute flaccid paralysis patients during this period). Upper respiratory infection was the most common preceding event (24%) while only 4 patients (8%) reported antecedent oral polio vaccine. Motor deficit was frequent and severe (quadriparesis in 92% and paraparesis in 8%). Autonomic dysfunction was recorded in 32% of patients. Forty two percent of patients had poor outcome with 16% deaths. Presence of severe disability on admission and on nadir, cranial nerve affection or the need for mechanical ventilator were found to be significant predictors for poor outcome.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/mortalidad , Cuadriplejía/mortalidad , Enfermedad Aguda/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad/tendencias , Egipto/epidemiología , Femenino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Cuadriplejía/fisiopatología
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