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1.
Ghana med. j ; 57(1): 1-9, 2023. tables
Artículo en Inglés | AIM (África) | ID: biblio-1427093

RESUMEN

Objective: To identify the determinants of systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) among Ghanaians. Design: We undertook a secondary analysis of data collected in a prospective study Setting: The study involved patients with hypertension and or diabetes receiving care in five hospitals in Ghana Main outcome measures: We assessed determinants of SBPV among 2,785 Ghanaian patients. We calculated the standard deviation (SD) of systolic BP recordings of 3 to 10 visits per patient over 18 months as a measure of SBPV. A multivariate linear regression analysis was fitted to identify factors independently associated with risk visit-to-visit SBP standard deviation. Results: The mean SD of individual patient visit-to-visit SBP overall was 14.8±6.3 mm Hg. Those with hypertension and diabetes had the highest SD of 15.4 ±6.2 mm Hg followed by 15.2 ±6.5 mm Hg among those with hypertension only and then 12.0 ± 5.2 mm Hg among those with diabetes only, p<0.0001. Factors independently associated with SBPV with adjusted ß coefficients (95% CI) included age: 0.06 (0.03 ­ 0.08) for each year rise in age, eGFR -0.03 (-0.05 - -0.02) for each ml/min rise, low monthly income of <210 Ghana cedis 1.45 (0.43-2.46), and secondary level of education -1.10 (-1.69, -0.50). Antihypertensive classes were associated with SBPV, the strongest associations being hydralazine 2.35 (0.03 ­ 4.68) and Methyldopa 3.08 (2.39 ­ 3.77). Conclusion: Several socio-demographic and clinical factors are associated with SBPV. Future studies should assess the contribution of SBPV to CVD outcomes among indigenous Africans and identify actionable targets.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Presión Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensión Maligna , Variación Antigénica , Factores de Riesgo , Accidente Cerebrovascular
2.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(6): e953, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439045

RESUMEN

Background and Aims: Penicillin V prophylaxis protects children living with sickle cell disease (SCD) from bacteria infections especially Streptococcus pneumonia. However, the uptake of penicillin V prophylaxis is difficult to assess and often poor among SCD patients. Therefore, this study sought to investigate oral penicillin V prophylaxis adherence among SCD children using urine assay and self-reported methods and the associated factors. Methods: The study employed an analytical cross-sectional design in the assessment of penicillin V prophylaxis adherence using both urine assay and self-reported methods. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with penicillin V prophylaxis adherence. A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among the 421 SCD patients recruited, penicillin V prophylaxis adherence was observed to be 30.0% and 68.0% for the objective and subjective methods of assessment, respectively. For the objective method of assessment, being cared for by grandparents increased the odds of penicillin V adherence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.68, confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-13.15). However, SCD patients within the ages of 10-14 years (aOR = 0.36, CI = 0.17-0.80), >14 years (aOR = 0.17, CI = 0.05-0.61), SCD patient cared for by married caregivers/parents (aOR = 0.32, CI = 0.14-0.72), SCD patient cared for by divorced caregivers/parents (aOR = 0.23, CI = 0.07-0.75), SCD patients taking homemade (herbal) preparations for the treatment of SCD (aOR = 0.42, CI = 0.21-0.83), and inappropriate intake of penicillin V prophylaxis (aOR = 0.27, CI = 0.11-0.67) reduced the odds of penicillin V adherence. For the subjective method of assessment, taking homemade preparation (herbal) for the treatment of SCD (aOR = 0.52, CI = 0.30-0.89) and inappropriate intake of penicillin V (aOR = 0.32, CI = 0.17-0.60) reduced the odds of penicillin V adherence. Conclusion: This study reports a relatively low adherence rate of penicillin V prophylaxis among children living with SCD. Educating and counseling both SCD patients and/or caregivers on the need to be adherent to penicillin V prophylaxis could prevent complications that may arise from nonadherence.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268831, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657957

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer in Ghana. The disease and its treatment significantly affect survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We determined the overall quality of life (QoL) and identified its predictors among cervical cancer survivors after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 153 disease-free cervical cancer survivors who completed curative treatment between January 2004 and December 2018 at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana. We used the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core-30 item (EORTC QLQ-C30) and cervical cancer module (EORTC QLQ-CX24) to assess the survivors' overall QoL. QoL domain scores were dichotomised as affected or unaffected by disease and its treatment. Significant differences between the affected and unaffected groups within each QoL domain were determined using the student T-test. We used Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests to examine the difference in QoL domains between treatment types, with significance based on Bonferroni corrections. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of overall QoL. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-three (153) women having a mean age of 58.3 (SD 11.4) years were studied. The overall QoL score was 79.6 (SD 16.0), and 74.5% of survivors reported good QoL score within the median follow up time of 41.8 months (interquartile range [IQR], 25.5-71.1 months) after cervical cancer diagnosis. Although the majority (66.0-84.3%) of the QoL functioning scale were unaffected, about a fifth (22.2%) to a third (34.5%) of the subjects had perceptual impairment in cognitive and role functioning. Financial difficulties, peripheral neuropathy and pain were most common symptoms reported as affected. A third of the survivors were worried that sex would be painful, and 36.6% indicated that their sexual activity as affected. The overall QoL scores for survivors who had surgery, chemoradiation and radiation-alone were 86.1 (SD 9.7), 76.9 (SD 17.7), and 80.7 (SD 14.7), respectively (p = 0.025). The predictors of survivor's overall QoL were loss of appetite [Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) = 9.34, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 2.13-35.8, p = 0.001], pain (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI = 1.25-9.31, p = 0.017) and body image (AOR = 5.89, 95% CI = 1.80-19.27, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: About 75% of the survivors had a good overall quality of life. Primary surgical treatment affords the best prospects for quality of life with the least symptom complaints and financial burden. Loss of appetite, pain or diminution in body image perception predicted the overall quality of life of cervical cancer survivors after treatment.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Sobrevivientes , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/psicología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/terapia
4.
J Neurol Sci ; 439: 120304, 2022 08 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689867

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: mHealth interventions can improve care delivery in settings with limited resources. The Phone-based Interventions under Nurse Guidance after Stroke (PINGS) is a nurse-led, mHealth-centered approach to blood pressure (BP) control among recent stroke survivors with hypertension in Ghana. It has 4 key components: (1) home blood pressure monitoring, (2) nurse-coordinated mhealth consults, (3) phone alerts as medication reminders, and (4) patient motivational messages delivered as interactive voice recordings. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness for scale up of the PINGS intervention in Ghana, from the perspective of health workers. METHODS: Between July and August 2021, we deployed an online questionnaire describing the components of PINGS to a cross-section of health workers in Ghana. The questionnaire used an adaptation of psychometrically validated Likert scale measures to elicit agreement or disagreement with attributes of the intervention. The questionnaire was distributed online to approximately 4000 healthcare workers via email and social media platforms. A summary of descriptive statistics was obtained; summed composite scores were then calculated, dichotomized, and binary logistic regression performed using R programming software. RESULTS: Of 653 health workers who completed the survey, 57.2% were male; 73.2% clinicians; median age was 33 years (IQR 29, 37). Respondents' primary workplaces were public (64.4%), quasi-government (9.4%), and private, including mission-based (26.2%) facilities. PINGS was deemed feasible, acceptable, and appropriate by 93.9%, 94.8%, and 95.1% of respondents respectively. Clinical staff had higher odds of finding PINGS feasible (OR 4.10; C.I. 2.15, 8.0; p < 0.001), acceptable (OR 3.76, C.I. 1.87, 7.69; p < 0.001), or appropriate (OR 2.91, C.I. 1.41, 5.95; p = 0.004) compared to non-clinical staff. There was no statistically significant difference in the rating of each measure when analyzed by age, sex, years of health work experience, geographic location, type, or level of health facility. CONCLUSION: An overwhelming majority of health workers (particularly clinical staff) considered PINGS to be a feasible, acceptable, and appropriate for BP control among stroke survivors in Ghana.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Cerebrovascular , Telemedicina , Adulto , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Ghana , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Accidente Cerebrovascular/tratamiento farmacológico
5.
Ghana Medical Journal ; 56(3): 169-175, )2022. Tables
Artículo en Inglés | AIM (África) | ID: biblio-1398771

RESUMEN

Objectives: To identify the prevalence and associated factors of anxiety in people living with HIV/AIDS in a tertiary centre in Ghana. Design: The study employed a cross-sectional design. Setting: The study was conducted in the outpatient HIV clinic of a tertiary hospital. Participants: Participants were adult PLWHA receiving OPD care, including those established on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and newer patients who were not on cART. Four hundred ninety-five participants aged ≥30 years were consecutively enrolled on the study. Interventions: Demographic and clinical data were collected using standard questionnaires and patient files. Anxiety was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify associated factors. Main outcome measure: Proportion of PLWHA who had HADS score of ≥8 Results: Overall prevalence of anxiety was 61.0% (95%CI: 56.6 ­ 65.3), with no significant difference between recently diagnosed (≤ 6 months, 64.3%) and those with established diagnoses (>6 months, 59.1%). Urban residence (aOR: 1.67, 95%CI: 1.12 ­ 2.51), alcohol use (aOR: 1.64, 95%CI: 1.13 ­ 2.38) and depression (aOR: 13.62, 95%CI: 7.91 ­ 23.45) were independently associated with anxiety. Conclusion: In this sample, 6 in 10 Ghanaian PLWHA had evidence of anxiety. Liaison with the national mental health service for more comprehensive and integrated care and further research into the mental health of PLWHA is recommended to reduce this high burden of anxiety


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , VIH , Trastornos del Humor , Depresión , Arteritis del Sistema Nervioso Central por SIDA , África
6.
Clin Cardiol ; 42(12): 1195-1201, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571256

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) poses a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, data are limited on CVD risk burden among HIV patients in Ghana. We describe the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of CVD risk factors among HIV patients in Ghana. METHODS: From January 2013 to May 2014, we identified eligible HIV patients 18 years and older, as well as uninfected adult blood donors presenting to the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital as controls. Using a standardized protocol, we collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, and electrocardiographic data. We created multivariable logistic regression models to compare the prevalence of abnormal risk factors between the two groups. RESULTS: We recruited 345 patients with HIV (n = 173 on HAART, n = 172 not on HAART) and 161 uninfected adult blood donors. Patients with HIV were older (mean [SD] age: 41 [11] vs 32 [11] years) and were more likely to be female (72% vs 28%) than blood donors. Among patients on HAART, median (interquartile range) treatment duration was 17 (4-52) months. The prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus among HIV patients was 9%, 29%, and 5%, respectively, compared with 5%, 15%, and 0.6% among uninfected blood donors. Smoking was the least prevalent CVD risk factor (1%-2%). After adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index, HIV patients had a 10-fold higher odds of prevalent diabetes compared with controls, (adjusted OR = 10.3 [95% CI: 1.2, 86.7]). CONCLUSION: CVD risk factors are common among HIV patients in Ghana, demonstrating the urgent need for creation and implementation of strategic CVD interventions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
7.
Malar J ; 13: 461, 2014 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25428264

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Over-diagnosis of malaria among African children results in mismanagement of non-malaria infections. Limited laboratory capacity makes it difficult to implement policies that recommend pre-treatment confirmation of infections so a new approach with a package for on-the-spot management of fevers was evaluated. METHODS: Febrile children presenting to outpatient clinic were randomized to receive either a 'test-treat' package (history with clinical examination; point-of-care tests; choice of artesunate-amodiaquine, co-amoxiclav and/or paracetamol) or routine outpatient care in a secondary health care facility in Kumasi, Ghana. A diagnosis of malaria, bacterial, viral or mixed malarial and bacterial infections was made using pre-defined criteria. Outcome was resolution of all symptoms including fever on day 7. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 37.5 months (IQR: 19 to 66 months), with 56.7% being males. Compared to routine care the test-treat package resulted in less diagnoses of malaria, (37.2% vs 46.2%, p = 0.190) and mixed malaria and bacterial infections (14.0% vs 53.8%, p < 0.001) but more diagnoses of viral (33.1% vs 0.0%, p < 0.001) and bacterial infections only (15.7% vs 0.0%, p < 0.001). Less anti-malarials (51.2% vs 100.0%, p < 0.001) and antibiotics (29.7% vs 48.7%, p < 0.001), were prescribed in the test-treat group on completion of study, more test-treat package patients were clinically well (99.2% vs 80.7%, p < 0.001) and febrile (0.8% vs 10.1%, p = 0.001) and less were admitted for inpatient care (0.0% vs 8.4% p = 0.001) compared to the routine care group. CONCLUSION: Test-treat package improves the effectiveness of outpatient diagnosis and treatment of children with fever and reduces inappropriate prescribing of anti-malarials and antibiotics. The package provides clinicians with the option for immediate diagnosis and treatment of non-malaria fevers. The test-treat package now needs to be evaluated in other settings including primary health care facilities.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Medicina Clínica/métodos , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Fiebre de Origen Desconocido/diagnóstico , Fiebre de Origen Desconocido/tratamiento farmacológico , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Atención Ambulatoria/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
BMC Cancer ; 14: 362, 2014 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24884730

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on cancers is a challenge in most developing countries. Population-based cancer registries are also not common in developing countries despite the usefulness of such registries in informing cancer prevention and control programmes. The availability of population-based data on cancers in Africa varies across different countries. In Ghana, data and research on cancer have focussed on specific cancers and have been hospital-based with no reference population. The Kumasi Cancer Registry was established as the first population-based cancer registry in Ghana in 2012 to provide information on cancer cases seen in the city of Kumasi. METHODS: This paper reviews data from the Kumasi Cancer Registry for the year 2012. The reference geographic area for the registry is the city of Kumasi as designated by the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census. Data was from all clinical departments of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Pathology Laboratory Results, Death Certificates and the Kumasi South Regional Hospital. Data was abstracted and entered into Canreg 5 database. Analysis was conducted using Canreg 5, Microsoft Excel and Epi Info Version 7.1.2.0. RESULTS: The majority of cancers were recorded among females accounting for 69.6% of all cases. The mean age at diagnosis for all cases was 51.6 years. Among males, the mean age at diagnosis was 48.4 compared with 53.0 years for females. The commonest cancers among males were cancers of the Liver (21.1%), Prostate (13.2%), Lung (5.3%) and Stomach (5.3%). Among females, the commonest cancers were cancers of the Breast (33.9%), Cervix (29.4%), Ovary (11.3%) and Endometrium (4.5%). Histology of the primary tumour was the basis of diagnosis in 74% of cases with clinical and other investigations accounting for 17% and 9% respectively. The estimated cancer incidence Age Adjusted Standardised Rate for males was 10.9/100,000 and 22.4/100, 000 for females. CONCLUSION: This first attempt at population-based cancer registration in Ghana indicates that such registries are feasible in resource limited settings as ours. Strengthening Public Health Surveillance and establishing more Population-based Cancer Registries will help improve data quality and national efforts at cancer prevention and control in Ghana.


Asunto(s)
Genética de Población , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/clasificación , Neoplasias/patología , Sistema de Registros
9.
Malar J ; 13: 219, 2014 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24902591

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While several anti-malarials are known to affect the electric conduction system of the heart, less is known on the direct effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Some earlier studies point to a direct impact of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the electric conduction system of the heart. The aim of this study was to analyse infection- and drug-induced effects on the electric conduction system. METHODS: Children aged 12 months to 108 months with severe malaria were included in Kumasi, Ghana. In addition to basic demographic, clinical, biochemical and parasitological, biochemical data were measured data upon hospitalization (day 0) and 12-lead electrocardiograms were recorded before (day 0) and after (day 1) initiation of quinine therapy as well as after 42 (±3) days. RESULTS: A total of 180 children were included. Most children were tachycardic on day 0 but heart rate declined on day 1 and during follow up. The corrected QT intervals were longest on day 1 and shortest on day 0. Comparison of QT intervals with day 42 (healthy status) after stratification for age demonstrated that in the youngest (<24 months) this was mainly due to a QT shortage on day 0 while a QT prolongation on day 1 was most pronounced in the oldest (≥48 months). Nearly one third of the participating children had measurable 4-aminoquinoline levels upon admission, but no direct effect on the corrected QT intervals could be shown. CONCLUSION: Severe P. falciparum infection itself can provoke changes in the electrophysiology of the heart, independent of anti-malarial therapy. Especially in young - thus non immune - children the effect of acute disease associated pre-treatment QT-shortage is more pronounced than quinine associated QT-prolongation after therapy. Nevertheless, neither malaria nor anti-malarial induced effects on the electrophysiology of the heart were associated with clinically relevant arrhythmias in the present study population.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Sistema de Conducción Cardíaco/anomalías , Sistema de Conducción Cardíaco/efectos de los fármacos , Malaria Falciparum/complicaciones , Malaria Falciparum/tratamiento farmacológico , Quinina/uso terapéutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatología , Síndrome de Brugada , Trastorno del Sistema de Conducción Cardíaco , Niño , Preescolar , Electrocardiografía , Femenino , Ghana , Sistema de Conducción Cardíaco/fisiopatología , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino
10.
Lancet ; 380(9857): 1916-26, 2012 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23122217

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the greatest causes of mortality worldwide. Use of the most effective treatments for malaria remains inadequate for those in need, and there is concern over the emergence of resistance to these treatments. In 2010, the Global Fund launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm), a series of national-scale pilot programmes designed to increase the access and use of quality-assured artemisinin based combination therapies (QAACTs) and reduce that of artemisinin monotherapies for treatment of malaria. AMFm involves manufacturer price negotiations, subsidies on the manufacturer price of each treatment purchased, and supporting interventions such as communications campaigns. We present findings on the effect of AMFm on QAACT price, availability, and market share, 6-15 months after the delivery of subsidised ACTs in Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, and Tanzania (including Zanzibar). METHODS: We did nationally representative baseline and endpoint surveys of public and private sector outlets that stock antimalarial treatments. QAACTs were identified on the basis of the Global Fund's quality assurance policy. Changes in availability, price, and market share were assessed against specified success benchmarks for 1 year of AMFm implementation. Key informant interviews and document reviews recorded contextual factors and the implementation process. FINDINGS: In all pilots except Niger and Madagascar, there were large increases in QAACT availability (25·8-51·9 percentage points), and market share (15·9-40·3 percentage points), driven mainly by changes in the private for-profit sector. Large falls in median price for QAACTs per adult equivalent dose were seen in the private for-profit sector in six pilots, ranging from US$1·28 to $4·82. The market share of oral artemisinin monotherapies decreased in Nigeria and Zanzibar, the two pilots where it was more than 5% at baseline. INTERPRETATION: Subsidies combined with supporting interventions can be effective in rapidly improving availability, price, and market share of QAACTs, particularly in the private for-profit sector. Decisions about the future of AMFm should also consider the effect on use in vulnerable populations, access to malaria diagnostics, and cost-effectiveness. FUNDING: The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/economía , Artemisininas/economía , Lactonas/economía , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , África , Antimaláricos/normas , Antimaláricos/provisión & distribución , Artemisininas/normas , Artemisininas/provisión & distribución , Costos de los Medicamentos , Humanos , Lactonas/normas , Lactonas/provisión & distribución , Malaria/economía , Comercialización de los Servicios de Salud , Farmacias/economía , Farmacias/estadística & datos numéricos , Proyectos Piloto , Sector Privado/economía , Sector Público/economía
11.
Intensive Care Med ; 38(12): 2032-41, 2012 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22890885

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim was to assess whether impaired cardiac function contributes to symptoms of severe malaria in general or to metabolic acidosis in particular in children living in endemic regions. METHODS: In a prospective observational investigation, 183 children with severe malaria were investigated for hemodynamic status and cardiac function upon admission (day 0) and after recovery (day 42). Cardiac function parameters were assessed by cardiac ultrasonography. Blood gas analyses and cardiac enzymes were measured at hospitalization and follow-up. Differences in subgroups with and without metabolic acidosis as well as other severe malaria-defining symptoms and conditions were assessed. RESULTS: Cardiac index (CI) was significantly increased on day 0 compared to day 42 (5.8 ml/m(2), SD ± 1.8 ml/m(2), versus 4.7 ml/m(2), SD ± 1.4 ml/m(2); P < 0.001). CI correlated negatively with hemoglobin levels but not with parameters indicating impaired tissue perfusion or metabolic acidosis. Parasite levels had a significant influence on metabolic acidosis but not on CI. Alterations related to cardiac function, hemoglobin levels and metabolic acidosis were most prominent in children younger than 2 years. CONCLUSION: Increased CI reflecting high output status is associated with low hemoglobin levels while metabolic acidosis is linked to parasite levels.


Asunto(s)
Acidosis/complicaciones , Gasto Cardíaco Bajo/parasitología , Malaria Falciparum/complicaciones , Disfunción Ventricular Izquierda/parasitología , Acidosis/epidemiología , Acidosis/parasitología , Distribución por Edad , Anemia/epidemiología , Anemia/parasitología , Anemia/fisiopatología , Gasto Cardíaco Bajo/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Ecocardiografía , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Pruebas de Función Cardíaca , Humanos , Lactante , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Análisis de Regresión , Disfunción Ventricular Izquierda/epidemiología
12.
Virol J ; 9: 78, 2012 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22490115

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. METHOD: Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. RESULTS: Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. CONCLUSION: The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Sangre/virología , Preescolar , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virología , Prevalencia , Virus/clasificación
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 11: 99, 2011 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22133462

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The practice of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is life saving in babies weighing less than 2000 g. Little is known about mothers' continued unsupervised practice after discharge from hospitals. This study aimed to evaluate its in-hospital and continued practice in the community among mothers of low birth weight (LBW) infants discharged from two hospitals in Kumasi, Ghana. METHODS: A longitudinal study of 202 mothers and their inpatient LBW neonates was conducted from November 2009 to May 2010. Mothers were interviewed at recruitment to ascertain their knowledge of KMC, and then oriented on its practice. After discharge, the mothers reported at weekly intervals for four follow up visits where data about their perceptions, attitudes and practices of KMC were recorded. A repeated measure logistic regression analysis was done to assess variability in the binary responses at the various reviews visits. RESULTS: At recruitment 23 (11.4%, 95%CI: 7.4 to 16.6%) mothers knew about KMC. At discharge 95.5% were willing to continue KMC at home with 93.1% willing to practice at night. 95.5% thought KMC was beneficial to them and 96.0% beneficial to their babies. 98.0% would recommend KMC to other mothers with 71.8% willing to practice KMC outdoors.At first follow up visit 99.5% (181) were still practicing either intermittent or continuous KMC. This proportion did not change significantly over the four weeks (OR: 1.4, 95%CI: 0.6 to 3.3, p-value: 0.333). Over the four weeks, increasingly more mothers practiced KMC at night (OR: 1.7, 95%CI: 1.2 to 2.6, p = 0.005), outside their homes (OR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.7 to 3.3, p < 0.001) and received spousal help (OR: 1.6, 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.4, p = 0.007). Household chores and potentially negative community perceptions of KMC did not affect its practice with odds of 0.8 (95%CI: 0.5 to 1.2, p = 0.282) and 1.0 (95%CI: 0.6 to 1.7, p = 0.934) respectively. During the follow-up period the neonates gained 23.7 sg (95%CI: 22.6 g to 24.7 g) per day. CONCLUSION: Maternal knowledge of KMC was low at outset. Once initiated mothers continued practicing KMC in hospital and at home with their infants gaining optimal weight. Continued KMC practice was not affected by perceived community attitudes.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Método Madre-Canguro , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Femenino , Ghana , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Centros de Salud Materno-Infantil , Alta del Paciente , Embarazo , Resultado del Tratamiento
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