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1.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930295

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: According to the National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS), youth e-cigarette use (vaping) rose between 2017-2018. Frequency of vaping and concurrent past 30-day (p30d) use of e-cigarettes and tobacco products have not been reported. METHODS: We analyzed the 2018 NYTS (N=20,189) for vaping among all students (middle and high school; 6-12th grades; 9-19 years old) by frequency of vaping, exclusive vaping, p30d poly-product use (vaping and use of one or more tobacco product), and any past tobacco product use. RESULTS: In 2018, 81.4% of students had not used any tobacco or vapor product in the p30d, and 86.2% had not vaped in the p30d. Among all students, of the 13.8% vaped in the p30d, just over half vaped on ≤5 days (7.0%), and roughly a quarter each vaped on 6-19 days (3.2%) and on 20+ days (3.6%). Almost three quarters of p30d vapers (9.9%) reported past or concurrent tobacco use and the remainder (3.9%) were tobacco naïve. 2.8% of students were tobacco naïve and vaped on ≤5 days; 0.7% were tobacco-naïve and vaped on 6-19 days, and 0.4% were tobacco-naïve and vaped on 20+ days. CONCLUSIONS: Vaping increased among US youth in 2018 over 2017. The increases are characterized by patterns of low p30d vaping frequency and high poly-product use, and a low prevalence of vaping among more frequent but tobacco naïve vapers. IMPLICATIONS: Results underscore the importance of including the full context of use patterns. The majority of vapers (60.0% - 88.9% by use frequency) were concurrent p30d or ever tobacco users. About 4% of students were tobacco naïve and vaped in the p30d, but few (0.4%) vaped regularly on 20 or more days. Reporting youth vaping data with frequency and tobacco product co-use will give public health decision-makers the best possible information to protect public health.

2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S91-S100, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867640

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pervasive misperceptions about nicotine may influence uptake of quit smoking aids and the impact of policies addressing nicotine as a tobacco product constituent. METHODS: Latent class analyses were conducted using four items on nicotine beliefs asked of 4037 adults aged 18-40 in wave 9 (February-March 2016) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study. Confirmatory factor analyses identified three factors from 12 items: nicotine susceptibility (NSUS), nicotine severity (NSEV), and tobacco severity (TSEV). Analyses assessed correlations between latent classes, sociodemographics, and nicotine/tobacco factor scores. RESULTS: A four-class model of nicotine beliefs was the best fit, with the largest class believing that nicotine plays a major part in smoking risks (class 1, n = 2070; 52%). Class 2 shared that belief but also responded "Don't know" to addiction questions (class 2, n = 382; 11%). Fewer belonged in class 3, who reported that nicotine plays a small part in health risks (n = 1277; 30%), and class 4, who perceived nicotine as not cancer causing (n = 308; 7%). Latent class membership was correlated with sociodemographics, peer smoking, and past 30-day tobacco use. Classes 1 and 2 had similar NSUS scores and classes 3 and 4 had similar NSEV and TSEV scores. DISCUSSION: Differences in the perceptions of nicotine and tobacco-related harms can be partially explained by clustering of underlying nicotine beliefs. These classes of beliefs are correlated with sociodemographic predictors of smoking. These findings may help to identify specific beliefs or groups to be targeted by public education efforts on nicotine. IMPLICATIONS: The current study supports that underlying nicotine beliefs are associated with perceived harms of specific nicotine and tobacco products (relative to cigarettes), with greater false beliefs about nicotine correlated with greater perceived susceptibility to nicotine addiction. Two important inferences emerge from this study: first, that education to address nicotine beliefs may also reframe perceptions of the harms of nicotine and tobacco products; and second, that this type of education may differentially impact perceptions of the harms of nicotine products (e.g., nicotine replacement therapy and e-cigarettes) and tobacco products (e.g., cigars, smokeless, and hookah).


Asunto(s)
Nicotina , Fumadores , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
3.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S117-S124, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867656

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The Food and Drug Administration announced intent to reduce the nicotine content in cigarettes. There is limited evidence on how reduced nicotine content cigarette (RNC) marketing affects product beliefs and use, and research on this is needed to inform regulations. METHODS: In an online experiment, 426 young adult cigarette smokers (aged 18-30 years) were randomized in a 2 (implicit: red package vs. blue package) × 2 (explicit: corrective message vs. no corrective message) design to view an advertisement for previously commercially available RNCs. Outcomes were advertisement content recall, product beliefs, and use intentions. Participants' responses to open-ended assessment of their beliefs about the stimuli were coded to identify prevailing themes. RESULTS: Red packaging and corrective messaging were independently associated with greater advertisement content recall (p = .01 and p = .04, respectively). There were no significant main or interaction effects on product beliefs or use intentions. Controlling for condition, advertisement content recall was significantly associated with less favorable product beliefs (p < .001) and favorable product beliefs were associated with intent to use the product (p < .001). Open-ended responses converged on the finding that respondents were interested in RNCs, but expressed skepticism about effectiveness and value. CONCLUSIONS: Brief exposure to an RNC advertisement with red packaging and corrective messaging were each independently associated with greater advertisement content recall. The results indicate: (1) interest and confusion among young adult smokers regarding RNCs, (2) beliefs about RNCs are influenced by marketing, and (3) beliefs are associated with intention to use RNCs. IMPLICATIONS: Findings from this study demonstrate the importance of advertising effects on beliefs about RNC products and support the need to regulate advertising and labeling alongside product regulation. More detailed study of advertisement features that affect consumers' beliefs about RNCs and how they impact their processing of explicit messaging about product risks will be important to guide regulatory decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Mercadotecnía , Nicotina , Fumadores , Productos de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Embalaje de Productos , Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Adulto Joven
4.
Addict Behav ; 98: 106020, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238235

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Nicotine is not a human carcinogen and combustion compounds in tobacco smoke, rather than nicotine, cause tobacco-related cardiovascular disease. Few recent studies examine the public's beliefs about nicotine in relation to smoking. METHODS: Participants aged 18-40 (n = 4,091) in Wave 10 (Fall 2016) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study responded to nineteen items on nicotine and nicotine product perceptions, including addictiveness and health harms of nicotine patch/gum and e-cigarettes compared to cigarettes. Analyses conducted in 2018 examined prevalence of perceptions and sociodemographic and tobacco use correlates of selected perceptions. RESULTS: The majority of young adults reported that nicotine was responsible for a "relatively" or "very large" part of the health risks (66%) and cancer (60%) caused by smoking. More than half of young adults (55%) believed that nicotine is a cause of cancer. Between 23% and 43% of young adults responded "don't know" to items on nicotine. Females, blacks, Hispanics, and those with less than some college education were more likely to report true or "don't know" vs. false to "nicotine is a cause of cancer" and had higher odds of believing that nicotine was responsible for a "relatively" or "very large" part of the health risks of smoking and cancer caused by smoking. Past 30-day tobacco users had lower odds of reporting these beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Misperceptions of nicotine are widespread in young adults. Public education is needed to maximize the public health impact of FDA's required nicotine warning label and proposed nicotine reduction policies.

5.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 82: 25-35, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129371

RESUMEN

Lung cancer mortality can be reduced by 20% via low dose CT lung cancer screening (LCS) and treatment of early-stage disease. Providing tobacco use treatment to high risk cigarette smokers in the LCS setting may result in health benefits beyond the impact of LCS. As one of the nine trials in the National Cancer Institute's Smoking Cessation at Lung Examination (SCALE) collaboration, the goal of the Lung Screening, Tobacco, and Health (LSTH) trial is to develop a scalable and cost-effective cessation intervention for subsequent implementation by LCS programs. Guided by the RE-AIM Framework, the LSTH trial is a two-arm RCT (N = 1330) enrolling English- and Spanish-speaking smokers registered for LCS at one of seven collaborating sites. Participants are randomly assigned to Usual Care (UC; three proactive telephone counseling sessions/two weeks of nicotine patches) vs. Intensive Telephone Counseling (ITC; eight proactive sessions/eight weeks of nicotine patches, plus discussion of the LCS results to increase motivation to quit). Telephone counseling is provided by tobacco treatment specialists. To increase continuity of care, referring physicians are notified of participant enrollment and smoking status following the intervention. Outcomes include: 1) self-reported 7-day, 30-day, and sustained abstinence, and biochemically-verified at 3-, 6-, and 12-months post-randomization, 2) reach and engagement of the interventions, and 3) cost-effectiveness of the interventions. The Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET) will model long-term impacts of six SCALE trials on the cost per life year saved, quality-adjusted life years saved, lung cancer mortality reduction, and population mortality. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at clinical trials.gov: NCT03200236.

6.
Prev Med ; 120: 158-159, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738502

RESUMEN

This Letter to the Editor is in response to a letter from Ms. Flannery, titled, "Disregarding the impact of nicotine on the developing brain when evaluating costs and benefits of noncombustible nicotine products". In our response, we address some concerns raised by Ms. Flannery, and reiterate our position in our original article. In particular, we underline the importance of a rational public health calculus that weighs beneficial and harmful consequences of policies related to noncombustible nicotine product (NNP) use. We further emphasize the need to correct misperceptions about relative risk of different products to encourage smokers to switch to NNPs. Lastly, we are explicit about our assertion that no use of any nicotine-containing products is the only way to avoid harm at any age, but that we must view this issue pragmatically for the benefit of public health.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Productos de Tabaco , Encéfalo , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Reducción del Daño , Humanos , Nicotina , Humo
7.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210323, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633744

RESUMEN

Latino smokers in the United States (US) are known to experience smoking cessation treatment disparities due to their under-utilization of services, limited access to health care, and poor smoking cessation treatment outcomes. A limited number of studies have focused on developing and testing smoking cessation treatments for Latino smokers in the US. The objectives of this study were to conduct a feasibility pilot randomized trial testing three smoking cessation interventions for Latinos. Twenty-five adult Latino smokers were randomized to one of three groups: Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation plus Adherence Enhancement (CT+AE), Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation (CTSC), and a Health Education (HE) control group. All participants received three counseling sessions along with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Data relating to intervention acceptability and NRT adherence were collected. Self-reported 7-day point prevalence smoking was collected at 3 and 6 month follow-up and biochemically verified with expired carbon monoxide testing. Overall, the interventions demonstrated high levels of feasibility and acceptability. Days of nicotine patch use were found to be higher in the CT+AE group (mean (M) = 81.3;standard deviation (SD) = 3.32) than the CTSC (M = 68.6;SD = 13.66) and HE (M = 64;SD = 17.70) groups. At 3-month follow-up, approximately 50% of the CT+AE group were smoking abstinent, 25% of the CTSC group, and 44% of the HE group. At 6-month follow-up, 37.5% of the CT+AE group were abstinent, 25% of the CTSC group, and 44.4% of the HE group. This study is the first to target Latino smokers in the US with a culturally-tailored intervention that addresses treatment adherence. Results support the preliminary feasibility and acceptability of the CT+AE intervention. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02596711.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Consejo , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Educación en Salud , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cooperación del Paciente , Proyectos Piloto , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco
8.
Addict Behav ; 91: 51-60, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473246

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Improved understanding of the distribution of traditional risk factors of cigarette smoking among youth who have ever used or are susceptible to e-cigarettes and cigarettes will inform future longitudinal studies examining transitions in use. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted using data from youth (ages 12-17 years) who had ever heard of e-cigarettes at baseline of the PATH Study (n = 12,460) to compare the distribution of risk factors for cigarette smoking among seven mutually exclusive groups based on ever cigarette/e-cigarette use and susceptibility status. RESULTS: Compared to committed never users, youth susceptible to e-cigarettes, cigarettes, or both had increasing odds of risk factors for cigarette smoking, with those susceptible to both products at highest risk, followed by cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Compared to e-cigarette only users, dual users had higher odds of nearly all risk factors (aOR range = 1.6-6.8) and cigarette only smokers had higher odds of other (non-e-cigarette) tobacco use (aOR range = 1.5-2.3), marijuana use (aOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.4-2.5), a high GAIN substance use score (aOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.1-3.4), low academic achievement (aOR range = 1.6-3.4), and exposure to smoking (aOR range = 1.8-2.1). No differences were observed for externalizing factors (depression, anxiety, etc.), sensation seeking, or household use of non-cigarette tobacco. CONCLUSIONS: Among ever cigarette and e-cigarette users, dual users had higher odds of reporting traditional risk factors for smoking, followed by single product cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users. Understanding how e-cigarette and cigarette users differ may inform youth tobacco use prevention efforts and advise future studies assessing probability of progression of cigarette and e-cigarette use.

9.
Health Commun ; 34(3): 317-324, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236529

RESUMEN

This study was a 3 (Brand: Blu, MarkTen, Vuse) by 3 (Warning Size: 20%, 30%, or 50% of advertisement surface) by 2 (Warning Background: White, Red) experimental investigation of the effects of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) warning label design features. Young adults aged 18-30 years (n = 544) were recruited online, completed demographic and tobacco use history measures, and randomized to view e-cigarette advertisements with warning labels that varied by the experimental conditions. Participants completed a task assessing self-reported visual attention to advertisements with a-priori regions of interest defined around warning labels. Warning message recall and perceived addictiveness of e-cigarettes were assessed post-exposure. Approximately half of participants reported attending to warning labels and reported attention was greater for warnings on red versus white backgrounds. Recall of the warning message content was also greater among those reporting attention to the warning label. Overall, those who viewed warnings on red backgrounds reported lower perceived addictiveness than those who viewed warnings on white backgrounds, and e-cigarette users reported lower perceived addictiveness than non-users. Among e-cigarette users, viewing warnings on white backgrounds produced perceptions more similar to non-users. Greater recall was significantly correlated with greater perceived addictiveness. This study provides some of the first evidence that e-cigarette warning label design features including size and coloring affect self-reported attention and content recall.

10.
Prev Sci ; 20(3): 377-384, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525899

RESUMEN

As adolescents cross the threshold to young adulthood, they encounter more opportunities to engage in or accelerate previously discouraged or prohibited behaviors. Young adults, therefore, are more apt to initiate cigarette smoking and, more importantly, to accelerate their use if they tried and experimented as an adolescent. Preventing the escalation and entrenchment of smoking in the young adult years is critically important to reducing tobacco's long-term health toll. However, traditional interventions for youth have focused on preventing smoking initiation, and interventions for adults have focused on smoking cessation; both have failed to address the needs of young adults. We introduce the concept of "prevescalation" to capture the need and opportunity to prevent the escalation of risk behaviors that typically occur during young adulthood, with a focus on the example of cigarette smoking. Prevescalation negates the notion that prevention has failed if tobacco experimentation occurs during adolescence and focuses on understanding and interrupting transitions between experimentation with tobacco products and established tobacco use that largely occur during young adulthood. However, since risk behaviors often co-occur in young people, the core concept of prevescalation may apply to other behaviors that co-occur and become harder to change in later adulthood. We present a new framework for conceptualizing, developing, and evaluating interventions that better fit the unique behavioral, psychosocial, and socio-environmental characteristics of the young adult years. We discuss the need to target this transitional phase, what we know about behavioral pathways and predictors of cigarette smoking, potential intervention considerations, and research challenges.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Adulto Joven
11.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 57(12): 944-954.e4, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522740

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether mental health problems predict incident use of 12 different tobacco products in a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. METHOD: This study analyzed Wave (W) 1 and W2 data from 10,533 12- to 24-year-old W1 never tobacco users in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Self-reported lifetime internalizing and externalizing symptoms were assessed at W1. Past 12-month use of cigarettes, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), traditional cigars, cigarillos, filtered cigars, pipe, hookah, snus pouches, other smokeless tobacco, bidis and kreteks (youth only), and dissolvable tobacco was assessed at W2. RESULTS: In multivariable regression analyses, high-severity W1 internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3-1.8) and externalizing (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.5) problems predicted W2 onset of any tobacco use compared to no/low/moderate severity. High-severity W1 internalizing problems predicted W2 use onset across most tobacco products. High-severity W1 externalizing problems predicted onset of any tobacco (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-1.8), cigarettes (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-2.0), ENDS (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5-2.1), and cigarillos (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.1) among youth only. CONCLUSION: Internalizing and externalizing problems predicted onset of any tobacco use. However, findings differed for internalizing and externalizing problems across tobacco products, and by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. In addition to screening for tobacco product use, health care providers should screen for a range of mental health problems as a predictor of tobacco use. Interventions addressing mental health problems may prevent youth from initiating tobacco use.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Autoinforme , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30441875

RESUMEN

More than half of adult tobacco users in the United States (U.S.) transitioned in tobacco product use between 2013⁻2014 and 2014⁻2015. We examine how characteristics of adult tobacco users in the U.S. relate to transitions in tobacco product use. Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study data were analyzed from 12,862 adult current tobacco users who participated in Wave 1 (W1, 2013⁻2014) and Wave 2 (W2, 2014⁻2015). Three types of transitions were examined-(1) adding tobacco product(s); (2) switching to non-cigarette tobacco product(s); and (3) discontinuing all tobacco use-among those currently using: (1) any tobacco product; (2) cigarettes only (i.e., exclusive cigarette); and (3) cigarettes plus another tobacco product(s) (i.e., poly-cigarette). Multinomial logistic regression analyses determined relative risk of type of transition versus no transition as a function of demographic and tobacco use characteristics. Transitions in tobacco product use among adult tobacco users were common overall, but varied among different demographic groups, including by age, sex, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and poverty level. Further, cigarette smokers with higher dependence scores were more likely to add product(s) and less likely to discontinue tobacco use compared to those with low dependence scores. That high nicotine dependence is a barrier to discontinuing tobacco use adds evidence to support policy to lower nicotine content of cigarettes and to evaluate new products for their potential to reduce cigarette use.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco/clasificación , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos de Investigación , Factores Sexuales , Sexualidad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423998

RESUMEN

In 2013⁻2014, nearly 28% of adults in the United States (U.S.) were current tobacco users with cigarettes the most common product used and with nearly 40% of tobacco users using two or more tobacco products. We describe overall change in prevalence of tobacco product use and within-person transitions in tobacco product use in the U.S. between 2013⁻2014 and 2014⁻2015 for young adults (18⁻24 years) and older adults (25+ years). Data from Wave 1 (W1, 2013⁻2014) and Wave 2 (W2, 2014⁻2015) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study were analyzed (N = 34,235). Tobacco product types were categorized into: (1) combustible (cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, hookah), (2) noncombustible (smokeless tobacco, snus pouches, dissolvable tobacco), and (3) electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Transitions for individual combustible-product types, and for single- and multiple-product use, were also considered. Overall prevalence of current tobacco use decreased from 27.6% to 26.3%. Among W1 non-tobacco users, 88.7% of young adults and 95.8% of older adults were non-tobacco users at W2. Among W1 tobacco users, 71.7% of young adults transitioned, with 20.7% discontinuing use completely, and 45.9% of older adults transitioned, with 12.5% discontinuing use completely. Continuing with/transitioning toward combustible product(s), particularly cigarettes, was more common than continuing with/transitioning toward ENDS. Tobacco use behaviors were less stable among young adults than older adults, likely reflecting greater product experimentation among young adults. Relative stability of cigarette use compared to other tobacco products (except older adult noncombustible use) demonstrates high abuse liability for cigarettes.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Tabaco sin Humo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(suppl_1): S48-S54, 2018 08 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125012

RESUMEN

Introduction: As cigarette smoking has decreased among youth and young adults (YAs) in the United States, the prevalence of other tobacco and nicotine product use has increased. Methods: This study identified common past 30-day patterns of tobacco and nicotine product use in youth (grades 6-12) and YAs (aged 18-24). Using data from the 2011-2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) and corresponding years of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study (TIYAC), past 30-day use of the following products was assessed: cigarettes, e-cigarettes, any type of cigar, smokeless tobacco, hookah, and other tobacco products (pipe, bidis, kreteks, dissolvable tobacco, and snus). A user-generated program in R was used to assess all possible combinations of product-specific and polytobacco use. Results: The top five patterns of past 30-day use in youth were exclusive cigarette use (12.0%), exclusive cigar use (10.3%), exclusive e-cigarette use (10.0%), dual use of cigarettes and cigars (6.1%), and exclusive hookah use (5.2%). In YAs, the top five patterns were exclusive cigarette use (46.5%), exclusive cigar use (10.0%), dual use of cigarettes and cigars (6.4%), exclusive hookah use (5.9%), and dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes (3.9%). Conclusions: As noncigarette tobacco and nicotine products become increasingly popular among tobacco users, further research is needed to identify predictors and correlates of specific tobacco use patterns in youth and YAs. This analysis can inform tobacco prevention efforts focusing on emerging tobacco products such as e-cigarettes and hookah. Educational and other intervention efforts should focus on the diversity of products and use patterns in these age groups. Implications: This study uses population-based data to provide new information on the most prevalent patterns of past 30-day nicotine and tobacco use over a 5-year period among youth and young adults. Study findings demonstrate that youth and young adults report using tobacco and nicotine products in different combinations, with varying popularity over time. Additionally, by examining young adults as a separate group, this study highlights the unique patterns of use not previously discussed in the adult literature.


Asunto(s)
Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Productos de Tabaco/clasificación , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 191: 25-36, 2018 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077053

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While evidence suggests bidirectional associations between cigarette use and substance (alcohol or drug) use, how these associations are reflected across the range of currently available tobacco products is unknown. This study examined whether ever tobacco use predicted subsequent substance use, and ever substance use predicted subsequent tobacco use among 11,996 U.S. youth (12-17 years) from Waves 1 (2013-2014) and 2 (2014-2015) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. METHODS: Ever use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, traditional cigars, cigarillos, filtered cigars, pipe, hookah, snus pouches, smokeless tobacco excluding snus pouches, dissolvable tobacco, bidis, kreteks, alcohol, marijuana, prescription drugs, and other drugs (cocaine and other stimulants, heroin, inhalants, solvents, and hallucinogens) was assessed at Wave 1 followed by past 12-month use assessments at Wave 2. The analyses included covariates (demographics, mental health, sensation seeking, prior use) to mitigate confounding. RESULTS: Ever tobacco use predicted subsequent substance use. The magnitude of the associations was lowest for alcohol, higher for marijuana, and highest for other drugs. Ever substance use also predicted subsequent tobacco use. Specifically, ever alcohol, marijuana, and non-prescribed Ritalin/Adderall use predicted tobacco-product use. Ever e-cigarette and cigarette use exclusively and concurrently predicted subsequent any drug (including and excluding alcohol) use. E-cigarette and cigarette use associations in the opposite direction were also significant; the strongest associations were observed for exclusive cigarette use. CONCLUSION: Tobacco and substance use prevention efforts may benefit from comprehensive screening and interventions across tobacco products, alcohol, and drugs, and targeting risk factors shared across substances.


Asunto(s)
Vigilancia de la Población , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Tabaquismo/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/tendencias , Adolescente , Niño , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Tabaquismo/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
16.
Prev Med ; 117: 88-97, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944902

RESUMEN

Tobacco control has made strides in prevention and cessation, but deaths will not decline rapidly without massive behavior change. Currently, inhaled smoke from combusting tobacco is chiefly responsible for prematurely killing 7.2 million people worldwide and 530,000 in the United States annually. An array of noncombustible nicotine products (NNPs) has emerged and has disrupted the marketplace. Saving lives more speedily will require societal acceptance of locating a "sweet spot" within a three-dimensional framework where NNPs are simultaneously: 1. Less toxic, 2. Appealing (can reach smokers at scale), and 3. Satisfying (adequate nicotine delivery) to displace smoking. For this harm minimization framework to eliminate smoking, a laser focus on "smoking control" (not general tobacco control) is needed. By adopting these economically viable NNPs as part of the solution, NNPs can be smoking control's valued ally. Synthesis of the science indicates that policy and regulation can sufficiently protect youth while speeding the switch away from smoking. Despite some risks of nicotine dependence that can be mitigated but not eliminated, no credible evidence counters the assertion that NNPs will save lives if they displace smoking. But scientific evidence and advocacy has selectively exaggerated NNP harms over benefits. Accurate communication is crucial to dispel the misperception of NNPs harms and reassure smokers they can successfully replace smoking cigarettes with NNPs. Saving more lives now is an attainable and pragmatic way to call for alignment of all stakeholders and factions within traditional tobacco control rather than perpetuate the unrealized and unrealizable perfection of nicotine prohibition.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/métodos , Reducción del Daño , Nicotina/administración & dosificación , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Humanos , Fumadores/psicología , Fumar/efectos adversos , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos
18.
Annu Rev Public Health ; 39: 193-213, 2018 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323611

RESUMEN

Inhalation of the toxic smoke produced by combusting tobacco products, primarily cigarettes, is the overwhelming cause of tobacco-related disease and death in the United States and globally. A diverse class of alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS) has recently been developed that do not combust tobacco and are substantially less harmful than cigarettes. ANDS have the potential to disrupt the 120-year dominance of the cigarette and challenge the field on how the tobacco pandemic could be reversed if nicotine is decoupled from lethal inhaled smoke. ANDS may provide a means to compete with, and even replace, combusted cigarette use, saving more lives more rapidly than previously possible. On the basis of the scientific evidence on ANDS, we explore benefits and harms to public health to guide practice, policy, and regulation. A reframing of societal nicotine use through the lens of harm minimization is an extraordinary opportunity to enhance the impact of tobacco control efforts.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/efectos adversos , Reducción del Daño , Vapeo/epidemiología , Humanos , Nicotina/efectos adversos , Salud Pública , Tabaco/efectos adversos , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Estados Unidos , Vapeo/efectos adversos
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 1(8): e185937, 2018 12 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646298

RESUMEN

Importance: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing. Measures of exposure to known tobacco-related toxicants among e-cigarette users will inform potential health risks to individual product users. Objectives: To estimate concentrations of tobacco-related toxicants among e-cigarette users and compare these biomarker concentrations with those observed in combustible cigarette users, dual users, and never tobacco users. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based, longitudinal cohort study was conducted in the United States in 2013-2014. Cross-sectional analysis was performed between November 4, 2016, and October 5, 2017, of biomarkers of exposure to tobacco-related toxicants collected by the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Participants included adults who provided a urine sample and data on tobacco use (N = 5105). Exposures: The primary exposure was tobacco use, including current exclusive e-cigarette users (n = 247), current exclusive cigarette smokers (n = 2411), and users of both products (dual users) (n = 792) compared with never tobacco users (n = 1655). Main Outcomes and Measures: Geometric mean concentrations of 50 individual biomarkers from 5 major classes of tobacco product constituents were measured: nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results: Of the 5105 participants, most were aged 35 to 54 years (weighted percentage, 38%; 95% CI, 35%-40%), women (60%; 95% CI, 59%-62%), and non-Hispanic white (61%; 95% CI, 58%-64%). Compared with exclusive e-cigarette users, never users had 19% to 81% significantly lower concentrations of biomarkers of exposure to nicotine, TSNAs, some metals (eg, cadmium and lead), and some VOCs (including acrylonitrile). Exclusive e-cigarette users showed 10% to 98% significantly lower concentrations of biomarkers of exposure, including TSNAs, PAHs, most VOCs, and nicotine, compared with exclusive cigarette smokers; concentrations were comparable for metals and 3 VOCs. Exclusive cigarette users showed 10% to 36% lower concentrations of several biomarkers than dual users. Frequency of cigarette use among dual users was positively correlated with nicotine and toxicant exposure. Conclusions and Relevance: Exclusive use of e-cigarettes appears to result in measurable exposure to known tobacco-related toxicants, generally at lower levels than cigarette smoking. Toxicant exposure is greatest among dual users, and frequency of combustible cigarette use is positively correlated with tobacco toxicant concentration. These findings provide evidence that using combusted tobacco cigarettes alone or in combination with e-cigarettes is associated with higher concentrations of potentially harmful tobacco constituents in comparison with using e-cigarettes alone.


Asunto(s)
Exposición por Inhalación/análisis , Nicotina/orina , Nitrosaminas/orina , Fumar , Vapeo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/orina , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Metales/orina , Persona de Mediana Edad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/orina , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/orina , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/orina
20.
Addict Biol ; 23(5): 1189-1199, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877410

RESUMEN

It has been hypothesized that neural reactivity to drug cues in certain limbic/paralimbic regions of the brain is an indicator of addiction severity and a marker for likelihood of success in treatment. To address this question, in the current study, 32 participants (44 percent female) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging cigarette cue exposure paradigm 2 hours after smoking, and then enrolled in a 9-week smoking cessation treatment program. Neural activation to smoking cues was measured in five a priori defined limbic/paralimbic regions previously implicated with cue reactivity across substances. These included regions of the ventral striatum, anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala. Cox proportional hazard modeling was conducted to predict the number of days to first smoking lapse by using neural activation in these regions. Greater neural activation during pre-treatment exposure to smoking cues in the right ventral striatum, the left amygdala, and the anterior cingulate was associated with longer periods of abstinence following cessation. A similar pattern was present for continuous abstinence for the full duration of treatment. While baseline levels of nicotine dependence were strongly associated with treatment outcome, activation in the right ventral striatum predicted duration of abstinence beyond level of nicotine dependence. These results suggest that pre-treatment reactivity to smoking cues in areas associated with cue reactivity may be associated with successfully maintaining abstinence during treatment. This is consistent with models that propose that as addiction becomes more severe, motivational processing shifts from regions that subserve reward salience and learning to regions responsible motor behavior and habit learning.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Fumar Cigarrillos/terapia , Señales (Psicología) , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Mapeo Encefálico/métodos , Fumar Cigarrillos/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación/efectos de los fármacos , Vías Nerviosas/diagnóstico por imagen , Vías Nerviosas/fisiopatología , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Recurrencia , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
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