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1.
East Mediterr Health J ; 24(9): 914-921, 2018 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570124

RESUMEN

Background: The Lebanese American University has a well-functioning inter-professional education (IPE) programme; this is a fundamental pedagogical approach in healthcare education in which students from different professions learn together, ultimately leading to improving the skills of the health care workforce and thus improving patient outcomes. The programme includes nursing, nutrition, medicine, pharmacy and social work students, and has now been running for 6 years. Aims: This paper aims at describing the implementation of an IPE programme in Lebanon by focusing on how to overcome the main challenges. Methods: We describe our experience using the categories of challenges developed by Sunguya et al. (2014), where they analysed published reports of IPE programmes in developed countries. We identified three additional challenges that might be relevant throughout the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region or in countries with similar socioeconomic characteristics. Results: The challenges encountered in designing and implementing the IPE programme were similar to other programmes: curriculum, leadership, resources, stereotypes and attitudes, variety of students, IPE concept, teaching, enthusiasm, professional jargon and accreditation as well as assessment of learning, security and logistics. Conclusions: This paper provides data and successful strategies that can be used by planned or implemented programmes in similar socioeconomic contexts in the MENA region.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/educación , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Curriculum , Humanos , Líbano , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
2.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 16: 33-38, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936067

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The first objective is to describe current managed entry agreement (MEA) activity in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region and the pharmaceutical decision makers' perception and use of these agreements; The second objective is to describe the challenges as well as to reflect on the uncertainty related to MEAs implementation and the future outlook for MEAs activities in the region. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional survey. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to several pharmaceutical manufacturers and public officials involved in pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals in the region. RESULTS: Of the 62% of total respondents, 25% were from the public sector, with the remainder from the pharmaceutical (pharma) industry. Only 42% of participants reported having MEAs running in their institutions, the majority representing Lebanon. All respondents reported the use of financial-based agreements, most referring to "discounted treatment" and, to a lesser extent, a "price volume agreement." Financial-based agreements were reported as either the only type of MEA (71.4%) being used or as being used with outcomes-based agreements (28.6%). The majority of participants ranked challenges in identifying and measuring relevant data as well as the lack of expertise in assessing health economics data. The majority of respondents projected an increase in the use of MEAs to address budget impact while improving access to innovative care. CONCLUSIONS: Few MENA countries are implementing MEAs, which could be due to lack of data infrastructure as well as a shortage of experts in health economics. Health care stakeholders continue to be optimistic regarding the potential of MEA implementation.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/economía , Industria Farmacéutica/economía , Economía Farmacéutica , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción/economía , África del Norte , Estudios Transversales , Toma de Decisiones , Prestación de Atención de Salud/economía , Países en Desarrollo , Industria Farmacéutica/organización & administración , Humanos , Medio Oriente , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción/provisión & distribución , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 40(3): 693-699, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611014

RESUMEN

Background Limited data is available on Hepatitis C disease prevalence, treatment initiation and its cost-effectiveness in Lebanon and the whole Middle East. Objective The aim of the study is to assess whether initiation of novel Direct Acting Antiviral agents (DAAs) at early stage of hepatitis C is cost-effective in Lebanese patients. Setting Lebanon. Methods This modeling study was conducted from the perspective of Lebanese third party payers, where existing practice is based on international guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The model assessed cost-effectiveness of early versus delayed DAAs treatment in a standard patient upon HCV diagnosis. Medical costs were valued using in-house database. Main outcome measures Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) per QALY and per life-year extended. Results Treatment at early HCV disease stage has led to an ICER of 587 euro per QALY gained throughout the course of the disease. Outcomes of early treatment with DAAs upon HCV diagnosis led to an incremental cost of 27,268 euro per QALY gained at first year of treatment, and of 1527 euro per additional life-year extended. Sensitivity analysis showed that a 25% decrease in the cost of dual drug option resulted in a decrease of incremental cost to 16,982 euro per QALY gained at first year of treatment with DAAs upon early HCV diagnosis. Conclusion Decision makers are encouraged to reinforce the need to screen for HCV and initiate novel treatment at early disease stage in the Lebanese healthcare system.


Asunto(s)
Costos de la Atención en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hepatitis C/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis C/economía , Antivirales/economía , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Líbano , Modelos Económicos , Factores de Tiempo , Tiempo de Tratamiento/economía
4.
Pain Res Manag ; 2017: 7459360, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28458592

RESUMEN

Introduction. The primary objectives of this study were to assess patients' description of their acute pain intensity; patients' attitude towards their pain management during hospitalization; and their overall satisfaction with pain treatment. Methodology. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted between October 2014 and March 2015 in three medical centers in Lebanon. All participants' responses were reported using descriptive statistics. The association between categorical variables was evaluated using Pearson χ2 test or Fisher's exact test where the expected cell count was < 5. Results. A total of 119 women on the maternity services and 177 patients on the orthopedic services were surveyed. Around 50% of obstetric and 37% of orthopedic patients reported pain to be severe at its highest intensity. In maternity and orthopedic patients, respectively, unfavorable practices included pain not being assessed prior to pain medication administration (19.3% and 30.5%), having to wait for ≥30 minutes before getting the pain medication (14.2% and 11.3%), and pain score not being documented on medical chart (95% and 93.2%). Surprisingly, 94.1% of the maternity and 89.2% of orthopedic patients were satisfied to strongly satisfied with their pain management. Conclusion. Pre- and postoperative pain remain a prevalent problem that requires a consensus and joint efforts for improvement.


Asunto(s)
Manejo del Dolor/métodos , Dolor Postoperatorio/terapia , Satisfacción del Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Adulto Joven
5.
Pain Res Manag ; 2016: 1358593, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27445596

RESUMEN

Despite promising initiatives to advance the practice of pain management in Middle Eastern countries, their pain care lags behind developed countries. The objectives of this study are to evaluate physicians' assessment of their own competency in pain management, to assess physicians' practice related to pain management, and to identify physician-related barriers to effective pain control. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 3 teaching medical centers in Lebanon targeting the above-mentioned outcomes and assessing the impact of physicians' years in practice on the studied end-points. A total of 69 physicians were surveyed. Fifty-seven percent reported "very good to excellent" pain management skills; only 25% of them described the need for continuing professional development. When treating patients with pain, 52% of physicians refer to updated international guidelines, whereas 43% rely on their own judgment. Physicians were more likely to consult with another physician (65%) rather than a pharmacist (12%) when treating patients with pain. Fear of adverse effects of analgesics was the most commonly reported barrier (45%) to pain control among physicians from different career stages. Based on these survey findings, national pain management and practice policies are needed to optimize this area of deficiency in patient care.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Manejo del Dolor , Dolor , Médicos/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Manejo del Dolor/métodos , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina
6.
J Interprof Care ; 30(2): 165-74, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27026188

RESUMEN

The Lebanese American University Interprofessional Education (LAU IPE) Steps Framework consists of a five-step workshop-based series that is offered throughout the curriculum of health and social care students at an American university in Lebanon. The aim of the present study was to report students' perceptions of their readiness for interprofessional learning before and after completing the IPE steps, their evaluations of interprofessional learning outcomes, as well as their satisfaction with the learning experience as a whole. A longitudinal survey design was used: questionnaires were completed by students before IPE exposure and after each step. The results showed that before IPE exposure, students' perceptions of their readiness for interprofessional learning were generally favourable, with differences across genders (stronger professional identity in females compared to males) and across professions (higher teamwork and collaboration in pharmacy and nutrition students compared to other professions and lower patient centredness in nursing students compared to others). After participation in the IPE steps, students showed enhanced readiness for interprofessional learning and differences between genders and professions decreased. Participants were satisfied with the learning experience and assessment scores showed that all IPE learning outcomes were met. The LAU IPE Steps Framework may be of value to other interprofessional education course developers.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Personal de Salud/educación , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/psicología , Competencia Clínica , Conducta Cooperativa , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/organización & administración , Percepción , Factores Sexuales
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 16: 59, 2016 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26869056

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aims to map the learned curriculum based on students' feedback regarding the biomedical literature evaluation competencies in a pharmacy curriculum, to evaluate teaching methods and to report students' longitudinal self-assessment of their achievement of related learning outcomes as they progress from didactic to experiential courses. METHODS: The biomedical literature evaluation competencies were mapped in three courses delivered during different pharmacy professional years (PPY): Drug Information and Literature Evaluation (PHA421) offered in the second PPY, Pharmacoeconomics (PHA557) and Professional Pharmacy Practice Experience-Hospital/Drug Information Services (PHA570) offered in the third PPY. A unified survey was developed to collect information from students at the beginning and completion of these courses. Survey results were then compared to school assessment data of identified courses for triangulation of findings. RESULTS: Listed student learning outcomes are consistently achieved through all three courses with more assertion from the students at the completion of the applied experiential course PHA 570 (>90 % agree or strongly agree). In terms of delivery methods, 84 % of students perceived the benefits of active learning methods in reinforcing acquired skills and increasing confidence in knowledge and critical thinking in a less stressful learning environment. Results shown at the end of each course indicate a favorable student response from one course to the next where almost all students replied with 'agree to strongly agree' to survey questions assessing their readiness to critically evaluating trials (72 %, 96 % and 92 %) in PHA421, PHA557 and PHA570, respectively. Study findings are in congruence with school assessment database of the selected courses. CONCLUSION: Formative assessment results demonstrated acquisition of required analytical skills, and completion of course learning outcomes as students progressed from introductory to advanced courses covering the biomedical literature component.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/normas , Intercambio Educacional Internacional , Obras Médicas de Referencia , Facultades de Farmacia/normas , Autoevaluación , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Curriculum , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/tendencias , Retroalimentación Formativa , Humanos , Líbano , Modelos Educacionales , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/normas , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Facultades de Farmacia/tendencias , Materiales de Enseñanza/normas , Estados Unidos
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 21(15): 4599-606, 2015 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25914469

RESUMEN

AIM: To investigate the influence of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exposure on the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. METHODS: Chronic PPI use is associated with masking of H. pylori infection. Patients with H. pylori infection are predisposed to gastric and duodenal ulcers, and long-term infection with this organism has been associated with gastric mucosal atrophy and serious long-term complications, such as gastric lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. Three hundred patients diagnosed with gastritis between January 2008 and April 2010 were included in our study. The computerized medical database of these patients was reviewed retrospectively in order to assess whether the type of gastritis diagnosed (H. pylori vs non-H. pylori gastritis) is influenced by PPI exposure. H. pylori density was graded as low, if corresponding to mild density following the Updated Sydney System, or high, if corresponding to moderate or severe densities in the Updated Sydney System. RESULTS: Patients were equally distributed between males and females with a median age at the time of diagnosis of 50 years old (range: 20-87). The histological types of gastritis were classified as H. pylori gastritis (n = 156, 52%) and non-H. pylori gastritis (n = 144, 48%). All patients with non-H. pylori gastritis had inactive chronic gastritis. Patients with no previous PPI exposure were more likely to be diagnosed with H. pylori gastritis than those with previous PPI exposure (71% vs 34.2%, P < 0.001). Intestinal metaplasia was more likely to be detected in the latter patients (1.4% vs 6.5%, P = 0.023). Multivariate analysis has also demonstrated that in the presence of previous PPI exposure (OR = 0.217, 95%CI: 0.123-0.385), GERD (OR = 0.317, 95%CI: 0.132-0.763, P = 0.01), alcohol intake (OR = 0.396, 95%CI: 0.195-0.804, P = 0.01), the detection of H. pylori was less likely. Chronic use of PPIs may mask H. pylori infections promoting the diagnosis of non-H. pylori gastritis and leads to a significant drop in H. pylori densities and to an increased risk of intestinal metaplasia. CONCLUSION: The use of PPIs masks H. pylori infection, promotes the diagnosis of non-H. pylori inactive chronic gastritis diagnosis, and increases the incidence of intestinal metaplasia.


Asunto(s)
Mucosa Gástrica/efectos de los fármacos , Gastritis/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Helicobacter/tratamiento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Bases de Datos Factuales , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Femenino , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiología , Mucosa Gástrica/patología , Gastritis/microbiología , Gastritis/patología , Infecciones por Helicobacter/microbiología , Infecciones por Helicobacter/patología , Helicobacter pylori/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metaplasia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Oportunidad Relativa , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
10.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; 15(1): 12-8, 2011 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22122684

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The available studies on the treatment of mental disorders in the Arab world are uncommon. METHODS: A literature review was conducted aiming at identifying studies related to the rate and type of treatment of mental disorders in Arab countries from the Middle Eastern Mediterranean region. RESULTS: A total of 23 articles were included in this review. These articles focused mainly on type of services used and/ or the rate of treatment. Findings from several articles showed a paucity of treatment of mental disorders, and when present, individuals were more likely to receive it from the general medical than from the mental health sector. Only two studies have assessed patterns of treatment of mental disorders on a national level from the Arab Middle Eastern countries (Lebanon and Iraq). CONCLUSION: The need for national studies on mental disorders in this part of the world and the improvement of public awareness in this field were highlighted.


Asunto(s)
Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Medio Oriente/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos
11.
Pharm World Sci ; 32(6): 707-10, 2010 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21052835

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of the pharmacist on cost through simple implementation of restriction policy on IV drug usage during pharmacy dispensing procedure. SETTING: In-patient floors of a Hospital. METHODS: All medication orders for IV esomeprazole, received at the pharmacy during a 24-month period, were reviewed for appropriate IV route of administration. Two separate time intervals, pre- and post- implementation of restriction dispensing policy, were used to determine cost impact of pharmacy intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The cost difference between pre- and post-restriction periods. RESULTS: During the pre-restriction period, the majority of esomeprazole IV vials were dispensed to patients able to tolerate oral medications and who were admitted to non-intensive care units. The average monthly consumption of IV esomeprazole was 1,439 vials in the pre-restriction period as compared to 346 vials in the post-restriction period. Therefore, the associated cost was reduced by an average of $21,233 per month. CONCLUSION: Even though the clinical role of pharmacy practice in Middle Eastern countries is limited, this study highlighted the impact of the pharmacist on cost through the implementation of restriction policy during dispensing procedure, leading to a cost reduction by four folds.


Asunto(s)
Costos de los Medicamentos , Control de Medicamentos y Narcóticos , Esomeprazol/administración & dosificación , Esomeprazol/economía , Farmacéuticos/economía , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/economía , Costos de los Medicamentos/tendencias , Humanos , Infusiones Intravenosas , Líbano , Servicios Farmacéuticos/economía , Servicios Farmacéuticos/tendencias , Farmacéuticos/tendencias , Servicio de Farmacia en Hospital/tendencias , Rol Profesional
12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 16(8): 982-6, 2010 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20180237

RESUMEN

AIM: To assess the appropriateness of the indication and route of administration of proton-pump-inhibitors (PPIs) and their associated cost impact. METHODS: Data collection was performed prospectively during a 6-mo period on 340 patients who received omeprazole intravenously during their hospital stay in non-intensive care floors. Updated guidelines were used to assess the appropriateness of the indication and route of administration. RESULTS: Complete data collection was available for 286 patients which were used to assess intravenous (IV) PPIs utilization. Around 88% of patients were receiving PPIs for claimed stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) indication; of which, only 17% met the guideline criteria for SUP indication, 14% met the criteria for non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory drugs-induced ulcer prophylaxis, while the remaining 69% were identified as having an unjustified indication for PPI use. The initiation of IV PPIs was appropriate in 55% of patients. Half of these patients were candidates for switching to the oral dosage form during their hospitalization, while only 36.7% of these patients were actually switched. The inappropriate initiation of PPIs via the IV route was more likely to take place on the medical floor than the surgical floor (53% vs 36%, P = 0.003). The cost analysis associated with the appropriateness of the indication for PPI use as well as the route of administration of PPI revealed a possible saving of up to $17,732.5 and $14,571, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the over-utilization of IV PPIs in non-intensive care unit patients. Restriction of IV PPI use for justified indications and route of administration is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Antiulcerosos , Úlcera Duodenal , Infusiones Intravenosas/economía , Omeprazol , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones , Adulto , Anciano , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/economía , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Antiulcerosos/administración & dosificación , Antiulcerosos/economía , Antiulcerosos/uso terapéutico , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Úlcera Duodenal/tratamiento farmacológico , Úlcera Duodenal/economía , Femenino , Unidades Hospitalarias/economía , Hospitalización/economía , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Omeprazol/administración & dosificación , Omeprazol/economía , Omeprazol/uso terapéutico , Estudios Prospectivos , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/economía , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/uso terapéutico
13.
PLoS Med ; 5(4): e61, 2008 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18384228

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are no published data on national lifetime prevalence and treatment of mental disorders in the Arab region. Furthermore, the effect of war on first onset of disorders has not been addressed previously on a national level, especially in the Arab region. Thus, the current study aims at investigating the lifetime prevalence, treatment, age of onset of mental disorders, and their relationship to war in Lebanon. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation study was carried out on a nationally representative sample of the Lebanese population (n = 2,857 adults). Respondents were interviewed using the fully structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Lifetime prevalence of any Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) disorder was 25.8%. Anxiety (16.7%) and mood (12.6%) were more common than impulse control (4.4%) and substance (2.2%) disorders. Only a minority of people with any mental disorder ever received professional treatment, with substantial delays (6 to 28 y) between the onset of disorders and onset of treatment. War exposure increased the risk of first onset of anxiety (odds ratio [OR] 5.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-14.1), mood (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.0-5.6), and impulse control disorders (OR 12.72, 95% CI 4.5-35.7). CONCLUSIONS: About one-fourth of the sample (25.8%) met criteria for at least one of the DSM-IV disorders at some point in their lives. There is a substantial unmet need for early identification and treatment. Exposure to war events increases the odds of first onset of mental disorders.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Combate/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Guerra , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Trastornos de Combate/diagnóstico , Trastornos de Combate/terapia , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Lancet ; 367(9515): 1000-6, 2006 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16564362

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are believed to account for a large portion of disease burden worldwide. However, no national studies have been undertaken to assess this assumption in the Arab world. METHODS: As part of the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative, a nationally representative psychiatric epidemiological survey of 2857 adults (aged 18 years) was done in Lebanon between September, 2002, and September, 2003, through a study called LEBANON (Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation). 12-month prevalence and severity of DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition) disorders, and treatment were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, version 3.0). Information was also obtained for sociodemographics and exposure to traumatic events in the Lebanon wars. FINDINGS: 308 (17.0%) of respondents met criteria for at least one 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorder, 108 (27.0%) of whom were classified serious and an additional 112 (36.0%) moderate. Nearly half of respondents had a history of exposure to war-related traumatic events. Significantly elevated odds ratios (OR) of mood, anxiety, and impulse-control disorders were associated with two (OR 2.0-3.6) or more (2.2-9.1) war-related traumatic events, resulting in substantially higher proportions of moderate and severe 12-month mental disorders in respondents exposed to multiple war-related traumata (16.8-20.4%) compared with other respondents (3.3-3.5%). Only 47 (10.9%) respondents with 12-month disorders obtained treatment. 85% of people were treated in the general medical sector and the mental-health-care system, and the rest by religious or spiritual advisers, counsellors, herbalists, or fortune-tellers. INTERPRETATION: Mental disorders are common in Lebanon, with a prevalence equivalent to that in Western Europe. However, the number of individuals with mental disorders who are not receiving treatment is considerably higher in Lebanon than in Western countries.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Adulto , Escolaridad , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Entrevistas como Asunto , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/clasificación , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
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