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1.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13001, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484708

RESUMEN

Background: The world has made considerable progress in the reduction of adolescent maternity and early marriage. However, this progress has been uneven, with many countries finding themselves far from achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in this dimension. We assessed levels and trends over time in adolescent marriage and maternity prevalence within the West and Central African region as well as their correlation with select macro-level indicators for income and social institutions. Methods: We estimated country-specific prevalence rates using survey data (pooled cross-sectional) conducted between 1986 and 2017. The pooled sample provides information on 262 721 adolescent girls between the ages of 15 and 19. We assessed the relative country-level trends by comparing prevalence rates from the first and latest available survey in each country. We further analyzed regional trends by country income group (low- and middle-income) and examined the association of prevalence rates with measurements of gender discrimination and social institutions at the country-level. Estimations were conducted using survey weights and country-specific weights for population shares in the pooled sample. Results: Prevalence of adolescent maternity declined from 30.1 percent (95% confidence interval (CI) = 29.6%-32.2%) in the 1990s, to 28.7 percent (95% CI = 27.9%-29.6%) in the 2000s and 26.2 percent (95% CI = 25.4%-27.1%) in the 2010s. Adolescent marriage rates decreased from 37.3 percent (95% CI = 35.5%-39.1%) in the 1990s to 27.5 percent (95% CI = 26.5%-28.6%) in the 2000s, and to 24.9 percent (95% CI = 24.1%-25.7%) in the 2010s. Between 1986 and 2017, adolescent marriage decreased in all countries except for the Central African Republic (with a rise from 39% to 55%) and Niger (56% to 61%). The prevalence of adolescent maternity decreased in all but three countries: Congo, Dem. Rep. (25% to 37%), Niger (36% to 40%), and the Central African Republic (36% to 49%). When grouped by income level, the prevalence was 8 percentage points higher in low-income countries than in middle-income countries in both outcomes. We did not establish any statisticly significant association between adolescent marriage and maternity with country-level measures of discrimination against women. However, we found evidence of an association between specific legal measures of protection against early marriage and lower prevalence rates for both early marriage and maternity. Conclusions: Despite considerable progress in the reduction of adolescent maternity and marriage over the last 30 years, current levels of both indicators remain overall high in the WCA region, with high heterogeneity across individual countries. Countries with higher income level and higher standard in legal protection of young girls perform consistently better on both indicators. The prevalence rates of adolescent marriage and maternity reversed over the course of three decades, so that nowadays adolescent maternity rates exceed adolescent marriage rates in most countries. Further research is needed to understand the weak or non-existent association between adolescent marriage and maternity with gender discrimination and social institutions.


Asunto(s)
Renta , Matrimonio , Adolescente , Adulto , África Central , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
2.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13002, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484709

RESUMEN

Background: Early marriage and maternity prevalence rates among adolescent girls remain alarmingly high in West and Central Africa (WCA). This study aims to explore the associations between socio-economic factors and the prevalence of early marriage and maternity, thus contributing to the identification of girls at risk of early pregnancy or marriage. Methods: We pooled data from national representative surveys (1986 - 2017) for 23 countries in WCA to examine associations between wealth, educational attainment, religious affiliation, and place of residence with adolescent marriage and maternity. We decomposed the wealth and education gradients for individual countries, while controlling for common characteristics of the local environment via the use of primary sampling unit fixed-effects. The pooled sample provides information on 262 721 girls (age 15-19 years). Survey weights and population share weights were used in the estimations. Results: The prevalence of adolescent maternity and marriage exhibited a wealth and education gradient. Prevalence of marriage in the poorest wealth quintile was 41.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.8%-43.5%) and 10.5% (95% CI = 9.5%-11.6%) in the richest. For maternity it was 38.3% (95% CI = 36.4%-40.3%) in the poorest quintile and 12.7% (95% CI = 11.5%-13.9%) in the richest. Marriage/maternity is three/two times more likely to occur among girls with incomplete primary or no formal education than in those with at least primary. Maternity and marriage among adolescents exhibit a geographical pattern and differences between religious groups. Adolescent marriage prevalence was 34.4% (95% CI = 32.9%-35.8%) in rural areas compared to 13.3% (95% CI = 12.3%-14.2%) in urban areas. Adolescent maternity prevalence was 32.8% (95% CI = 31.7%-33.9%) in rural compared to 16.3% (95% CI = 15.3%-17.3%) in urban areas. Finally, the prevalence of adolescent marriage was substantially higher among Muslims compared to all other religious groups. Conclusions: Our results highlight the disparities in the prevalence of adolescent marriage and maternity and confirm the existence of wealth and education gradients. These findings can help to improve targeting of vulnerable adolescents and to identify areas for policy implementation.


Asunto(s)
Matrimonio , Población Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , África Central , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
3.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13006, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484713

RESUMEN

Background: Adolescence is a highly vulnerable period of human life characterized by substantial physiological and cognitive changes for which adequate nutrition is crucial. To date, evidence on determinants, prevalence, and trends of undernutrition and anemia for the entire West and Central African region is missing. This paper provides evidence on trends and levels of adolescent anemia and undernutrition in West and Central Africa. Methods: We pooled all Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for West and Central African countries that were conducted between 1986 and 2017 to analyze levels and trends of adolescent anemia and undernutrition. We investigated the association of adolescent undernutrition and anemia within this region with World Bank income level classification of the country. Results: Our findings suggest that the regional prevalence of adolescent anemia and undernutrition remained high at 45% and 19% respectively over the last 20 years. Anemia increased in about one third of countries and undernutrition in about two thirds over the studied period. On the aggregated level, these trends are largely masked and both levels remained stable in the entire region between the years 1998 and 2017. The results of the multivariable regression analysis indicate an association of adolescence with undernutrition and anemia, which was independent of socio-economic factors such as income, education, and place of residence. Conclusion: We conclude that levels of adolescent undernutrition and anemia remain high with little progress over the last 20 years and that adolescence is a significant correlate of both anemia and undernutrition. Given the recognition of the international community that adolescent nutrition is an important public health concern in resource-poor settings, there is an urgent need to improve data availability, quality, and use for decision-making and to design successful high-impact interventions to combat adolescent malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Desnutrición , Adolescente , África Central , Anemia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Estado Nutricional , Prevalencia
4.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13007, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484714

RESUMEN

Background: Adolescence is a formative period when an individual acquires physical, cognitive, emotional, and social resources that are the foundation for later life, health, and well-being [1]. However, in West and Central African region, this trajectory is curtailed by early childbearing associated with an increased risk of undernutrition and anemia. Evidence on socio-economic determinants of anemia and undernutrition in adolescent mothers is limited. This paper aims to shed some light on this issue and, more specifically, assess the socio-economic determinants of anemia among childbearing adolescents in the region. Methods: For this observational study, we pooled data from all Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in countries in West and Central Africa region between 1986 and 2017. Outcomes were undernutrition and anemia in adolescent mothers. Predictors were education, wealth, place of residence (rural/urban), and religion. Descriptive statistics were calculated using survey weights for individual surveys and in the pooled sample each country was additionally weighted with its population share. We estimated multiple regression models with and without primary sampling unit fixed effects for both outcomes. All regressions were linear probability models. Results: Having no formal education was the strongest predictor for both anemia and undernutrition. Belonging to the richest asset quintile was also associated with lower anemia and undernutrition prevalence in some specifications. While urban location of the mother was positively associated with anemia, there was no association with undernutrition. Conclusions: Overall, having any formal education emerged as a sole strong predictor of reduced adolescent maternal undernutrition and anemia. Promotion of female education can potentially serve as a high-impact intervention to improve adolescent girls' health in the region. However, we cannot make conclusions about its causal impact based on this study alone.


Asunto(s)
Anemia , Desnutrición , Adolescente , África Central , Anemia/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Madres , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos
5.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13008, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484715

RESUMEN

Backgound: The global community recognizes the urgent need to end preventable child deaths, making it an essential part of the third Sustainable Development Goal. Pneumonia, diarrhoea, and malaria still remain the leading causes of deaths among children under five years, especially in one of the poorest geographic regions of the world - West and Central Africa. This region carries a disproportionately high share of the global burden, both in terms of morbidity and mortality. The study aims to assess levels and trends of the prevalence of these three childhood diseases in West and Central Africa to better inform ongoing and future programmes to improve child survival. Methods: Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys available from 1995 to 2017 for 23 countries in West and Central Africa were analysed. We estimated the prevalence of diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections (ARI), malaria, and fever as a proxy for malaria, and split the data into three time periods to assess these trends in disease prevalence over time. Further analyses were done to assess the variations by geographic location (urban and rural) and gender (boys and girls). Results: In West and Central Africa, the reduction of the prevalence rates of diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections, malaria, and fever has decelerated over time (1995-2009), and little improvements occurred between 2010 and 2017. The reduction within the region has been uneven and the prevalence rates either increased or stagnated for diarrhoea (nine countries), ARI (four countries), and fever (six countries). The proportion of affected children was high in emergency or fragile settings. Disaggregated analyses of population-based data show persistent gaps between the prevalence of diseases by geographic location and gender, albeit not significant for the latter. Conclusions: Without intensified commitment to reducing the prevalence of pneumonia, malaria, and diarrhoea, many countries will not be able to meet the SDG goal to end preventable child deaths. Evidence-driven programmes that focus on improving equitable access to preventive health care information and services must be fostered, especially in complex emergency settings. This will be an opportunity to strengthen primary health care, including community health programmes, to achieve universal health coverage.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , África Central , Niño , Preescolar , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/prevención & control , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/prevención & control , Masculino , Prevalencia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control
6.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13010, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484717

RESUMEN

Background: Globally, health care seeking for childhood diseases seems to be on the rise. However, progress is slow and still, many cases of infectious diseases in children remain untreated, leading to preventable child mortality. A better understanding of care seeking behaviour may help to further increase the probability that a sick child is taken to a health facility for care. Methods: We investigated whether mother's and father's age at birth of the child is associated with health care seeking behaviour for childhood diseases and how this association changed over time. For this observational study, we used repeated cross-sectional data, namely all available Demographic and Health Surveys as well as Multi-Indicator Cluster Surveys from Western and Central Africa, 1995 to 2017. We analysed care seeking behaviour for diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections (ARI), and treatment of diarrhoea with oral rehydration solution (ORS). We estimated ordinary least squares regressions, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics of the household and adding survey year- and country-fixed effects. Estimated associations are presented for the entire region and for each country separately to highlight heterogeneity. Results: Overall, the likelihood that care is sought for a child suffering from diarrhoea or ARI is low in Western and Central Africa. Probability of care seeking for diarrhoea ranges between 49% for mothers above 40 years and 53% for mothers between 25 and 29 years. For ARI, the rates are 60% and 62%, respectively. Treatment of diarrhoea with ORS is even lower, ranging between 23% and 26%. The probability that parents seek health care for their child does not seem to be associated with parents' age at birth. Mother's level of education and household's wealth status seem to be more important factors. There is evidence of the relationship between parents' age and care seeking changing over time, suggesting a stronger association in the past. Conclusions: Parents' age at child birth does not seem to have a relevant association with care seeking for common childhood diseases. Identifying relevant factors may help in improving health care seeking behaviour of parents in low- and middle-income countries leading to reductions in child morbidity and mortality.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , África Central , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Padres
7.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 100(5): 419-26, 2006 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16297419

RESUMEN

We report two 28-day in-vivo antimalarial efficacy studies carried out in the urban centres of Bongor and Koumra, southern Chad. We assess chloroquine (CQ), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) to treat Plasmodium falciparum uncomplicated malaria. Methods and outcome classification complied with latest WHO guidelines. Out of the 301 and 318 children aged 6-59 months included in Bongor and Koumra, respectively, 246 (81.7%) and 257 (80.8%) were eligible for analysis. In Bongor and Koumra, the 28-day PCR-adjusted failure rates for CQ were 23.7% (95% CI 14.7-34.8%) and 32.9% (95% CI 22.1-45.1%), respectively, and those for SP were 16.3% (95% CI 9.4-25.5%) and 4.3% (95% CI 1.2-10.5%). AQ failure rates were 6.4% (95% CI 2.1-14.3%) and 2.2% (95% CI 0.3-7.6%). The current use of CQ in Bongor and Koumra is questionable, and a more efficacious treatment is needed. Considering the reduced efficacy of SP in Bongor, AQ seems to be the best option for the time being. Following WHO recommendations that prioritize the use of artemisinin-based combinations, artesunate plus amodiaquine could be a potential first-line treatment. Nevertheless, the efficacy of this combination should be evaluated and the change carefully prepared, implemented and monitored.


Asunto(s)
Amodiaquina/uso terapéutico , Cloroquina/uso terapéutico , Malaria Falciparum/tratamiento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum , Pirimetamina/uso terapéutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapéutico , Animales , Chad , Preescolar , Combinación de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Genes Protozoarios , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Parasitaria , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Población Urbana
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