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1.
Kardiologiia ; 59(11): 21-30, 2019 Dec 11.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849296

RESUMEN

Background Long-term secondary preventive programs in coronary heart disease (CHD) are of highest efficacy but numerous logistical problems often compromise their implementation. Contemporary remote technologies have a potential to overcome these barriers. AIM: To assess  the impact of 2 preventive counselling programs with subsequent remote support in CHD patients with concomitant obesity. METHODS: A prospective randomized parallel-group study in 120 stable CHD patients hospitalized for elective coronary revascularization who were from 40 to 65 years old and had concomitant obesity. Patients were randomized (1:1:1) into 3 groups (n=40 each). Before discharge, Groups 1 and 2 received a single-session comprehensive counselling with focus on diet followed by remote counselling by phone (Group 1) or via text messages (Group 2). Remote counselling was delivered weekly (Months 1-3) and then monthly (Months 4-6). Group 3 received only standard advice from their attending physicians. The patients were followed for 12 months with assessment of adiposity measures, self-reported dietary patterns, physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), smoking status, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, as well as of clinical events. RESULTS: At 1 year of follow-up, the patients from both intervention groups showed a marked improvement of several risk factors including obesity: the body mass index was reduced by 1.48±0.13 kg/m² in Group 1 and by 1.53±0.18 kg/m² in Group 2; the waist circumference went down by 7.62±0.49 and by 7.41±0.74 cm, respectively; the height-normalized fat mass decreased by 4.66±0.40 kg and 5.98±0.63 kg, respectively (all P values are <0.01 vs corresponding changes in the control group). These changes were coupled with more healthy dietary patterns and less sedentary lifestyles in both intervention groups: the proportion of patients with low activity level fell from 87.5% to 2.5% in Group 1 and from 80% to 10% in Group 2 (both p values <0.01 vs control). In Group 1, BP decreased by 18.08±2.20 mmHg (systolic) and 8.56±1.61 mmHg (diastolic); both р values <0.01 vs Group 3. In Group 2 systolic BP dropped by only 11.95±2.50 mmHg (non-significant) and diastolic BP by 6.33±1.52 mmHg (р<0.05 vs control). The proportion of smokers went down from 30% to 5% in Group 1 and from 22.5% to 0% in Group 2 (both p values <0.01 vs control). The fasting glucose levels decreased by 0.21±0.20 mmol/L in Group 1 and by 0.48±0.25 mmol/L in Group 2 (<0.01 vs control, both), but there were no meaningful improvements in blood lipids or CRP. CONCLUSION: Long-term (6 months) secondary prevention programs incorporating remote support technologies result into sustained improvement of key secondary prevention indicators in obese CHD patients, irrespective of the support modality (by phone or via electronic messaging).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Coronaria , Obesidad Abdominal , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedad Coronaria/complicaciones , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Prevención Secundaria
2.
Kardiologiia ; 59(12): 11-19, 2019 Dec 11.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849306

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Quality of life, which is determined both by the physical symptoms and by psychosocial risk factors, is among the primary treatment goals in coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, it is reasonable to assess the impact of any therapeutic interventions in CHD on these measures. AIM: To assess the changes of psychological status and quality of life in patients with CHD and abdominal obesity (AO) over time during 2 secondary prevention programs using two different modalities of remote support. METHODS: An open-label randomized study with 3 parallel groups enrolling hospitalized patients with stable CHD and AO (most hospitalizations were due to elective revascularization procedures). The patients were randomized into 2 intervention groups (Group I and Group II) and into Group III (control). Both intervention groups received secondary prevention programs including one in-hospital preventive counselling session with focus on healthy eating habits and subsequent remote support for 6 months (Month 1 to 3: once a week; Month 4 to 6: once a month). Group I received this subsequent counselling via phone calls and Group II received text messages via different platforms according to patient preferences. Group III received standard advice at discharge only. During 1 year of follow-up motivation for lifestyle changes and continued participation in secondary prevention programs, anxiety and depression symptoms (HADS), stress levels (10-point VAS) and quality of life (HeartQol) were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients were enrolled (mean age±SD, 57.75±6.25 years; men, 83.4%) who had a high baseline motivation to participate in preventive programs. At 1 year of follow-up there was a substantial improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms in Groups I and II which was absent in Group III. As a result, the proportion of patients with HADS-A score ≥8 dropped from 45.0% to 10.0% in Group I and from 40.0% to 7.5% in Group II (both р values <0.01 vs control), and the proportion of participants with HADS-D ≥8 decreased from 30.0% to 10.0% (р<0.01 vs control) and from  12.5% to 0% (р<0.05 vs control), respectively. Stress level decreased in Groups I and II by 3.95±0.38 and 3.56±0.39 баллов, respectively (both р values <0.01 vs control). The HeartQol global score increased by 1.07±0.08 points in Group I and by 0.98±0.13 points in Group (both р values <0.01 vs control). CONCLUSION: Both secondary prevention programs with long-term remote support targeting obese CHD patients resulted in improvement of pivotal measures of their psychological status i.e. into a decline of anxiety and depression symptomatology, stress reduction and into a better quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Coronaria , Obesidad Abdominal , Anciano , Enfermedad Coronaria/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad , Obesidad Abdominal/complicaciones , Calidad de Vida , Prevención Secundaria
3.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(6): 801-804, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656004

RESUMEN

Histotopography of lymphocytes expressing bitter taste receptors of T2R family and α-gustducin (receptor-associated subunit of the G-protein complex) in mouse spleen in the norm and in 48 h after intraperitoneal administration of LPS was studied by the immunohistochemical method. Two populations of immunopositive lymphocytes expressing the above proteins were detected in the spleen; they were located in the marginal zones of lymphoid follicles and periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths. In most α-gustducin-positive lymphocytes, co-expression of α-gustducin and CD19 (B-cell marker) was found. Intraperitoneal administration of LPS significantly increased the number of gustducinergic lymphocytes in periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths. We hypothesize that spleen lymphocytes with gustducin signaling are involved in T-dependent immune response to the blood bacterial polysaccharides.

4.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(5): 628-633, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628553

RESUMEN

The accumulation of lipofuscin-like granules in liver, kidneys, and spleen cells in mice and rats of different lines receiving 30% sugar solutions (fructose, glucose, their mixture, and sucrose) in addition to balanced semisynthetic diet for 62 or 122 days was studied by the method of laser scanning confocal microscopy. The granules were detected by their autofluorescence at maximum λex =570-600 nm and λex=488 nm. In the kidneys of rats receiving glucose and, especially, the mixture of glucose and fructose, significant accumulation of lipofuscin-like granules was found that was absent in the control group animals receiving water. Intensive accumulation of the granules was observed in the kidneys of all groups of mice receiving sugars (except for glucose). Lipofuscin-like granules were located in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the distal and proximal convoluted tubules. In the liver of rats and mice, the signs of accumulation of lipofuscin-like granules were absent or minimal. In rat spleen, lipofuscinlike granules were found in the red pulp in all groups, but their accumulation significantly increased in animals receiving the diet enriched with glucose and sucrose.

5.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(5): 698-701, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630301

RESUMEN

The expression of JNK1 isoform of cJun-N-terminal kinase in hepatocytes of rats receiving excess of simple carbohydrates dissolved in drinking water was studied by immunohisto-chemical staining and confocal microscopy. In experiment I (60 days), the highest expression of JNK1 was observed in female Wistar rats receiving fructose (the difference with the group receiving a mixture of glucose and fructose was significant, p<0.05, the difference with the control group at the trend level, p=0.077; Mann-Whitney U test). In experiment II (120 days), an increase in JNK1 expression was observed in Wistar rats (males and females) receiving 30% fructose. In Dark Aguti rats (females and males) of comparable age, increased basal level of JNK1 expression was observed in comparison with Wistar rats. Three-way ANOVA showed that JNK1 expression was significantly (p<0.05) associated with consumption of fructose and animal line, but not sex. The level of JNK1 expression corresponded to previously identified changes in the biochemical markers of the metabolic syndrome.

6.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(4): 533-535, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502125

RESUMEN

A model of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia associated with mechanical injury of the musculoskeletal system was developed and experimentally substantiated. The adequacy of this model for studies of morphological and functional regularities is verified. This model can be used for the development of a new concept of evaluation of thrombotic complications of mechanical injury.

7.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(2): 50-57, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233688

RESUMEN

Increasing the adaptive capacity of professional athletes depends on proper nutrition, especially in training and competitions' period. In this regard, it is relevant to study the actual nutrition and assess its compliance with the energy expenditure of athletes. The aim - to study the actual nutrition and energy expenditure of athletes from male water polo national team of the Russian Federation in the competitive period. Material and methods. In March 2018, 15 highly skilled sportsmen-men engaged in water polo were examined; qualification - 11 masters of sports, 4 candidates for the master of sports; Slavic ethnos. The average age was 23.1±0.6 years. The actual nutrition was studied by a 24-hour food record method and by the frequency method. The anthropometric examination was carried out according to a unified method using standard medical scales, a medical height meter and a rubberized measuring tape. Measurement of energy expenditure and heart rate at rest and under load was performed on a bicycle ergometer using an wireless ergospirometer and a chest pulse meter. Results and discussion. The determination of daily energy expenditure in athletes of the men's Russian national water polo team showed that the average value was 4350±129 kcal. А peculiar feature of the diet of water polo players is its high caloric value (5165±539 kcal/day), caused by energy expenditure during physical exertion and additional thermogenesis in conditions of long training in water. Excessive (1.5 times in comparison with the recommended values) consumption of fats, including saturated fatty acids by 1.3 times, added sugar and added salt is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, diseases of digestive organs, endocrine system, including type 2 diabetes. Low values of consumption of vegetables and fruits, dairy products, fish products and high levels of sugar and confectionery have been established. Conclusion. The imbalance of diets on two basic nutrients (fats, carbohydrates) has been revealed. The data obtained were the basis for the formation of individual recommendations on nutrition for each athlete, taking into account athletes' metabolic parameters and the level of physical activity. It is necessary to continue studies of anthropometric indices in dynamics for the most adequate assessment of the compliance of actual nutrition with energy consumption, and further correction of the diet in order to improve athletes' performance.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Ingestión de Energía , Metabolismo Energético , Estado Nutricional , Deportes Acuáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 167(2): 255-258, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236877

RESUMEN

The safety of Grippol vaccine was assessed by macro- and microscopic methods in the experiment. The morphological features of group lymphoid nodules of the small intestine were studied on days 4, 7, 14 and 30 after vaccination. The structural morphological dynamics of lymphoid tissue under these conditions is shown. Because of the use of the vaccine, the lymphocytopoietic processes in the body are activated, which indicates the formation of an immune response.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/uso terapéutico , Intestino Delgado/inmunología , Animales , Masculino , Ratones , Vacunación/métodos
9.
Ter Arkh ; 91(2): 118-125, 2019 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094182

RESUMEN

Aim - analysis of data on the role of vitamin and carotenoid deficiency in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS), the consumption of individual vitamins and vitamin supplements, as well as estimation of the effectiveness of the use of vitamins in patients with MS. A review of the existing literature has been carried out in the databases of RINC, CyberLeninka, Google Scholar, Pubmed. The lack of vitamins is a risk factor for MS and its components. The diet of people with MS is characterized by excessive caloric content and at the same time contains an inadequate amount of most vitamins. The most frequent in patients with MS is the deficiency (blood level) of vitamin D, E, B vitamins, carotenoids. Among patients with MS, individuals with a reduced concentration of vitamins in the blood plasma are often found. In turn, among those with a deficiency of vitamins, MS is more often found. Low concentrations of 25(OH)D in the serum are associated with an increased risk of MS. An inverse association between the concentration of the hormonal form of vitamin 1.25(OH)2D3 in the serum and the development of MC has been found. In patients with MS, the α-tocopherol concentration associated with lipids is lower than in healthy individuals, and γ-tocopherol, on the contrary, is higher. Taking high doses of one of the vitamin E homologues shifts the balance between tocopherols in the blood plasma. Sufficient supply of the body with all vitamins involved in the formation of metabolically active forms of vitamins (D, B6, PP) is a necessary condition for the exercise of these biological functions by these vitamins. The lack of vitamins is a risk factor for MS and its components. Enrichment of the diet of patients with MS should be considered as a necessary favorable background for its treatment. Since the body has functional connections between vitamins, it is advisable to use not individual vitamins, but their complexes.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Tocoferoles/administración & dosificación , Complejo Vitamínico B/administración & dosificación , Vitamina E/administración & dosificación , Carotenoides , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/complicaciones , Vitamina E/sangre , Deficiencia de Vitamina E/complicaciones
10.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 166(5): 689-694, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903493

RESUMEN

We studied dynamic changes in the total number of cardiomyocytes and the character of structural lesions in the myocardium in rats with modeled anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy provoked by a single injection of doxorubicin in a dose of 10 mg/kg alone or in combination with subsequent adrenergic stimulation. The injections of epinephrine during the development of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy resulted in more pronounced loss of body weight, stronger decrement of the heart weight, and more severe decrease of the cardiomyocyte count in comparison with the corresponding changes induced by doxorubicin alone. The basic lesions of cardiomyocytes in anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy are the lytic alterations and subsegmental contractures; in contrast, combined use of doxorubicin and epinephrine provoked degree II and III contractures. The revealed necrobiotic changes of cardiomyocytes resulted in their death and pronounced decrease of their number at the initial terms of the study. Hypertrophy observed at later terms of the experiments in parallel with partial recovery of cardiomyocyte number reflected the development of regenerative and adaptivecompensatory processes induced by massive death and elimination of the parenchymatous cells (up to 36-37% of population).


Asunto(s)
Antraciclinas/toxicidad , Cardiomiopatías/inducido químicamente , Cardiomiopatías/patología , Miocardio/citología , Animales , Doxorrubicina/farmacología , Masculino , Miocitos Cardíacos/citología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
11.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(1): 26-40, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811131

RESUMEN

The organs of the digestive system experience high sensitivity to the orbital flight factors and may limit the implementation of the professional activities of crews on International space station. The connective tissue as a system-forming matrix of the integrative and buffering metabolic environment has a particular importance in the space biomedicine because it provides the inner organ functionality in the conditions of changing level of the gravitational incentive. Aim - to study the adaptive mechanisms of the fibrous component of the extracellular matrix of the connective tissue of stomach and intestines on the effect of prolonged microgravity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using histochemical methods the condition of collagen fibers of a specific tissue microenvironment of the membranes of stomach and intestines of C57BL/6N mice (58 males with an initial body weight of 27.1±0.7 g) after a 30-day space flight and the following 7-day land readaptation was studied as well as in the animals representing corresponding control groups. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Laboratory animal presence on the biosatellite «BION-M¼ No. 1 has led to the fibrous reduction of extracellular matrix of connective tissue in the studied organs of digestive system structure except for the proper lamina of the gastric mucous membrane. Fibrillogenesis increase in the gastrointestinal tract in comparison with the indicators of space flight animal group has been found after 7 days of the biosatellite landing. The collagen fibers were not characterized by the significance change from the vivarium control group during the experiment with the land modelling of orbital flight conditions. CONCLUSION: The obtained results represent the evidence of fibrous structure gravity sensitivity of extracellular matrix of the connective tissue and show the relevance in the sphere of preventive measure improvement of the digestive system organs in the profession of astronauts in the orbital flight conditions.


Asunto(s)
Colágeno/metabolismo , Tejido Conectivo/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Intestinos , Vuelo Espacial , Estómago , Animales , Masculino , Ratones , Factores de Tiempo
12.
Vopr Pitan ; 87(1): 79-84, 2018.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592845

RESUMEN

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: studying of features of nutrition in elderly patients with removable stomatologic orthopedic constructions. 1388 patients aged from 60 up to 75 years which addressed in a city dental out-patient department were examined. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1 - the persons having only fixed stomatologic orthopedic constructions (n=419); group 2 - the persons having at least one partially removable stomatologic orthopedic construction and not having full-removable orthopedic constructions (n=512); group 3 - the persons having at least one full-removable stomatologic orthopedic construction (n=457). Patients were interviewed about nutrition features (frequency of consumption). Anthropometric researches were conducted. There were 2.2 and 1.3 fold more persons in group 3 with a concomitant increase in waist circumference and waist-hip ratio compared to groups 1 and 2 (p=0.0013). Persons from group 3 consumed meat significantly less often than patients in groups 1 and 2. A similar trend was observed for meat products, vegetables and fruits (p<0.05). Compared to patients in groups 1 and 2, patients from group 3 more often consumed cereals, potatoes, rice, pasta, as well as sauces, mayonnaises, margarines. All examined elderly patients rarely consumed fish and seafood (76.0-89.9% persons consumed once a month and less often).


Asunto(s)
Prótesis Dental , Preferencias Alimentarias , Encuestas Nutricionales , Estado Nutricional , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
13.
Vopr Pitan ; 87(1): 98-108, 2018.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592848

RESUMEN

Specialized sports nutrition is one of the most important factors in the extension of the functional potential of athletes, providing adaptive resistance to physical stress, which determines the high physical performance and prolongs athletic longevity of the athletes. The study involved 30 skiers-racers (the average age of 19.5±1.8 years). 12 skiers of the main group within 21 days consumed a specialized food product, obtained on the basis of fermented milk whey containing amino acids, several vitamins, minerals and trace elements, live culture of lactic acid bacteria: L. lactis, L. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus (1.2×108 CFU/cm3). The control group consisted of 18 skiers, those taking the placebo (food starch of the same consistency). After a course of product intake, blood level of hemoglobin increased by 6%, of leukocytes - by 10% due to an increase in the number of granulocytes by 32%, and segmented neutrophils by 16% (p<0.05), there was a tendency to increase the number of red blood cells by 7% with a significant decrease in lymphocyte count by 19%. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate in blood of the skiers from the comparison group increased by 41% (p<0.05), while in the athletes of the main group it decreased by 16% (p>0.05). After product intake it has been established by the method of laser Doppler flowmetry that there was a tendency to increase blood perfusion by 15%, a statistically reliable increase in the flux by 53%, which is based on the improvement of the internal mechanisms of microcirculation regulation. According to the mathematical analysis of cardiac rhythm, centralization of regulation decreased while the activity of an autonomous mechanism for controlling the work of the heart increased. The revealed functional changes ensured an increase of absolute (by 31%, p<0.05) and relative (by 33%, p<0.05) physical performance and aerobic endurance of skiers, contributed to the improvement of short-term memory. The conclusion is made about the expediency of the intake of the specialized food product to enhance the adaptive capacity of athletes under the influence of systematic physical loads.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Rendimiento Atlético , Alimentos Especializados , Resistencia Física , Proteína de Suero de Leche/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Vopr Pitan ; 87(3): 36-44, 2018.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592878

RESUMEN

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the actual intake of fluids by athletes of various sports during the day with one and two training sessions before, during and after workout. The dietary intake, including consumption of various types of liquid foods and beverages, was evaluated by the method of 24-hour recall in 280 athletes of high qualification (candidates for masters and masters of sports) of both gender of various sports during the training period. It has been established that the main drink of rehydration was drinking bottled water. Bottled water was consumed on average by 86% of athletes. It was consumed by 95-96% of sportsmen from the group of single combats and power kinds, whereas in other groups the share of water consumers was less - 67-79%. In second place in terms of percentage of consuming was tea. Consumption of sports drinks was observed only during training by athletes from the group of cyclic sports (31%) and single combat (11%). Calculating the per capita fluid intake of athletes who had 2 workouts a day showed that athletes from the martial arts group consumed the largest volumes of fluid in the mode of both training sessions as compared to representatives of other sports. Athletes of other sports consumed on average less liquid in the 2nd training mode compared to the 1st one. The total fluid intake during two training sessions was maximum in the group of martial arts and was minimum in the group of complex coordination sports. It should be specially noted a small proportion of athletes who consumed specialized sports drinks - only 17% of athletes and more than half of them - cyclical sportsmen. Consumption of liquid food outside training has been observed in 76% of athletes. The mean volume of consumed liquid products varied by the user from 382 and 437 ml in complex coordination and game sports up to 504-553 ml in other sports. The daily fluid intake was maximum (2326 ml) in athletes engaged in martial arts, minimum (1009 ml) - in athletes of complex coordination sports.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Peso Corporal , Agua Potable , Bebidas Energéticas , Ingestión de Energía , Encuestas Nutricionales , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 166(1): 96-101, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417297

RESUMEN

Integral, biochemical, and morphological parameters and concentrations of vitamins, particularly lipid soluble vitamins, were analyzed in female mice of inbred DBA/2J line, outbred ICR-1 (CD-1) line, and DBCB tetrahybrid mice on the in vivo model of metabolic syndrome induced by consumption of 30% sucrose for 2 days. In contrast to inbred and outbred lines, DBCB tetrahybrid mice developed abdominal obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and pronounced morphological picture of fatty liver disease. The lipid-coupled transport of vitamin E to the liver is also enhanced in these animals, which compensated decreased supply of vitamin E to the liver under conditions of high-sugar ration. The observed interstrain differences can be related to genetic features of the used mouse lines and DBCB tetrahybrid mice and require further genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and morphological studies. The results of the study based on the in vivo model of metabolic syndrome allow identifying the key biomarkers for complex diagnostics and prognosis of metabolic syndrome complications, such as nonalcoholic steatosis of the liver.


Asunto(s)
Hígado/metabolismo , Hígado/patología , Síndrome Metabólico/metabolismo , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Hígado Graso/metabolismo , Hígado Graso/patología , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Endogámicos DBA , Proteómica/métodos , Sacarosa/efectos adversos , Sacarosa/metabolismo
16.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 166(1): 102-106, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417299

RESUMEN

We performed a complex morphological study of samples of different types of unstable atherosclerotic plaques obtained from 33 men with occlusive coronary atherosclerosis, who underwent coronary artery endarterectomy during coronary artery bypass surgery. In the samples, expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, collagen IV, CD31, CD34, factor VIII, and actin of smooth muscle cells was evaluated by morphometric and immunohistochemical methods. The maximum expression of MMP-9 was found in unstable plaques of the lipid type, where it 1.4- and 1.24-fold surpassed the corresponding levels in plaques of the inflammatory-erosive and degenerative-necrotic types. Unstable plaques of the degenerative-necrotic type are characterized by the most intensive expression of collagen IV in comparison with plaques of the inflammatory-erosive and lipid types (by 2.8 and 2.2 times, respectively). The maximum neovascularization was detected in inflammatory-erosive plaques, which was confirmed by enhanced expression of CD31 and CD34 markers in comparison with plaques of the lipid (by 7.6 and 18.95 times, respectively) and degenerative-necrotic (by 31.1 and 39.8 times) types.


Asunto(s)
Vasos Coronarios/metabolismo , Vasos Coronarios/patología , Inmunohistoquímica/métodos , Metaloproteasas/metabolismo , Neovascularización Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularización Patológica/patología , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica/patología , Anciano , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Factor VIII/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinasa 2 de la Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteasas/genética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Miocitos del Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Molécula-1 de Adhesión Celular Endotelial de Plaqueta/metabolismo
17.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 165(6): 808-812, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353328

RESUMEN

We studied the reactions of spinal ganglion neurons accompanying regeneration of the skin wound complicated by S. aureus sp. infection. The appearance of neuron groups with different morphofunctional changes was noted: reversible dystrophic and compensatory reactions and irreversible degenerative changes. The proportion of small B neurons was higher than the proportion of large type A neurons at all terms of the experiment. Application of plateletrich plasma to the wound after preliminary hydroimpulsive treatment considerably reduced cell destruction and stimulated regenerative effects in neurons starting from day 7 of the experiment. Application of platelet-rich plasma without hydroimpulsive treatment decelerated wound regeneration and increased the number of destructively changed neurons even in comparison with spontaneous wound healing. Close correlations between protein synthesis markers and stages of the wound process and its characteristics were revealed.


Asunto(s)
Ganglios Espinales/citología , Regeneración Nerviosa , Neuronas/citología , Plasma Rico en Plaquetas , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Piel/lesiones , Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología , Staphylococcus aureus , Factores de Tiempo , Cicatrización de Heridas
18.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168512

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The high level of physical activity is known to contribute to the harmonious development of children and adolescents: moreover; it is a factor promoting prevention of hypodynamia. The low level of physical activity is a risk factor for the development of many non-communicable diseases. However, physical education is not considered by many students as an attractive subject. AIM: The objective of the present study was the enhancement of the motivational aspects of physical activity for the prevention of hypodynamia among students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Physical education of the students was carried out with the use of the standard and modified methods. A total of 206 students (including 133 girls and 73 boys) at the mean age of 17.5±1.5 years were available for the examination. The study was conducted before the intervention (1st year) after the termination of the physical culture lessons envisaged by the academic curriculum (3rd year). The evaluation of the physical conditions and fitness of the students was conducted on the basis of the Russian Physical Culture and Sport Complex (GTO), bioimpedance analysis making use of the 'Medass' ABC-01 device; the functional reserves of the organism were assessed by means of hardware-software programs; the changes in food preferences were estimated on the basis of the FLLANK, questionnaire preliminarily adapted to the specific conditions of this country, and the characteristics of the metabolic processes were evaluated by laser correlation spectroscopy. RESULTS: Dynamics of the successful performance of the GTO normatives in the girls manifested itself in the in reduction of time they spent to run the 100 meter distance; the same was true for the boys who had to overcome the distance of 3000 meters. The students of both sexes became capable of increasing the number of repetitions of crunch and jumping rope exercises. The basal metabolism in the girls was increased within one year after the start of classes, and in the boys two years after the onset of the exercises; simultaneously, the positive changes in the metabolic profile were documented in the students of either sex. No adverse events related to the application of the modified training methods were recorded. CONCLUSION: An important aspect of the present study was the impact of new methods of teaching physical education on the composite body composition. The modified methods were found to shift dietary preferences and metabolic processes in the body of the students after the termination of the educational program.


Asunto(s)
Educación y Entrenamiento Físico/métodos , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Antropometría , Metabolismo Basal , Femenino , Preferencias Alimentarias , Humanos , Masculino , Aptitud Física , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Federación de Rusia , Adulto Joven
19.
Adv Gerontol ; 31(1): 147-151, 2018.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860744

RESUMEN

The purpose was to study features of a drinking regimen and signs of deficiency of magnesium at elderly patients with removable stomatologic orthopedic constructions. Questioning of 1 388 elderly patients who coming for the dentistry office. Patients were divided into three groups: the 1st was characterized by existence only of fixed stomatologic orthopedic constructions (n=419); the 2nd group was characterized by existence of partially removable constructions (n=512); the 3rd group was characterized by existence of full-removable constructions (n=457). We defined symptoms of the central obesity as rising of BMI and a circle of a waist. Patients were tested for possible deficiency of magnesium. At patients of the 3rd group have more often symptoms of the central obesity, than at the 1st and 2nd groups (52,5% against 21,5 and 41,8%, p<0.05). Patients of the 3rd group have more often signs of deficiency of magnesium, than other patients (62,3% against 11,7 and 22,3%, p<0.05). Patients of the 3rd group more often than others intake cocoa (54,1% against 5,7 and 10,4%, p<0.05), carbonated drinks (24,5% against 7,6 and 4,3%, p<0,05), hard alcoholic beverages (23% against 10 and 10,2%, p<0,05). All elderly patients extremely seldom use bottled water.


Asunto(s)
Prótesis Dental/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta de Ingestión de Líquido , Deficiencia de Magnesio/diagnóstico , Anciano , Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Bebidas Alcohólicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Cacao/efectos adversos , Bebidas Gaseosas/efectos adversos , Bebidas Gaseosas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos
20.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 165(1): 5-9, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797123

RESUMEN

We assessed the effect of intake of easily digested carbohydrates for 133 days on quantitative parameters of neuromotorics and cognitive function in Wistar rats and C57Bl/6J mice. Neuromotorics (muscle tone) was assessed in rats and mice by the forelimb muscle force (grip strength) over 4 months. Anxiety was assessed in the elevated plus-maze test and cognitive function (short-term and long-term memory) was evaluated by conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR) test over 3 months. The mice, in contrast to rats, receiving the diet with easily digested sugars demonstrated suppression of neuromotorics. Anxiety increased with age in female mice, but not in rats, irrespective of the diet. Cognitive function in rats receiving experimental rations did not change significantly in comparison with the control. In mice, consumption of equimolar mixture of fructose and glucose impared short-term, but not long-term memory, in comparison with the group receiving glucose alone. We revealed a small (by 14-17%), but statistically significant increase in the brain weight in mice receiving fructose and sucrose. The study demonstrates sufficient interspecies differences in the influence of carbohydrate rations on neuromotorics and behavioral responses in the in vivo metabolic syndrome model.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Memoria a Largo Plazo/efectos de los fármacos , Memoria a Corto Plazo/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Azúcares/farmacología , Factores de Edad , Animales , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Cognición/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Miembro Anterior/efectos de los fármacos , Síndrome Metabólico , Ratones , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Especificidad de la Especie
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