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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(5): 1468-1480, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624935

RESUMEN

Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors, originating before the age of 18 years. However, the genetic etiologies of ID are still incompletely elucidated due to the wide range of clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been applied as a single-step clinical diagnostic tool for ID because it detects genetic variations with a wide range of resolution from single nucleotide variants (SNVs) to structural variants (SVs). To explore the causative genes for ID, we employed WGS in 45 patients from 44 unrelated Japanese families and performed a stepwise screening approach focusing on the coding variants in the genes. Here, we report 12 pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants: seven heterozygous variants of ADNP, SATB2, ANKRD11, PTEN, TCF4, SPAST, and KCNA2, three hemizygous variants of SMS, SLC6A8, and IQSEC2, and one homozygous variant in AGTPBP1. Of these, four were considered novel. Furthermore, a novel 76 kb deletion containing exons 1 and 2 in DYRK1A was identified. We confirmed the clinical and genetic heterogeneity and high frequency of de novo causative variants (8/12, 66.7%). This is the first report of WGS analysis in Japanese patients with ID. Our results would provide insight into the correlation between novel variants and expanded phenotypes of the disease.

2.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(2): 332-337, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450555

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To reveal whether neurodevelopmental outcome of infants after epilepsy surgery can be quantitatively assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity analysis. METHODS: We enrolled 13 infants with posterior quadrant dysplasia aged <2 years who were treated using posterior quadrantectomy and 21 age-matched infants. EEG was performed both before and one year after surgery. Developmental quotient (DQ) was assessed both before and 3 years after surgery. The phase lag index (PLI) of three different pairs of electrodes in the nonsurgical hemisphere, i.e., the anterior short distance (ASD), posterior short distance (PSD), and long distance (LD) pairs, were calculated as indices of brain connectivity. The relationship between the PLI and DQ was evaluated. RESULTS: Overall, 77% infants experienced seizure freedom after surgery. The beta- and gamma- range PLI of PSD pairs increased preoperatively. All these pairs normalized postoperatively. Simple linear regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between the postoperative DQ and the postoperative beta-band PLI of ASD pairs. CONCLUSION: Preoperative abnormal hyper-connectivity was normalized to the control level after surgery. The postoperative hyperconnectivity was associated with long-term neurodevelopmental improvement. SIGNIFICANCE: PLI quantifies neurodevelopmental improvements after posterior quadrantectomy.

3.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 8(1): 206, 2020 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256836

RESUMEN

The Ihara epileptic rat (IER) is a mutant model with limbic-like seizures whose pathology and causative gene remain elusive. In this report, via linkage analysis, we identified Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule-like 1(Dscaml1) as the responsible gene for IER. A single base mutation in Dscaml1 causes abnormal splicing, leading to lack of DSCAML1. IERs have enhanced seizure susceptibility and accelerated kindling establishment. Furthermore, GABAergic neurons are severely reduced in the entorhinal cortex (ECx) of these animals. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging that directly presents the excitation status of brain slices revealed abnormally persistent excitability in IER ECx. This suggests that reduced GABAergic neurons may cause weak sustained entorhinal cortex activations, leading to natural kindling via the perforant path that could cause dentate gyrus hypertrophy and epileptogenesis. Furthermore, we identified a single nucleotide substitution in a human epilepsy that would result in one amino acid change in DSCAML1 (A2105T mutation). The mutant DSCAML1A2105T protein is not presented on the cell surface, losing its homophilic cell adhesion ability. We generated knock-in mice (Dscaml1A2105T) carrying the corresponding mutation and observed reduced GABAergic neurons in the ECx as well as spike-and-wave electrocorticogram. We conclude that DSCAML1 is required for GABAergic neuron placement in the ECx and suppression of seizure susceptibility in rodents. Our findings suggest that mutations in DSCAML1 may affect seizure susceptibility in humans.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251766

RESUMEN

Several patients with beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN)/static encephalopathy with neurodegeneration in adulthood have been reported to present Rett syndrome (RTT)-like features. This report presents an individual with BPAN showing clinical features of RTT. Psychomotor delay and epilepsy onset were noted at 1 year, and regression began at 4 years. Screening of the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) did not show variants. At 22 years, basal ganglia iron deposits were found on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the WD-domain repeat 45 gene (WDR45) variant was identified. Review of the literature showed that BPAN with RTT-like features is associated with more epileptic seizures and less deceleration of head growth, breathing irregularities, and cold extremities than classic RTT with MECP2 variants. These clinical presentations may provide clues for differentiating between these two disorders. However, both WDR45 and MECP2 should be screened in patients presenting a clinical picture of RTT without specific MRI findings of BPAN.

5.
Epilepsy Behav ; 113: 107561, 2020 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232894

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We investigated the relationship between electroencephalographic (EEG) functional connectivity and executive function in children with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). METHODS: We enrolled 24 children with FLE (mean age, 11.0 years; 13 boys) and 22 sex-, age-, and intelligence-matched typically developing children (TDC) to undergo 19-channel EEG during light sleep. We estimated functional connectivity using the phase lag index (PLI) that captures the synchronization of EEG. We also performed continuous performance tests (CPTs) on the children and obtained questionnaire responses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). RESULTS: The average gamma PLI was lower in the FLE group than in the TDC group, especially between long-distance frontoparietal pairs, between interhemispheric frontal pairs, and between interhemispheric parietotemporal pairs. Gamma PLIs with long-distance frontoparietal and interhemispheric frontal pairs were positively associated with inattention, ODD scores, omission error, and reaction time in the FLE group but not in the TDC group. Conversely, they were negatively associated with age, hyperactivity score, and commission error. CONCLUSIONS: A lack of functional connectivity of the frontal brain regions in children with FLE was associated with poor response inhibition.

6.
Pediatr Neurol ; 114: 1-4, 2020 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is the most commonly encountered endocrinopathy in patients with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), which manifests as multisystemic organ failure. Whether the management of diabetes mellitus in MELAS requires special consideration is not fully clarified. METHODS: In this single-center study, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with MELAS to elucidate the clinical characteristics of MELAS-associated diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Four patients among a total of 25 individuals with MELAS who were treated in the study institution developed diabetes mellitus. One patient had well-controlled diabetes mellitus, whereas the remaining three patients experienced hyperglycemic crisis as the first manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Two of the three patients were children aged four and six years. The hyperglycemic events occurred after surgery, infection, and status epilepticus, respectively. None of the three patients had diabetes mellitus previously based on randomly measured serum glucose levels that were within the normal range before the hyperglycemic crisis. Glycated hemoglobin levels measured during the hyperglycemic crisis indicated prediabetes in two patients and diabetes mellitus in one patient. Two patients recovered, whereas one patient died after developing multiorgan failure. CONCLUSIONS: Fulminant-onset diabetes mellitus occurring in patients with MELAS underscore the importance of routine measurement for glycated hemoglobin and more intense evaluation of glucose intolerance regardless of the patient age and lack of symptoms. Clinicians should be aware of the potential acute onset of hyperglycemic crisis in patients with MELAS, especially in individuals with aggravating factors.

7.
Mol Syndromol ; 11(4): 232-237, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224018

RESUMEN

The NEXMIF (KIAA2022) gene is located in the X chromosome, and hemizygous mutations in NEXMIF cause X-linked intellectual disability in male patients. Female patients with heterozygous mutations in NEXMIF also show similar, but milder, intellectual disability. Most female patients demonstrate intractable epilepsy compared with male patients, and the treatment strategy for epilepsy is still uncertain. Thus far, 24 female patients with NEXMIF mutations have been reported. Of these 24 patients, 20 also have epilepsy. Until now, epilepsy has been controlled in only 2 of these female patients. We report a female patient with a heterozygous de novo mutation, NM_001008537.2:c.1123del (p.Glu375Argfs*21), in NEXMIF. The patient showed mild intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, obesity, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Sodium valproate was effective but caused secondary amenorrhea. We successfully treated her epilepsy with clonazepam without side effects, indicating that clonazepam might be a good choice to treat epilepsy in patients with NEXMIF mutations.

8.
Brain Dev ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873456

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: An alteration in postoperative cognitive function varies according to the patients' background characteristics, such as etiology, focus, and seizure duration. Accurate prediction and assessment of postoperative cognitive function is difficult in each patient. Adaptive behavior could describe the typical performance of daily activities and represents the ability to translate cognitive potential into real-world skills. We examined the relationship between alterations of executive function (EF) and adaptive behavior in school children undergoing surgery for intractable epilepsy. METHODOLOGY: We enrolled 31 children with focal resection or corpus callosotomy for intractable epilepsy [mean age at surgery, 12.5 years; 16 boys; mean intellectual quotient, 73.3]. We surveyed answered questionnaires on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and adaptive behavior using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, 2nd edition (VABS-II), and performed continuous performance tests (CPTs) on children pre- and postoperatively. RESULT: ADHD and ASD symptoms improved after epilepsy surgery. The omission error (OE) in the CPT variable improved after epilepsy surgery, especially in children with a shorter preoperative period. Improved ASD symptoms led to an increased score of the coping skills subdomain. The reduced OE observed after surgery also increased the score of the community skills subdomain. CONCLUSION: Improvement in EF and ASD symptoms resulted in better adaptive behavior postoperatively. These results were important for the pre- and postoperative evaluation and re-evaluation of children with epilepsy requiring special education and related services.

9.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-9, 2020 Aug 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764180

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive risk associated with insular cortex resection is not well understood. The authors reviewed cognitive and developmental outcomes in pediatric patients who underwent resection of the epileptogenic zone involving the insula. METHODS: A review was conducted of 15 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery involving the insular cortex for focal cortical dysplasia, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. The median age at surgery was 5.6 years (range 0.3-13.6 years). Developmental/intelligence quotient (DQ/IQ) scores were evaluated before surgery, within 4 months after surgery, and at 12 months or more after surgery. Repeated measures multivariate ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects on outcomes of the within-subject factor (time) and between-subject factors (resection side, anterior insular resection, seizure control, and antiepileptic drug [AED] reduction). RESULTS: The mean preoperative DQ/IQ score was 60.7 ± 22.8. Left-side resection and anterior insular resection were performed in 9 patients each. Favorable seizure control (International League Against Epilepsy class 1-3) was achieved in 8 patients. Postoperative motor deficits were observed in 9 patients (permanent in 6, transient in 3). Within-subject changes in DQ/IQ were not significantly affected by insular resection (p = 0.13). Postoperative changes in DQ/IQ were not significantly affected by surgical side, anterior insular resection, AED reduction, or seizure outcome. Only verbal function showed no significant changes before and after surgery and no significant effects of within-subject factors. CONCLUSIONS: Resection involving the insula in children with impaired development or intelligence can be performed without significant reduction in DQ/IQ, but carries the risk of postoperative motor deficits.

10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 349, 2020 07 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620087

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), or Van der Knaap disease, is a rare spongiform leukodystrophy that is characterized by macrocephaly, progressive motor dysfunction, and mild mental retardation. It is very rare for mental illness such as psychotic disorders, affective disorders and anxiety disorders to occur in MLC. CASE PRESENTATION: A 17-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital after he developed symptoms of depressive state with catatonia after being diagnosed as having MLC with confirmed MLC1 mutation. His catatonic symptoms were improved with administration of olanzapine and sertraline and he was discharged after 4 months. Several months later, he became hypomanic. He was diagnosed with bipolar II disorder. Mood swings were controlled with the administration of carbamazepine. CONCLUSIONS: This case is the first report of bipolar disorder during the clinical course of MLC. This case indicate the possibility that MLC influences the development of bipolar disorder in MLC, however, further studies involving more patients are required to clarify this.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Catatonia/complicaciones , Quistes , Depresión/complicaciones , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes del Sistema Nervioso Central Hereditarias , Adolescente , Trastorno Bipolar/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno Bipolar/genética , Catatonia/diagnóstico , Quistes/diagnóstico , Quistes/genética , Depresión/diagnóstico , Femenino , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes del Sistema Nervioso Central Hereditarias/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Desmielinizantes del Sistema Nervioso Central Hereditarias/genética , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Megalencefalia
11.
Brain Dev ; 42(8): 555-563, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532641

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit deficits in executive function. Since there are no clear biomarkers for the disorder, this study aimed to investigate the neurophysiological biomarkers for deficits in executive function in children with ADHD using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography. METHODS: Twenty patients diagnosed with ADHD and 19 typically developing children (TDC; 8-11 years old) were included. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded using an electroencephalogram (EEG) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (Oxy-Hb) were recorded using fNIRS during a colored Go/NoGo task, simultaneously. Latencies and amplitudes of NoGo-N2 and NoGo/Go-P3 tasks were measured using EEG. RESULTS: Children with ADHD showed significantly decreased Oxy-Hb in the right frontal cortex as well as longer NoGo-P3 latencies and a decreased NoGo/Go-P3 amplitude. There was a significant positive correlation between the Oxy-Hb and NoGo/Go-P3 amplitude. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that children with ADHD experience executive dysfunction. Hemodynamic and electrophysiological findings during the Go/NoGo task might be useful as a biomarker of executive function. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings have key implications for understanding the pathophysiology of deficits in executive function in ADHD.

12.
Brain Dev ; 42(8): 581-586, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507666

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Deletion of 13q13.3 is an extremely rare event. CASE: We report on a 25-month-old girl with neurodevelopmental disorder and intellectual disability. She had dysmorphic facies characterized by synophrys, long and narrow palpebral fissures; and a large, round face with small organs such as the eyes and mouth positioned near the center. She was hypotonic and had autism-like behaviors. Blood tests and brain MRI revealed no specific findings. However, G-banding chromosome analysis showed an apparently balanced translocation: 46,XX,t(7,13)(q11.23;q12.3). Both parents had normal karyotypes. Furthermore, her abnormal phenotype and chromosomal breakpoint lesion were suspected to be associated. Hence, we conducted array comparative genomic hybridization, which revealed a 3.2 Mb novel pathological microdeletion at 13q13.3 involving 17 genes including neurobeachin (NBEA), a neurodevelopment disorder gene. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes adjacent to the microdeletion suggested a concomitant occurrence of the deletion and translocation as the structural basis of this rare genomic variant. CONCLUSION: NBEA may have roles in her neurodevelopmental phenotypes, whereas other genes within the 13q13.3 microdeletion may contribute to her dysmorphic features.

13.
Epilepsy Behav ; 108: 107092, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320922

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to clarify the strengths and weaknesses in adaptive behavior in children with focal epilepsy and show children-associated factors related to adaptive behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three children with focal epilepsy aged 5-18 years with intellectual quotient (IQ) ranging from 67 to 135 were enrolled in this study. Adaptive behavior was evaluated using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, 2nd edition (VABS-II). The children performed continuous performance test and tests of reading, writing, and IQ; parents answered questionnaires regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were categorized into four groups based on IQ and adaptive behavior scores for statistical comparisons. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Children with low adaptive behavior were more likely to show a reduction in daily living skills, and those with both low adaptive behavior and IQ were more likely to show a reduction in daily living skills and communication. Lower adaptive behavior was related to more severe autistic symptoms, lower academic achievement in children with IQ > 85, and lower executive function in children with IQ ≤ 85. There was a qualitative difference of cognitive dysfunction in adaptive behavior between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: There were differences in VABS-II domain and subdomain characteristics between children with focal epilepsy and those with ASD; however, it was more difficult for children with more severe ASD and coexisting focal epilepsy to show age-equivalent adaptive behavior.

15.
Brain Dev ; 42(6): 462-467, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173090

RESUMEN

CLCN2-related leukoencephalopathy (CC2L) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by variants in CLCN2. We report a boy whose brain MRI during an episode of aseptic meningitis at the age of 6 years revealed wide areas of restriction on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) in the cerebral subcortical white matter called bright tree appearance (BTA). In addition to the BTA, high intensity signals were also observed bilaterally in the posterior limbs of the internal capsules, cerebral peduncles, middle cerebellar peduncles, cerebellar white matter, and brain stem (longitudinal pontine bundle) along with low apparent diffusion coefficient values in the same areas. The BTA was transient, seen only during the acute phase of the aseptic meningitis. With the resolution of the infection, his meningitis symptoms completely resolved, but abnormal brain MRI findings remained, other than BTA, which disappeared. At age 13 years, whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous variant (c.61dupC, p.(Leu21Profs*27)) of CLCN2. He had no intellectual disability or neurological abnormalities. The transient DWI high-intensity signals in the subcortical white matter and the T2 high-intensity signals in the white matter could reflect varying degrees of water imbalance in the extracellular space in myelin sheaths in CC2L.

16.
Brain Dev ; 42(2): 129-139, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761311

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We examined functional connectivity analyses in electroencephalograms (EEGs) of patients with attention deficit hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) and in those of typically developing children (TDC) to uncover neurobiological abnormalities. METHODOLOGY: We enrolled 31 children with ADHD (mean age 11.1 years; 23 boys) and 17 sex-, age-, and intelligence-matched TDC to undergo 19-channel EEGs during light sleep. We estimated functional connectivity using the phase lag index (PLI) and coherence measurements that capture the synchronization of EEG signals and graphed metrics with GRETNA. We also performed continuous performance tests (CPTs) on the children and obtained answered questionnaires on ADHD and autism spectrum disorder. RESULTS: The central-to-posterior gamma PLI was lower in children with ADHD than that in TDC. The other PLI frequency bands and all coherence frequency bands were not statistically different between both groups. Individuals with high hyperactivity scores on questionnaires and low reaction times (SDs) on CPT had low motor and occipital pairs of gamma PLIs. Graph metrics showed no differences between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in averaged gamma PLI (especially with motor and occipital pairs) between groups was more suitable for diagnosis than the averaged coherence. Lower averaged gamma PLIs reflected more severe ADHD symptoms. A prospective study with more controlled conditions is warranted to determine if gamma-band PLI can be used as an auxiliary tool for ADHD diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/fisiopatología , Ritmo Gamma/fisiología , Sueño/fisiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/complicaciones , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/metabolismo , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/fisiopatología , Niño , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Inteligencia/fisiología , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología
17.
J Atten Disord ; 24(14): 2012-2020, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154696

RESUMEN

Objective: To establish valid, objective biomarkers for ADHD using machine learning. Method: Machine learning was used to predict disorder severity from new brain function data, using a support vector machine (SVM). A multicenter approach was used to collect data for machine learning training, including behavioral and physiological indicators, age, and reverse Stroop task (RST) data from 108 children with ADHD and 108 typically developing (TD) children. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to quantify change in prefrontal cortex oxygenated hemoglobin during RST. Verification data were from 62 children with ADHD and 37 TD children from six facilities in Japan. Results: The SVM general performance results showed sensitivity of 88.71%, specificity of 83.78%, and an overall discrimination rate of 86.25%. Conclusion: A SVM using an objective index from RST may be useful as an auxiliary biomarker for diagnosis for children with ADHD.

18.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 36(5): 1043-1048, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845027

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to elucidate the clinical features of water-electrolyte disturbance (WED) as a sequela of hemispherotomy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review to identify the clinical features of diabetes insipidus (DI) as a complication in < 12-month-old patients who underwent hemispherectomy or hemispherotomy for severe epilepsy between 2007 and 2018. Central DI was diagnosed if a patient developed polyuria (urine output > 5 mL/kg/h), abnormally high serum osmolality (> 300 mOsm/kg), high serum sodium level (> 150 mEq/L), either abnormally low urine specific gravity (< 1.005) or low urine osmolality (< 300 mOsm/kg) or both, and effective control of polyuria with arginine vasopressin (AVP). The clinical course of post-hemispherotomy WED, complications other than WED, and seizure outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: The review identified that 3 of 23 infants developed WED. All patients developed polyuria within 2 days after surgery, with high serum osmolality and hypotonic urine; AVP was effective in treating these symptoms. The clinical course was compatible with central DI. Two patients subsequently developed hyponatremia in a biphasic or triphasic manner. All patients had multiple seizures that were probably related to WED. Two patients developed asymptomatic cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, possibly because of the surgical procedure and dehydration; anticoagulant treatment was provided. All patients were treated for WED for up to 2 months and had no residual pituitary dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Systemic complications other than intracranial ones can occur in patients who have undergone hemispherotomy. Perioperative systemic management of young infants undergoing this procedure should include careful water and electrolyte balance monitoring.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0222876, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805047

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to use graph theoretical analysis of anatomical covariance derived from structural MRI to reveal how the gray matter connectivity pattern is altered after corpus callosotomy (CC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 21 patients with epilepsy who had undergone CC. Enrollment criteria were applied: (1) no lesion identified on brain MRI; (2) no history of other brain surgery; and (3) age not younger than 3 years and not older than 18 years at preoperative MRI evaluation. The most common epilepsy syndrome was Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (11 patients). For voxel-based morphometry, the normalized gray matter images of pre-CC and post-CC patients were analyzed with SPM12 (voxel-level threshold of p<0.05 [familywise error-corrected]). Secondly, the images of both groups were subjected to graph theoretical analysis using the Graph Analysis Toolbox with SPM8. Each group was also compared with 32 age- and sex-matched control patients without brain diseases. RESULTS: Comparisons between the pre- and post-CC groups revealed a significant reduction in seizure frequency with no change in mean intelligence quotient/developmental quotient levels. There was no relationship among the three groups in global network metrics or in targeted attack. A regional comparison of betweenness centrality revealed decreased connectivity to and from the right middle cingulate gyri and medial side of the right superior frontal gyrus and a partial shift in the distribution of betweenness centrality hubs to the normal location. Significantly lower resilience to random failure was found after versus before CC and versus controls (p = 0.0450 and p = 0.0200, respectively). CONCLUSION: Graph theoretical analysis of anatomical covariance derived from structural imaging revealed two neural network effects of resection associated with seizure reduction: the reappearance of a structural network comparable to that in healthy children and reduced connectivity along the median line, including the middle cingulate gyrus.


Asunto(s)
Cuerpo Calloso/cirugía , Epilepsia Refractaria/patología , Epilepsia Refractaria/cirugía , Red Nerviosa , Adolescente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Cuerpo Calloso/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Estudios Retrospectivos
20.
Hum Genome Var ; 6: 48, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645986

RESUMEN

Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked progressive and severe neurological disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2). Among the 49 typical RTT patients examined, we identified 10 novel and eight known insertion/deletion variants, and 31 known pathogenic variants in MECP2. The pathogenic variants presented here should be a useful resource for examining the correlation between the genotypes and phenotypes of RTT.

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