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1.
J Neurosurg Sci ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763394

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Social media and internet platforms have become significant drivers of massinformation. Highly publicized events, such as John McCain's announcement of his glioblastoma diagnosis, often drive national public interest in medical topics. Improved understanding of the temporality of interest spikes as well as the nature of the information that garners attention from outside the medical community can help inform ways in which the medical community can boost awareness of (and interest in) the field of neurosurgery. METHODS: We utilized the "Explore Topics" feature on Google Trends to obtain web, news, and YouTube search data from May 1, 2015 to May 1, 2019 for the terms "Glioblastoma," "Brain Tumor," "Stroke," and "Multiple Sclerosis" to identify periods of visibly increased search interest. RESULTS: Search results for "Glioblastoma" showed significantly elevated average interest during the period of July 3-23, 2017 as compared to that generated since this specific time period (42.6 vs 8.73, p<0.001). This increased search activity therefore directly correlated with John McCain's public announcement of his glioblastoma diagnosis, and a similar search interest spike was evident using the search term "Brain Tumor" (87.3 vs 64.2, p<0.001). Search results for "Multiple Sclerosis" showed - as a result of the online buzz created by Selma Blair's battle with the disease - significantly elevated average interest from October 8, 2018 to October 28, 2018 and February 11, 2019 to March 3, 2019 when compared to the average interest of the remaining time (59 vs 40.16, p<0.001 and 69 vs 40.16, p<0.001). Finally, there were no corresponding elevations in YouTube search interest for any of the terms associated with increased interest on Google Trends. CONCLUSIONS: Following major events related to the neurological disease of public figures there is an expected rise in Google search interest relevant to these topics. Our findings suggest that there is an optimal window of approximately 2 weeks following each of these events for activist and clinical groups to publicize their desired message, and for the field of neurosurgery and neurological science to increase public awareness regarding specific diseases, with a regression to baseline interest by 4-months following the event.

2.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 210: 107008, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775364

RESUMEN

Terson's Syndrome describes intraocular hemorrhage secondary to an acutely raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Although Terson's Syndrome is common amongst patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), it is underdiagnosed and often overlooked. This review discusses the current understanding of the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and management of Terson's Syndrome and highlights the visual and prognostic implications to stress the importance of timely diagnosis and management. The origin of intraocular hemorrhage in Terson's Syndrome has been debated. A recognized theory suggests that an acutely raised ICP induces effusion of cerebrospinal fluid into the optic nerve sheath which dilates the retrobulbar aspect of the sheath in the orbit. Dilatation mechanically compresses the central retinal vein and retinochoroidal veins resulting in venous hypertension and rupture of thin retinal vessels. A commonly reported clinical feature is decreased visual acuity and blurred vision. These may be accompanied by symptoms of increased ICP including loss of consciousness and headache. Diagnosis is established using evidence from the clinical presentation, ophthalmoscopy, and, when required, imaging including B-mode ultrasound, CT, MRI, and fluorescein angiography. Terson's Syndrome is managed conservatively by observation for mild cases and with vitrectomy for bilateral cases and for patients whose hemorrhage has not spontaneously resolved after an observational period. Terson's Syndrome can be used as a prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in underlying pathology like SAH. Fundoscopy of patients with SAH, acutely raised ICP or visual disturbance with unknown etiology can help establish a timely Terson's Syndrome diagnosis. This may avoid the risk of permanent visual impairment.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844909

RESUMEN

Regular physical activity not only improves general health but also can positively impact asthma outcomes, such as control and quality of life. Despite this, many asthma patients do not engage in regular physical activity because they mistakenly believe that they should restrict exercise participation. Health care providers have an opportunity to influence the physical activity levels of their patients during regular office visits. Nonetheless, health care providers often overlook physical activity counseling as an adjunct to pharmacological therapy in asthma patients, and in particular, overlook physical activity counseling. Some providers who acknowledge the benefits of physical activity report being unaware how to approach a conversation with patients about this topic. To address these issues, members of the Sports, Exercise, and Fitness Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI) performed a focused literature search to identify and evaluate the effects of physical activity in patients with asthma. The purpose of this report is to summarize the evidence for physical activity's impact on asthma patients' disease control, pulmonary function, and overall well-being. Several subpopulations of patients with asthma, including children, adolescents, and older adults, are considered individually. In addition, this report offers practical recommendations for clinicians, including how to identify and overcome barriers to counseling, and methods to incorporate physical activity counseling into asthma treatment practice.

5.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-5, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598162

RESUMEN

Charles Jacques Bouchard was a distinguished French physician and scientist of the early 19th century. Despite his humble beginnings, Bouchard was able to achieve meteoric success within the scientific and medical fields, establishing himself as one of the most influential physician-scientists of his time. This was in part due to his superb commitment, as well as the prosperity engendered by the strong influence of his teachers, which can be seen as a testament to the importance of mentorship in medicine. Besides his myriad contributions, Bouchard is most well known for describing the Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm in 1866 alongside his mentor Jean-Martin Charcot, linking them for the first time to intracranial hemorrhage. Bouchard's thesis entitled "A Study of Some Points in the Pathology of Cerebral Hemorrhage" was regarded by some as the most original and important of all recent works on the subject of cerebral hemorrhage at the time of publication. Sadly, the great relationship Bouchard shared with his mentor Charcot would later deteriorate into perhaps one of the most well-known student-mentor quarrels in the history of medicine. Herein, the authors present a historical recollection of Bouchard's life, career, and contributions to medicine, as well as the famous controversy with Jean-Martin Charcot.

6.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; 56(6): 584-590, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614493

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric vein of Galen malformations (VOGMs) are fistulous intracranial malformations arising congenitally within the choroidal fissure that can present with an array of neurological and cardiac sequelae. Associated venous stenosis may result in intracranial venous hypertension and ischemia leading to severe, irreversible cerebral injury. Management of neonatal VOGMs typically involves staged embolization and angioplasty/stenting for relief of venous stenosis. Rarely, jugular foraminal narrowing has been identified as causing jugular bulb stenosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 22-month-old female diagnosed with VOGM prenatally who displayed persistent intracranial venous hypertension despite multiple neuroembolization procedures during the neonatal period. Following initial reduction in arteriovenous shunting, she once again developed venous hypertension secondary to jugular bulb stenosis for which angioplasty was attempted. Failure of angioplasty to relieve the venous hypertension prompted skull base imaging, which revealed jugular foraminal ossification and stenosis. Microsurgical jugular foraminotomy followed by balloon angioplasty and stenting significantly reduced jugular pressure gradients. Restenosis requiring re-stenting developed postoperatively at 9 months, but the patient has remained stable with significant improvement in cortical venous congestion. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the efficacy of microsurgical decompression of the jugular foramen and endovascular angioplasty/stenting as a novel treatment paradigm for the management of intracranial venous hypertension in the setting of VOGM.


Asunto(s)
Venas Cerebrales , Embolización Terapéutica , Hipertensión Intracraneal , Malformaciones de la Vena de Galeno , Niño , Constricción Patológica/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Malformaciones de la Vena de Galeno/diagnóstico por imagen , Malformaciones de la Vena de Galeno/cirugía
7.
NASN Sch Nurse ; : 1942602X211037260, 2021 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486447

RESUMEN

Since asthma is the most common noncommunicable chronic childhood disease in the United States, school nurses will encounter students with this health condition. The purpose of this article is to present the school nurse as the leader in directing the management of a student's chronic health condition at school. This article provides a table of resources and discusses many aspects of asthma management, including utilization of the student's asthma action plan, student-specific school accommodation needs, the importance of developing individualized healthcare plans, providing education to school staff related to asthma management and determining of the family and student knowledge level, as well as strategies to minimize exacerbations. The article also explores school nurse opportunity to advocate for emergency asthma medication access as a part of emergency preparedness. School-based asthma management can be complex and school nurses have a pivotal role in asthma management in a school.

8.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 15910199211039924, 2021 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516323

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Congenital aortic arch anomalies are commonly encountered during neurointerventional procedures. While some anomalies are identified at an early age, many are incidentally discovered later in adulthood during endovascular evaluations or interventions. Proper understanding of the normal arch anatomy and its variants is pivotal to safely navigate normal aortic arch branches and to negotiate the catheter through anomalies during neurointerventional procedures. This is particularly relevant in the increasingly "transradial first" culture of neurointerventional surgery. Moreover, some of these anomalies have a peculiar predilection for complications including aneurysm formation, dissection, and rupture during the procedure. Therefore, an understanding of these anomalies, their underlying embryological basis and associations, and pattern of circulation will help endovascular neurosurgeons and interventional radiologists navigate with confidence and consider relevant pathologic associations that may inform risk of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Here, we present a brief review of the basic embryology of the common anomalies of the aortic arch along with their neurological significances and discuss, through illustrative cases, the association of aortic arch anomalies with cerebral vascular pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the aortic arch anomalies and its embryological basis is essential to safely navigate the cerebral vascular system during neurointerventional surgeries.

9.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534957

RESUMEN

Surgical specialties, and particularly neurosurgery, have historically had and continue to have poor representation of female trainees. This is especially true of South Asia, considering the added social and cultural expectations for women in this region. Yet it was in India, with its difficult history of gender relations, that Asia's first fully qualified female neurosurgeon, Dr. T. S. Kanaka (1932-2018), took root, flourished, and thereafter played an integral role in helping develop stereotactic and functional neurosurgery in the country. While a few biographical accounts of her exist, highlighted here are the lessons from her illustrious life for neurosurgical trainees and educators worldwide, along with the instances that exemplify those lessons, drawn from several hitherto unutilized primary sources. These lessons are consistent with the factors identified in previous systematic reviews to be contributing to gender disparities in neurosurgery. Many of the virtues that ensured her success are attributes that continue to be critical for a neurosurgical career. Additionally, the circumstances that helped Kanaka succeed have been recounted as considerations for those working to promote diversity and inclusion. Finally, her life choices and sacrifices are described, which are underexplored but relevant concerns for women in neurosurgery.

10.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(19): 1302-1314, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517399

RESUMEN

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD). OBJECTIVE: To determine causes of and independent risk factors for 30- and 90-day readmission in a cohort of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Identifying populations at high-risk of 30-day readmission is a priority in healthcare reform so as to reduce cost and patient morbidity. However, among patients undergoing ACDF, nationally-representative data have been limited, and have seldom described 90-day readmissions, early reoperation, or socioeconomic influences. METHODS: We queried the NRD, which longitudinally tracks 49.3% of hospitalizations, for all adult patients undergoing ACDF. We calculated the rates of, and determined reasons for, readmission and reoperation at 30 and 90 days, and determined risk factors for readmission at each timepoint. RESULTS: We identified 50,126 patients between January and September 2014. Of these, 2294 (4.6%) and 4152 (8.3%) were readmitted within 30 and 90 days of discharge, respectively, and were most commonly readmitted for infections, medical complications, and dysphagia. The characteristics most strongly associated with readmission were Medicare or Medicaid insurance, length of stay greater than or equal to 4 days, three or more comorbidities, and non-routine discharge, whereas surgical factors (e.g., greater number of vertebrae fused) were more modest. By 30 and 90 days, 8.2% and 11.7% of readmitted patients underwent an additional spinal procedure, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our analysis uses the NRD to thoroughly characterize readmission in the general ACDF population. Readmissions are often delayed (after 30 days), strongly associated with insurance status, and many result in reoperation. Our results are crucial for risk-stratifying future ACDF patients and developing interventions to reduce readmission.Level of Evidence: 3.


Asunto(s)
Readmisión del Paciente , Fusión Vertebral , Adulto , Anciano , Vértebras Cervicales/cirugía , Discectomía/efectos adversos , Humanos , Medicare , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Reoperación , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Fusión Vertebral/efectos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
NASN Sch Nurse ; : 1942602X211036933, 2021 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369231

RESUMEN

Asthma is the most common noncommunicable chronic childhood disease, affecting more than 5 million children in the United States. Asthma is the leading cause of school absenteeism. Treatments for asthma are divided into fast-acting medications that are used to relieve symptoms and slower acting (controller) medications that prevent symptoms. Albuterol is the most common fast acting medication for asthma, and it exists in multiple forms, including metered-dose inhaler and nebulized therapy. The use of spacers and holding chambers can further improve medication deposition in the airway. The cornerstone controller therapy for asthma is inhaled corticosteroid. Other medications for asthma include long-acting beta agonists, long-acting antimuscarinics, and antileukotrienes. The newest agents for controller asthma therapies are biologics.

12.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1960140, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353246

RESUMEN

Prior models of well-being have focused on resolving issues at different levels within a single institution. Changes over time in medicine have resulted in massive turnover and reduced clinical hours that portray a deficit-oriented system. As developments to improve purpose and professional satisfaction emerge, the Texas Medical Association Committee on Physician Health and Wellness (PHW) is committed to providing the vehicle for a statewide collaboration and illuminating the path forward.To describe the existing health and wellness resources in Texas academic medical centers and understand the gaps in resources and strategies for addressing the health and wellness needs in the medical workforce, and in student and trainee populations.Various methods were utilized to gather information regarding health and wellness resources at Texas academic medical centers. A survey was administered to guide a Think Tank discussion during a PHW Exchange, and to assess resources at Texas academic medical centers. Institutional representatives from all Texas learning health systems were eligible to participate in a poster session to share promising practices regarding health and wellness resources, tools, and strategies.Survey responses indicated a need for enhancing wellness program components such as scheduled activities promoting health and wellness, peer support networks, and health and wellness facilities in academic medical centers. Answers collected during the Think Tank discussion identified steps needed to cultivate a culture of wellness and strategies to improve and encourage wellness.The Texas Medical Association Committee on Physician Health and Wellness and PHW Exchange provided a forum to share best practices and identify gaps therein, and has served as a nidus for the formation of a statewide collaboration for which institutional leaders of academic medical centers have affirmed the need to achieve the best result.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje del Sistema de Salud , Medicina , Médicos , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Texas
13.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 208: 106867, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455404

RESUMEN

William Alexander Hammond was an American military physician and a main driving force for the development of modern-day clinical Neurology in America. Hammond served as the 11th Surgeon General of the United States Army, acting during the Civil War. Throughout his time as Surgeon General, with influence from Florence Nightingale, Hammond enforced strict hygienic measures and called for the construction of pavilion style hospitals in order to decrease non-wound mortalities. He implemented further reformation of the American Medical Service that would improve efficiency and decrease general mortality for years to come. After his dismissal from the military service, Hammond continued to make meaningful achievements, spearheading the specialization of Neurology. He established the first private practice limited to diseases of the nervous system, published the first American Neurology textbook, coined the term "athetosis", and was the impetus for the formation of the American Neurological Association.

14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(4): 964-983, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384610

RESUMEN

Mast cells and eosinophils are commonly found, expectedly or unexpectedly, in human tissue biopsies. Although the clinical significance of their presence, absence, quantity, and quality continues to be investigated in homeostasis and disease, there are currently gaps in knowledge related to what constitutes quantitatively relevant increases in mast cell and eosinophil number in tissue specimens for several clinical conditions. Diagnostically relevant thresholds of mast cell and eosinophil numbers have been proposed and generally accepted by the medical community for a few conditions, such as systemic mastocytosis and eosinophilic esophagitis. However, for other mast cell- and eosinophil-associated disorders, broad discrepancies remain regarding diagnostic thresholds and how samples are processed, routinely and/or specially stained, and interpreted and/or reported by pathologists. These discrepancies can obfuscate or delay a patient's correct diagnosis. Therefore, a work group was assembled to review the literature and develop a standardized consensus for assessing the presence of mast cells and eosinophils for a spectrum of clinical conditions, including systemic mastocytosis and cutaneous mastocytosis, mast cell activation syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastritis/enteritis, and hypereosinophilia/hypereosinophilic syndrome. The intent of this work group is to build a consensus among pathology, allergy, dermatology, hematology/oncology, and gastroenterology stakeholders for qualitatively and quantitatively assessing mast cells and eosinophils in skin, gastrointestinal, and bone marrow pathologic specimens for the benefit of clinical practice and patients.


Asunto(s)
Médula Ósea/patología , Eosinófilos/inmunología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/patología , Mastocitos/inmunología , Piel/patología , Biopsia , Recuento de Células , Enteritis/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Esofagitis Eosinofílica/diagnóstico , Gastritis/diagnóstico , Humanos , Síndrome Hipereosinofílico/diagnóstico , Mastocitosis/diagnóstico
15.
World Neurosurg ; 155: 135-143, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363996

RESUMEN

For thousands of years, anatomical models have served as essential tools in medical instruction. While human dissections have been the regular source of information for medical students for the last few centuries, the scarcity of bodies and the religious and social taboos of previous times made the process of acquiring human cadavers a challenge. The dissection process was dependent on the availability of fresh cadavers and thus was met with a major time constraint; with poor preservation techniques, decomposition turned the process of employing bodies for instruction into a race against time. However, the advent of anatomical models has countered this issue by supplying accurate anatomical detail in a physical, three-dimensional form superior to that of the two-dimensional illustrations previously used as the primary adjunct to dissection. Artists worked with physicians and anatomists to prepare these models, creating an interdisciplinary interaction that advanced anatomical instruction at a tremendous rate. These models have taken the form of metal, wood, ivory, wax, papier-mâché, plaster, and plastic and have ultimately evolved into computerized and digital representations currently. We provide a brief historical overview of the evolution of anatomical models from a unique neuroanatomical perspective.

17.
Surg Neurol Int ; 12: 185, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084613

RESUMEN

Background: Septic emboli are commonly attributed to infective endocarditis and can present with a variety of symptoms including altered mental status and focal neurological deficits. Here, we reviewed images of septic emboli with hemorrhagic conversion in a patient with sepsis and a psoas abscess. We aim to show the classical image findings in septic embolism to brain, which is sparsely described in literature and the report differentiates the septic embolism from disseminated intravascular coagulation which can present with almost identical image findings. Case Description: A 53-year-old male patient who was operated on for a right inguinal hernia developed a postoperative wound infection 2 weeks after surgery and was started on IV antibiotics. Despite medical management, his infection did not improve, prompting a computed tomography (CT) scan which revealed a psoas abscess. The abscess was drained, and antibiotics continued. A few days later, he developed altered sensorium prompting a head CT which revealed septic emboli and hemorrhage at the gray-white junction. Cultures grew multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli; the patient was treated with IV tigecycline and improved over the following 4 weeks. Conclusion: In patients with a known ongoing infectious process with hemodynamic stability who develop altered mental status in the setting of a normal coagulation profile, D-dimer, positive blood cultures, and absent signs of multiorgan failure, a diagnosis of septic emboli should be entertained. Although CT can reveal macrobleeds, MRI is more sensitive in confirming cerebral microbleeds. Thus, patients in sepsis with unexplained altered sensorium should undergo an MRI of the brain to rule out septic emboli and microbleeds.

19.
World Neurosurg ; 155: 115-121, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098138

RESUMEN

Trephination, the practice of boring a hole in the skull, is one of the oldest surgical procedures performed by and on humans. Fossil records show evidence of trephined skulls on separate continents throughout ancient history. Even more remarkably, fossils show that ancient humans actually survived the procedure, some more than once. Ancient mythologies and texts provide context to the fossil record, indicating that trephination was performed some of the time for medical indications, including traumatic head injury and intractable neurologic conditions. In the modern day, traumatic brain injury accounts for a significant percentage of the overall global burden of disease and its incidence is disproportionately increasing in low- and middle-income countries. In critical situations, neurosurgical intervention may be indicated. The burr hole procedure, or trephination, was identified as an essential surgical procedure that all first-level hospitals should be able to perform; however, there exists a dramatic lack of access to neurosurgical specialists and care globally, especially among low- and middle-income countries. Task-shifting/sharing is one paradigm that may be used effectively to broaden access to this life-saving procedure but it is at the moment a contested practice.

20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(10): 3546-3567, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153517

RESUMEN

Concerns for anaphylaxis may hamper severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunization efforts. We convened a multidisciplinary group of international experts in anaphylaxis composed of allergy, infectious disease, emergency medicine, and front-line clinicians to systematically develop recommendations regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immediate allergic reactions. Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, the World Health Organizstion (WHO) global coronavirus database, and the gray literature (inception, March 19, 2021) were systematically searched. Paired reviewers independently selected studies addressing anaphylaxis after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate allergy, and accuracy of allergy testing for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine allergy. Random effects models synthesized the data to inform recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, agreed upon using a modified Delphi panel. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine anaphylaxis is 7.91 cases per million (n = 41,000,000 vaccinations; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.02-15.59; 26 studies, moderate certainty), the incidence of 0.15 cases per million patient-years (95% CI 0.11-0.2), and the sensitivity for PEG skin testing is poor, although specificity is high (15 studies, very low certainty). We recommend vaccination over either no vaccination or performing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient screening allergy testing for individuals without history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient, and a shared decision-making paradigm in consultation with an allergy specialist for individuals with a history of a severe allergic reaction to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/excipient. We recommend further research to clarify SARS-CoV-2 vaccine/vaccine excipient testing utility in individuals potentially allergic to SARS-CoV2 vaccines or their excipients.


Asunto(s)
Anafilaxia , COVID-19 , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Consenso , Enfoque GRADE , Humanos , ARN Viral , SARS-CoV-2
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