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1.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(S1): s39-s50, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131930

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between malnutrition, socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity in Chilean adult population. DESIGN: Nationally representative survey (ENS) conducted in 2016-2017. Sociodemographic information, weight, height and hemoglobin (Hb) were measured (2003 ENS). Excess weight was defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Undernutrition included underweight (BMI <18·5 kg/m2), short stature (height <1·49 m in women and <1·62 m in men) or anaemia (Hb <12 g/l). Education and household income level were used as indicators of SES; ethnicity was self-reported. We applied linear combinations of estimators to compare the prevalence of excess weight and undernutrition by SES and ethnicity. SETTING: Chile. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 5082 adults ≥20 years (64 % women) and 1739 women ≥20 years for anaemia analyses. RESULTS: Overall, >75 % of women and men had excess weight. Low SES women either by income or education had higher excess weight ((82·0 (77·1, 86·1) v. 65·0 (54·8, 74·1)) by income; (85·3 (80·6, 89·0) v. 68·2 (61·6, 74·1) %) by education) and short stature (20-49 years; 31(17·9, 48·2) v. 5·2 (2·2,11·4) by education); obesity was also more frequent among indigenous women (20-49 years; 55·8 (44·4, 66·6) v. 37·2 (32·7, 42·0) %) than non-indigenous women. In men, excess weight did not significantly differ by SES or ethnicity, but short stature concentrated in low SES (20-49 years; 47·6 (24·6, 71·6) v. 4·5 (2·1, 9·5) by education) and indigenous men (21·5 (11·9, 5·5, 11·9) v. 8·2 (5·5, 11·9)) (P < 0·05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: In Chile, malnutrition is disproportionately concentrated among women of low SES and indigenous origin; these inequalities should be considered when implementing prevention policies.

2.
Salud Publica Mex ; 60(5): 592-597, 2018.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550121

RESUMEN

There is solid evidence documenting relationships between the food and beverage industry and academia that shows that industry sponsored research is likely to bias results in favor of industry. In Latin America, examples of these situations have been documented in Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador, among others. Due to the urgent need for studying and managing relationships between the food and beverage industry and the field of health and nutrition research, in 2017, the President of the Latin American Society of Nutrition (SLAN) appointed a Conflict of Interest Committee (CCI). The CCI was charged with the development of a proposal of a position for the management of conflict of interest (COI) for consideration by SLAN. This document details the work of CCI, and the position adopted by SLAN.


Asunto(s)
Conflicto de Intereses , Industria de Alimentos , Industria de Alimentos/normas
3.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(5): 592-597, sep.-oct. 2018.
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004664

RESUMEN

Resumen: Existe evidencia sólida de la existencia de relaciones entre la industria de alimentos y bebidas y la academia. Ésta sugiere que la investigación patrocinada por la industria es susceptible de conferir sesgos a su favor en los resultados. En América Latina, se han documentado ejemplos de estas situaciones en México, Brasil, Chile, Perú, Colombia y Ecuador, por citar a algunos países. Ante la necesidad urgente de estudiar y gestionar las relaciones entre la industria de alimentos y bebidas y el campo de investigación en salud y nutrición, en 2017 el Presidente de la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (SLAN) designó a un Comité de Conflicto de Intereses (CCI). El CCI tuvo la encomienda de hacer una propuesta de postura sobre manejo de conflicto de intereses (CDI) de la SLAN. El presente artículo refleja los trabajos del CCI y la postura que adoptó la SLAN.


Abstract: There is solid evidence documenting relationships between the food and beverage industry and academia that shows that industry sponsored research is likely to bias results in favor of industry. In Latin America, examples of these situations have been documented in Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador, among others. Due to the urgent need for studying and managing relationships between the food and beverage industry and the field of health and nutrition research, in 2017, the President of the Latin American Society of Nutrition (SLAN) appointed a Conflict of Interest Committee (CCI). The CCI was charged with the development of a proposal of a position for the management of conflict of interest (COI) for consideration by SLAN. This document details the work of CCI, and the position adopted by SLAN.

4.
Breastfeed Med ; 13(9): 589-597, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256125

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is known to be the best source of nutrition for infants. The World Health Organization recommends to exclusively breastfeed up to the sixth month of life and to breastfeed with complementary foods until the age of 2. It is reported that maternity leave (ML) is one of the most important interventions for an extended breastfeeding duration. The aim of this review is to synthesize the available data worldwide on the association of ML and breastfeeding duration. We also intend to provide an overview of whether this association is differential by socioeconomic status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant primary studies relating ML and breastfeeding were included by searching several databases, including PubMed, SCielo, Health Systems Evidence, Health Evidence, Cochrane Reviews, and Epistemonikos. Articles were included up to May 2018. RESULTS: A total of 239 relevant articles were identified, of them 21 were included in the review based on exposure, outcome, and study design. These studies reported that an extended ML might be related to breastfeeding duration. In addition, studies reporting data on work type, race, and education showed that black women, women in less privileged position, and women with less education have less breastfeeding duration. CONCLUSIONS: This review showed a positive relationship between ML length and breastfeeding duration. These results have a homogeneous trend; however, this was different when studies reported results on ML and breastfeeding stratified by socioeconomic status. Public health policies should ensure that all women, especially the most vulnerable, have equal access to the benefits that ML provides.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Permiso Parental/estadística & datos numéricos , Clase Social , Mujeres Trabajadoras , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido
5.
Cancer Med ; 5(8): 2069-83, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27384231

RESUMEN

Carotenoids and retinol are considered biomarkers of fruits and vegetables intake, and are of much interest because of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties; however, there is inconsistent evidence regarding their protective effects against lung cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies of blood concentrations of carotenoids and retinol, and lung cancer risk. We identified relevant prospective studies published up to December 2014 by searching the PubMed and several other databases. We calculated summary estimates of lung cancer risk for the highest compared with lowest carotenoid and retinol concentrations and dose-response meta-analyses using random effects models. We used fractional polynomial models to assess potential nonlinear relationships. Seventeen prospective studies (18 publications) including 3603 cases and 458,434 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Blood concentrations of α-carotene, ß-carotene, total carotenoids, and retinol were significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk or mortality. The summary relative risk were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.80) per 5 µg/100 mL of α-carotene (studies [n] = 5), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.94) per 20 µg/100 mL of ß-carotene (n = 9), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.54-0.81) per 100 µg/100 mL of total carotenoids (n = 4), and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.73-0.90) per 70 µg/100 mL of retinol (n = 8). In stratified analysis by sex, the significant inverse associations for ß-carotene and retinol were observed only in men and not in women. Nonlinear associations were observed for ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene, with stronger associations observed at lower concentrations. There were not enough data to conduct stratified analyses by smoking. In conclusion, higher blood concentrations of several carotenoids and retinol are associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Further studies in never and former smokers are needed to rule out confounding by smoking.


Asunto(s)
Carotenoides/sangre , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangre , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Retina/sangre , Neoplasias de la Retina/epidemiología , Biomarcadores , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Riesgo
6.
Nutr Hosp ; 33(1): 105-10, 2016 02 16.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27019264

RESUMEN

Gallbladder cancer is the most malign neoplasm of the biliary tract. Chile presents the third highest prevalence of gallbladder cancer in the Americas, being Chilean women from the city of Valdivia the ones with the highest prevalence. The main risk factors associated with gallbladder cancer are: sex, cholelithiasis, obesity, ethnicity, chronic inflammation, history of infection diseases such as Helicobacter pyloriand Salmonellaand family history of gallbladder cancer. In Chile gallbladder cancer mortality is close to prevalence level. This is related to the silent symptomatology of this cancer, as well as the lack of specific symptoms. The high prevalence of obesity and infectious diseases present in Chile are two of the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer and Chile has prevalence of obesity close to 30%. The aim of this literary review is to inform and summarize the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer that are prevalent in Chile, in order to be able to focus preventive and management interventions of this risk factor for the reduction in prevalence and mortality of gallbladder cancer in Chile.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Anciano , Chile/epidemiología , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/mortalidad , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Nutr. hosp ; 33(1): 105-110, ene.-feb. 2016. graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-153044

RESUMEN

El cáncer de vesícula biliar es la neoplasia maligna más común en el tracto biliar. Chile presenta la tercera prevalencia más alta de cáncer de vesícula en el continente americano, siendo las mujeres chilenas de la ciudad de Valdivia las que presentan la prevalencia más alta. Los principales factores que se han asociado al cáncer de vesícula son: ser mujer, colelitiasis, obesidad, etnia, inflamación crónica, historia de enfermedades infecciones, como H. pylori y Salmonella e historia familiar de cáncer. En Chile la mortalidad por cáncer de vesícula es cercana al nivel de prevalencia. Esto se debe en parte a que el cáncer de vesícula es una enfermedad silenciosa y sin síntomas específicos en primeras instancias. Presentar obesidad y ser portador de agentes infecciosos, como Helicobacter pylori, son dos de los factores de riesgo más importantes para desarrollar cáncer de vesícula en Chile, ya que existe y una prevalencia de obesidad cercana al 30%. El objetivo de esta revisión literaria es informar y resumir los factores de riesgo de cáncer de vesícula prevalentes en Chile, para así enfocarse en la prevención y cuidado de estos, con el propósito de reducir la prevalencia de esta letal enfermedad (AU)


Gallbladder cancer is the most malign neoplasm of the biliary tract. Chile presents the third highest prevalence of gallbladder cancer in the Americas, being Chilean women from the city of Valdivia the ones with the highest prevalence. The main risk factors associated with gallbladder cancer are: sex, cholelithiasis, obesity, ethnicity, chronic inflammation, history of infection diseases such as Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella and family history of gallbladder cancer. In Chile gallbladder cancer mortality is close to prevalence level. This is related to the silent symptomatology of this cancer, as well as the lack of specific symptoms. The high prevalence of obesity and infectious diseases present in Chile are two of the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer and Chile has prevalence of obesity close to 30% The aim of this literary review is to inform and summarize the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer that are prevalent in Chile, in order to be able to focus preventive and management interventions of this risk factor for the reduction in prevalence and mortality of gallbladder cancer in Chile (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/epidemiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Infecciones por Helicobacter/complicaciones , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/etiología , Factores de Riesgo , Colelitiasis/complicaciones , Chile/epidemiología
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 101(1): 87-117, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25527754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dairy product and calcium intakes have been associated with increased prostate cancer risk, but whether specific dairy products or calcium sources are associated with risk is unclear. OBJECTIVE: In the Continuous Update Project, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies on intakes of dairy products and calcium and prostate cancer risk. DESIGN: PubMed and several other databases were searched up to April 2013. Summary RRs were estimated by using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies were included. Intakes of total dairy products [summary RR: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.12; n = 15) per 400 g/d], total milk [summary RR: 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07; n = 14) per 200 g/d], low-fat milk [summary RR: 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.11; n = 6) per 200 g/d], cheese [summary RR: 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.18; n = 11) per 50 g/d], and dietary calcium [summary RR: 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.09; n = 15) per 400 mg/d] were associated with increased total prostate cancer risk. Total calcium and dairy calcium intakes, but not nondairy calcium or supplemental calcium intakes, were also positively associated with total prostate cancer risk. Supplemental calcium was associated with increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: High intakes of dairy products, milk, low-fat milk, cheese, and total, dietary, and dairy calcium, but not supplemental or nondairy calcium, may increase total prostate cancer risk. The diverging results for types of dairy products and sources of calcium suggest that other components of dairy rather than fat and calcium may increase prostate cancer risk. Any additional studies should report detailed results for subtypes of prostate cancer.


Asunto(s)
Calcio en la Dieta/efectos adversos , Productos Lácteos/efectos adversos , Suplementos Dietéticos/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/etiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/mortalidad , Factores de Riesgo
9.
Int J Cancer ; 136(8): 1888-98, 2015 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25250505

RESUMEN

In the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research report from 2007 the evidence relating body fatness to ovarian cancer risk was considered inconclusive, while the evidence supported a probably causal relationship between adult attained height and increased risk. Several additional cohort studies have since been published, and therefore we conducted an updated meta-analysis of the evidence as part of the Continuous Update Project. We searched PubMed and several other databases up to 20th of August 2014. Summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated using a random effects model. The summary relative risk for a 5-U increment in BMI was 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.11, I(2) = 54%, n = 28 studies). There was evidence of a nonlinear association, pnonlinearity < 0.0001, with risk increasing significantly from BMI∼28 and above. The summary RR per 5 U increase in BMI in early adulthood was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.05-1.20, I(2) = 0%, pheterogeneity = 0.54, n = 6), per 5 kg increase in body weight was 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.05, I(2) = 0%, n = 4) and per 10 cm increase in waist circumference was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.00-1.12, I(2) = 0%, n = 6). No association was found for weight gain, hip circumference or waist-to-hip ratio. The summary RR per 10 cm increase in height was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.11-1.21, I(2) = 32%, n = 16). In conclusion, greater body fatness as measured by body mass index and weight are positively associated risk of ovarian cancer, and in addition, greater height is associated with increased risk. Further studies are needed to clarify whether abdominal fatness and weight gain is associated with risk.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Neoplasias Ováricas/etiología , Neoplasias Ováricas/fisiopatología , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometría/métodos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Circunferencia de la Cintura/fisiología , Relación Cintura-Cadera/métodos , Adulto Joven
10.
Cancer Med ; 4(1): 136-46, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25461441

RESUMEN

Smoking is estimated to cause about half of all bladder cancer cases. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk. As part of the World Cancer Research/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to assess the dose-response relationship between fruit and vegetables and incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. We searched PubMed up to December 2013 for relevant prospective studies. We conducted highest compared with lowest meta-analyses and dose-response meta-analyses using random effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and used restricted cubic splines to examine possible nonlinear associations. Fifteen prospective studies were included in the review. The summary RR for an increase of 1 serving/day (80 g) were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99) I(2)  = 0%, eight studies for fruits and vegetables, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.00, I(2)  = 10%, 10 studies) for vegetables and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-1.00, I(2)  = 0%, 12 studies) for fruits. Results were similar in men and women and in current, former and nonsmokers. Amongst fruits and vegetables subgroups, for citrus fruits the summary RR for the highest compared with the lowest intake was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.76-0.99, I(2)  = 0%, eight studies) and for cruciferous vegetables there was evidence of a nonlinear relationship (P = 0.001). The current evidence from cohort studies is not consistent with a role for fruits and vegetables in preventing bladder cancer.


Asunto(s)
Frutas , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/etiología , Verduras , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Riesgo
11.
Cancer Causes Control ; 24(4): 611-27, 2013 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23380943

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that red and processed meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer; however, the association with colorectal adenomas is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies of red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas as part of the Continuous Update Project of the World Cancer Research Fund. DESIGN: PubMed and several other databases were searched for relevant studies from their inception up to 31 December 2011. Summary relative risks (RRs) were estimated using a random effects model. RESULTS: Nineteen case-control studies and seven prospective studies were included in the analyses. The summary RR per 100 g/day of red meat was 1.27 (95 % CI 1.16-1.40, I (2) = 5 %, n = 16) for all studies combined, 1.20 (95 % CI 1.06-1.36, I (2) = 0 %, n = 6) for prospective studies, and 1.34 (95 % CI 1.12-1.59, I (2) = 31 %, n = 10) for case-control studies. The summary RR per 50 g/day of processed meat intake was 1.29 (95 % CI 1.10-1.53, I (2) = 27 %, n = 10) for all studies combined, 1.45 (95 % CI 1.10-1.90, I (2) = 0 %, n = 2) for prospective studies, and 1.23 (95 % CI 0.99-1.52, I (2) = 37 %, n = 8) for case-control studies. There was evidence of a nonlinear association between red meat (p nonlinearity < 0.001) and processed meat (p nonlinearity = 0.01) intake and colorectal adenoma risk. CONCLUSION: These results indicate an elevated risk of colorectal adenomas with intake of red and processed meat, but further prospective studies are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Adenoma/etiología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/etiología , Carne/efectos adversos , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 96(2): 356-73, 2012 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22760559

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Measurement errors in the dietary assessment of fruit and vegetable intake may attenuate associations with breast cancer risk and might explain the weak associations observed in epidemiologic studies. Carotenoid concentrations in blood are biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake; however, no systematic assessment has compared dietary intake with blood concentrations of carotenoids and breast cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of dietary intake and blood concentrations of carotenoids and breast cancer risk. DESIGN: We searched PubMed and several other databases for relevant studies up to 31 August 2011. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary estimates. RESULTS: Of the 6 dietary carotenoids assessed, only intake of ß-carotene was significantly associated with a reduced breast cancer risk (summary RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99; I(2): 0%) per 5000 µg/d (n = 10). In contrast, the summary RR for blood concentrations of carotenoids was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.99; I(2): 53%) per 100 µg total carotenoids/dL (n = 7), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.97; I(2): 43%) per 50 µg ß-carotene/dL (n = 13), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.92, I(2): 3%) per 10 µg α-carotene/dL (n = 12), and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.52, 0.89; I(2): 0%) per 25 µg lutein/dL (n = 6). CONCLUSIONS: Blood concentrations of carotenoids are more strongly associated with reduced breast cancer risk than are carotenoids assessed by dietary questionnaires. Our results suggest that the use of certain biomarkers may clarify inconsistent and weak results between dietary intake and breast cancer risk.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Carotenoides/administración & dosificación , Carotenoides/sangre , Suplementos Dietéticos , beta Caroteno/administración & dosificación , beta Caroteno/sangre , Biomarcadores/sangre , Neoplasias de la Mama/etiología , Criptoxantinas , Dieta , Femenino , Frutas , Humanos , Luteína/administración & dosificación , Luteína/sangre , Licopeno , Factores de Riesgo , Verduras , Xantófilas/administración & dosificación , Xantófilas/sangre , Zeaxantinas
13.
Cancer Causes Control ; 23(8): 1213-22, 2012 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22689322

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Greater height has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, but epidemiological data on height and pancreatic cancer are inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to clarify these results. METHODS: PubMed and several other databases were searched up to September 2011. Prospective studies of height and pancreatic cancer were included. Summary relative risks were estimated by the use of a random effects model. RESULTS: We identified twelve cohort studies that were included in the meta-analysis. The summary RR per 5-cm increase in height was 1.07 (95 % CI: 1.03-1.12, I (2) = 57 %). The results were similar among men and women. The summary estimate was attenuated when we included results from two pooled analyses together with these studies, summary RR = 1.03 (95 % CI: 1.00-1.07, I (2) = 44 %). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis of cohort studies provides further evidence that greater adult attained height is associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. However, given the unexplained heterogeneity, further studies are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.


Asunto(s)
Estatura , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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