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1.
Nanoscale ; 2023 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628616

RESUMEN

Natural and tunable in-plane hyperbolic plasmons have so far been elusive, and hence few two-dimensional hyperbolic materials have been theoretically and experimentally discovered. Here, comprehensive first-principles calculations were conducted to study the electronic and plasmonic properties of biaxially strained monolayer carbon phosphide (ß-CP). We found that (i) a compressed ß-CP hosts strong anisotropic Dirac-shaped fermions with robust modulated Fermi velocity, (ii) for biaxial strain of -3% an unprecedented ultra-wide hyperbolic window is extended continuously from terahertz (9 THz) to mid-visible (blue light, 693 THz), (iii) the tunable optical Van Hove singularity as the origin of hyperbolic plasmons in deformed ß-CP is disclosed, (iv) an elliptic to hyperbolic transition in the σ-near-zero regime is demonstrated in terahertz frequencies (9 THz), (v) the propagation angle of the concave wavefront can be actively tuned using biaxial strains, and (vi) hyperbolic dispersion reorientation from one principal axis to another orthogonal one under compressive strains larger than 8% is observed. This study sheds new light on the unique properties of hyperbolic two-dimensional (2D) materials having exotic optoelectronic characteristics which are promising candidates for anisotropic light control with ultimate dexterity in the flat optics.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(45): 50900-50912, 2022 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318606

RESUMEN

Transition-metal chalcogenides have emerged as a promising class of materials for energy storage applications due to their earth abundance, high theoretical capacity, and high electrical conductivity. Herein, we introduce a facile and one-pot electrodeposition method to prepare high-performance nickel selenide NixSey (0.5 ≤ x/y ≤ 1.5) nanostructures (specific capacity = 180.3 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1). The as-synthesized nickel selenide (NS) nanostructure is however converted to other polymorphs of nickel selenide including orthorhombic NiSe2, trigonal Ni3Se2, hexagonal NiSe, and orthorhombic Ni6Se5 over cycling. Interestingly, NiSe2 and Ni3Se2 polymorphs that display a more metallic character and superior energy storage performance are the predominant phases after a few hundred cycles. We fabricated a hybrid device using activated carbon (AC) as a supercapacitor-type negative electrode and NS as a high-rate battery-type positive electrode (AC||NS). This hybrid device provides a high specific energy of 71 W h kg-1, an excellent specific power of up to 31 400 W kg-1, and exceptional cycling stability (80% retention of the initial capacity after 20 000 cycles). The higher energy storage performance of the device is a result of the development of high-performance NiSe2 and Ni3Se2 polymorphs. Moreover, the reduction of the critical dimension of the NS particles to the nanoscale partially induces an extrinsic pseudocapacitive behavior that improves the rate capability and durability of the device. We also explored the origin of the superior energy storage performance of the NS polymorphs using density functional theory calculations in terms of the computed density of states around the Fermi level, electrical conductivity, and quantum capacitance that follows the trend NiSe2 > Ni3Se2 > NiSe > Ni6Se5. The present study thus provides an appealing approach for tailoring the phase composition of NS as an alternative to the commonly used templated synthesis methods.

4.
Nanoscale ; 14(15): 5876-5883, 2022 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363231

RESUMEN

Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the effect of an AFM tip when indenting graphene nano bubbles filled by a noble gas (i.e. He, Ne and Ar) up to the breaking point. The failure points resemble those of viral shells as described by the Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) dimensionless number defined in the context of elasticity theory of thin shells. At room temperature, He gas inside the bubbles is found to be in the liquid state while Ne and Ar atoms are in the solid state although the pressure inside the nano bubble is below the melting pressure of the bulk. The trapped gases are under higher hydrostatic pressure at low temperatures than at room temperature.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 33(27)2022 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354126

RESUMEN

Recently, Bafekryet al(2021Nanotechnology32215702) predicted a novel two-dimensional carbon nitride with an egg-comb-like structure and a C6N stoichiometry. Their density functional theory results reveal the thermal stability of this structure at 300 K. They also examined the thermoelectric properties of this monolayer up to 500 K. By adopting the same methodology employed in the original work by Bafekryet al(2021Nanotechnology32215702), we show that this monolayer is thermally unstable and cannot be employed for practical applications. Aforementioned theoretical work also includes inaccuracies in the evaluation of thermoelectric properties of the C6N monolayer, as they did not consider the contribution of the lattice thermal conductivity.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(8): 3411-3428, 2022 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167746

RESUMEN

The need for enhanced energy storage and improved catalysts has led researchers to explore advanced functional materials for sustainable energy production and storage. Herein, we demonstrate a reductive electrosynthesis approach to prepare a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled trimetallic Fe-Co-Ni metal-organic framework (MOF) in which the metal cations within each layer or at the interface of the two layers are linked to one another by bridging 2-amino-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid linkers. Tailoring catalytically active sites in an LbL fashion affords a highly porous material that exhibits excellent trifunctional electrocatalytic activities toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (ηj=10 = 116 mV), oxygen evolution reaction (ηj=10 = 254 mV), as well as oxygen reduction reaction (half-wave potential = 0.75 V vs reference hydrogen electrode) in alkaline solutions. The dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations suggest that the prominent catalytic activity of the LbL MOF toward the HER, OER, and ORR is due to the initial negative adsorption energy of water on the metal nodes and the elongated O-H bond length of the H2O molecule. The Fe-Co-Ni MOF-based Zn-air battery exhibits a remarkable energy storage performance and excellent cycling stability of over 700 cycles that outperform the commercial noble metal benchmarks. When assembled in an asymmetric device configuration, the activated carbon||Fe-Co-Ni MOF supercapacitor provides a superb specific energy and a power of up to 56.2 W h kg-1 and 42.2 kW kg-1, respectively. This work offers not only a novel approach to prepare an LbL assembled multimetallic MOF but also provides a benchmark for a multifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting and Zn-air batteries.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 154(11): 114503, 2021 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752365

RESUMEN

Dielectric properties of nano-confined water are important in several areas of science, i.e., it is relevant in the dielectric double layer that exists in practically all heterogeneous fluid-based systems. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to predict the in-plane dielectric properties of confined water in planar channels of width ranging from sub-nanometer to bulk. Because of suppressed rotational degrees of freedom near the confining walls, the dipole of the water molecules tends to be aligned parallel to the walls, which results in a strongly enhanced in-plane dielectric constant (ε∥) reaching values of about 120 for channels with height 8 Å < h < 10 Å. With the increase in the width of the channel, we predict that ε∥ decreases nonlinearly and reaches the bulk value for h > 70 Å. A stratified continuum model is proposed that reproduces the h > 10 Å dependence of ε∥. For sub-nanometer height channels, abnormal behavior of ε∥ is found with two orders of magnitude reduction of ε∥ around h ∼ 7.5 Å, which is attributed to the formation of a particular ice phase that exhibits long-time (∼µs) stable ferroelectricity. This is of particular importance for the understanding of the influence of confined water on the functioning of biological systems.

8.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(6): 1604-1610, 2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533243

RESUMEN

Ultra-low dielectric constant of nanoconfined water between two flat slabs is a subject of recent experimental and theoretical research. The impact of dissolution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with various concentrations on the dielectric properties of nanoconfined water between graphene layers are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. We found that, with increasing salt concentration, (i) the out-of-plane dielectric constant increases and (ii) the in-plane dielectric constant decreases non-linearly. Surprisingly, for channels with heights 6.8Å < h < 8 Å, we found an abnormal increase in the in-plane dielectric constant versus salt concentration, which can be linked to the formation of 2D-ice-like structure. This study sheds light on the variation of dielectric properties of nanoconfined water between graphene layers in the presence of salt, which is of importance in ion transport and electrochemical energy storage.

9.
Nano Lett ; 21(19): 8103-8110, 2021 Oct 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519503

RESUMEN

We report the formation of nanobubbles on graphene with a radius of the order of 1 nm, using ultralow energy implantation of noble gas ions (He, Ne, Ar) into graphene grown on a Pt(111) surface. We show that the universal scaling of the aspect ratio, which has previously been established for larger bubbles, breaks down when the bubble radius approaches 1 nm, resulting in much larger aspect ratios. Moreover, we observe that the bubble stability and aspect ratio depend on the substrate onto which the graphene is grown (bubbles are stable for Pt but not for Cu) and trapped element. We interpret these dependencies in terms of the atomic compressibility of the noble gas as well as of the adhesion energies between graphene, the substrate, and trapped atoms.

10.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(3)2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592727

RESUMEN

Using first-principles calculations for angstrom-sized pores (3-10 Å), we investigate pore-particle interaction. The translocation energy barrier (TEB) plays important role for the angstrom-scale pores created in 2D-materials such as graphene which is calculated for the translocation of rare gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xe), diatomic molecules (H2and N2), CO2, and CH4. The critical incident angle (the premeance beyond that is zero) was found to be 40°, which is different from classical model's prediction of 19-37°. The calculated TEB (Δ) and the surface diffusion energy barrier (Δ') for the particles with small kinetic diameter (He, Ne and H2), show that the direct flow is the dominant permeation mechanism (Δ ≈ 0 and Δ' > 30 meV). For the other particles with larger kinetic diameters (Ar, Kr, N2, CH4and CO2), we found that both surface diffusion and direct flow mechanisms are possible, i.e. Δ and Δ' ≠ 0. This work provides important insights into the gas permeation theory and into the design and development of gas separation and filtration devices.

11.
Nanoscale ; 13(2): 922-929, 2021 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367377

RESUMEN

Using electrochemical methods a profound enhancement of the capacitance of electric double layer capacitor electrodes was reported when water molecules are strongly confined into the two-dimensional slits of titanium carbide MXene nanosheets [A. Sugahara et al., Nat. Commun., 2019, 10, 850]. We study the effects of hydration on the dielectric properties of nanoconfined water and supercapacitance properties of the cation intercalated MXene. A model for the electric double layer capacitor is constructed where water molecules are strongly confined in two-dimensional slits of MXene. We report an abnormal dielectric constant and polarization of nano-confined water between MXene layers. We found that by decreasing the ionic radius of the intercalated cations and in a critical hydration shell radius the capacitance of the system increases significantly (≃200 F g-1) which can be interpreted as a negative permittivity. This study builds a bridge between the fundamental understanding of the dielectric properties of nanoconfined water and the capability of using MXene films for supercapacitor technology, and in doing so provides a solid theoretical support for recent experiments.

12.
Sci Adv ; 6(51)2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355128

RESUMEN

Gas flows are often analyzed with the theoretical descriptions formulated over a century ago and constantly challenged by the emerging architectures of narrow channels, slits, and apertures. Here, we report atomic-scale defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials as apertures for gas flows at the ultimate quasi-0D atomic limit. We establish that pristine monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2) membranes act as atomically thin barriers to gas transport. Atomic vacancies from missing tungsten (W) sites are made in freestanding (WS2) monolayers by focused ion beam irradiation and characterized using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. WS2 monolayers with atomic apertures are mechanically sturdy and showed fast helium flow. We propose a simple yet robust method for confirming the formation of atomic apertures over large areas using gas flows, an essential step for pursuing their prospective applications in various domains including molecular separation, single quantum emitters, sensing and monitoring of gases at ultralow concentrations.

13.
Nano Lett ; 19(7): 4678-4683, 2019 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192613

RESUMEN

The ability of different materials to display self-limiting growth has recently attracted an enormous amount of attention because of the importance of nanoscale materials in applications for catalysis, energy conversion, (opto)electronics, and so forth. Here, we show that the electrochemical deposition of palladium (Pd) between graphene oxide (GO) sheets result in the self-limiting growth of 5-nm-thick Pd nanosheets. The self-limiting growth is found to be a consequence of the strong interaction of Pd with the confining GO sheets, which results in the bulk growth of Pd being energetically unfavorable for larger thicknesses. Furthermore, we have successfully carried out liquid exfoliation of the resulting Pd-GO laminates to isolate Pd nanosheets and have demonstrated their high efficiency in continuous flow catalysis and electrocatalysis.

14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13481, 2017 10 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044124

RESUMEN

We show that a carbon nanotube decorated with different types of charged metallic nanoparticles exhibits unusual two-dimensional vibrations when actuated by applied electric field. Such vibrations and diverse possible trajectories are not only fundamentally important but also have minimum two characteristic frequencies that can be directly linked back to the properties of the constituents in the considered nanoresonator. Namely, those frequencies and the maximal deflection during vibrations are very distinctively dependent on the geometry of the nanotube, the shape, element, mass and charge of the nanoparticle, and are vastly tunable by the applied electric field, revealing the unique sensing ability of devices made of molecular filaments and metallic nanoparticles.

15.
Nanoscale ; 9(12): 4205-4218, 2017 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28290570

RESUMEN

Inspired by recent experiments, the trapping of molecules in 2D materials has gained increasing attention due to the unique ability of the molecules to modulate the electronic and optical properties of 2D materials, which calls for fundamental understanding and predictive design strategies. Herein, we focus on mono- and double-layer graphene encapsulating various MgO clusters and explore their diverse electronic and optical properties using a number of high-level first-principles calculations. By correlating the stability of adsorption, geometry, charge transfer, band structures, optical absorption spectrum, and the van der Waals pressure, our results decode various synergies in electro- and opto-mutable properties of MgO/graphene systems. We found that 2D-MgO flakes on graphene layers exhibit surface polarization effects - in contrast to their isolated neutral flakes - and show a significant charge transfer from graphene to n-doped flakes, breaking the symmetry of graphene layers. We obtained a van der Waals pressure of ∼0.7 (0.9) GPa on bilayer graphene encapsulating MgO nanoclusters, which matches extremely well with experiment. While there is one quantum emission in the visible light region for a single MgO flake, a wide range of visible light is accessible for MgO on mono- and double-layer graphene. Overall, these findings provide new physical insights and design strategies to modulate 2D materials with several applications in optoelectronics while significantly broadening the spectrum of strategies for fabricating new hybrid 2D heterostructures by encapsulating external molecules.

16.
ACS Nano ; 10(3): 3685-92, 2016 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26882095

RESUMEN

The rate of water flow through hydrophobic nanocapillaries is greatly enhanced as compared to that expected from macroscopic hydrodynamics. This phenomenon is usually described in terms of a relatively large slip length, which is in turn defined by such microscopic properties as the friction between water and capillary surfaces and the viscosity of water. We show that the viscosity of water and, therefore, its flow rate are profoundly affected by the layered structure of confined water if the capillary size becomes less than 2 nm. To this end, we study the structure and dynamics of water confined between two parallel graphene layers using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the shear viscosity is not only greatly enhanced for subnanometer capillaries, but also exhibits large oscillations that originate from commensurability between the capillary size and the size of water molecules. Such oscillating behavior of viscosity and, consequently, the slip length should be taken into account in designing and studying graphene-based and similar membranes for desalination and filtration.

17.
ACS Nano ; 8(3): 2697-703, 2014 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24499285

RESUMEN

Freestanding graphene membranes were successfully functionalized with platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed a homogeneous distribution of single-crystal Pt NPs that tend to exhibit a preferred orientation. Unexpectedly, the NPs were also found to be partially exposed to the vacuum with the top Pt surface raised above the graphene substrate, as deduced from atomic-scale scanning tunneling microscopy images and detailed molecular dynamics simulations. Local strain accumulation during the growth process is thought to be the origin of the NP self-organization. These findings are expected to shape future approaches in developing Pt NP catalysts for fuel cells as well as NP-functionalized graphene-based high-performance electronics.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 106(20): 209701; author reply 209702, 2011 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21668273
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