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2.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 60(1): 96-102, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441407

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There is little evidence related to the effects of the Omicron severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant on pregnancy outcomes, particularly in unvaccinated women. This study aimed to compare pregnancy outcomes of unvaccinated women infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the pre-Delta, Delta and Omicron waves. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at two tertiary care facilities: Sancaktepe Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, and St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Included were women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during pregnancy, between 1 April 2020 and 14 February 2022. The cohort was divided into three periods according to the date of their positive RT-PCR test: (i) pre-Delta (1 April 2020 to 8 June 2021 in Turkey, and 1 April 2020 to 31 July 2021 in the UK), (ii) Delta (9 June 2021 to 27 December 2021 in Turkey, and 1 August 2021 to 27 December 2021 in the UK) and (iii) Omicron (after 27 December 2021 in both Turkey and the UK). Baseline data collected included maternal age, parity, body mass index, gestational age at diagnosis and comorbidities. The primary outcome was the need for oxygen supplementation, classified as oxygen support via nasal cannula or breather mask, non-invasive mechanical ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or high-flow oxygen, mechanical ventilation with intubation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Inferences were made after balancing of confounders, using an evolutionary search algorithm. Selected confounders were maternal age, body mass index and gestational age at diagnosis of infection. RESULTS: During the study period, 1286 unvaccinated pregnant women with RT-PCR-proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified, comprising 870 cases during the pre-Delta period, 339 during the Delta wave and 77 during the Omicron wave. In the confounder-balanced cohort, infection during the Delta wave vs during the pre-Delta period was associated with increased need for nasal oxygen support (risk ratio (RR), 2.53 (95% CI, 1.75-3.65); P < 0.001), CPAP or high-flow oxygen (RR, 2.50 (95% CI, 1.37-4.56); P = 0.002), mechanical ventilation (RR, 4.20 (95% CI, 1.60-11.0); P = 0.003) and ECMO (RR, 11.0 (95% CI, 1.43-84.7); P = 0.021). The maternal mortality rate was 3.6-fold higher during the Delta wave compared to the pre-Delta period (5.3% vs 1.5%, P = 0.010). Infection during the Omicron wave was associated with a similar need for nasal oxygen support (RR, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.25-1.55); P = 0.251), CPAP or high-flow oxygen (RR, 1.07 (95% CI, 0.36-3.12); P = 0.906) and mechanical ventilation (RR, 0.44 (95% CI, 0.06-3.45); P = 0.438) with that in the pre-Delta period. The maternal mortality rate was similar during the Omicron wave and the pre-Delta period (1.3% vs 1.3%, P = 0.999). The need for nasal oxygen support during the Omicron wave was significantly lower compared to the Delta wave (RR, 0.26 (95% CI, 0.11-0.64); P = 0.003). Perinatal outcomes were available for a subset of the confounder-balanced cohort. Preterm birth before 34 weeks' gestation was significantly increased during the Delta wave compared with the pre-Delta period (15.4% vs 4.9%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among unvaccinated pregnant women, SARS-CoV-2 infection during the Delta wave, in comparison to the pre-Delta period, was associated with increased requirement for oxygen support (including ECMO) and higher maternal mortality. Disease severity and pregnancy complications were similar between the Omicron wave and pre-Delta period. SARS-CoV-2 infection of unvaccinated pregnant women carries considerable risks of morbidity and mortality regardless of variant, and vaccination remains key. Miscommunication of the risks of Omicron infection may impact adversely vaccination uptake among pregnant women, who are at increased risk of complications related to SARS-CoV-2. © 2022 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Nacimiento Prematuro , COVID-19/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Oxígeno , Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 59(2): 146-152, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766403
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 215, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112165

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The popularity of new world camelids, particularly alpacas, is growing rapidly in Ireland, presenting a clinical challenge to veterinary practitioners who may not have worked with these species previously. To the authors' knowledge, the clinical course of a case of acute fasciolosis in an alpaca has not previously been reported, and fasciolosis has not been reported at all in alpacas in Ireland, making this case report a valuable addition to the current literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A three-year-old male castrated huacaya alpaca was admitted to UCD Veterinary Hospital with a two-day history of colic and tenesmus. He had been treated with albendazole, dexamethasone and potentiated amoxycillin by the referring veterinary practitioner with no response. On initial clinical exam, sensitivity to abdominal palpation was the only abnormality. However, the alpaca proceeded to show abnormal lying positions, tenesmus and reduced faecal output over the next 24 h. A general blood panel demonstrated moderate anaemia, marked hyperglobulinaemia and moderately increased hepatocellular and hepatobiliary enzyme activity. Abdominal radiography revealed enlargement of the first forestomach compartment without evidence of gastrointestinal obstruction or peritonitis. An abdominal ultrasound exam revealed an elongated, heterogenous mass in the caudoventral abdomen that appeared to be contiguous with the liver. FNA of this mass revealed that it was in fact a liver lobe with biliary stasis and inflammation. Faecal sedimentation demonstrated Fasciola hepatica eggs. In spite of treatment with triclabendazole and supportive treatment including blood transfusion, the alpaca's condition continued to deteriorate and he was euthanised. On post-mortem exam, acute fasciolosis was diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation and course of a case of acute fasciolosis in an individual alpaca is described, including the results of a range of diagnostic tests that were carried out. The final diagnosis is supported by a description of post-mortem findings. This information will serve as a resource for veterinary practitioners involved in the diagnosis and treatment of similar cases.


Asunto(s)
Camélidos del Nuevo Mundo , Fascioliasis/veterinaria , Enfermedad Aguda , Amoxicilina/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antiplatelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Cólico/parasitología , Cólico/veterinaria , Fascioliasis/diagnóstico , Fascioliasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Irlanda , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento , Triclabendazol/uso terapéutico
9.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 24(2): 173-184, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936329

RESUMEN

Previous research has identified how menstruation is an important factor in both attempted and completed suicides for women. The purpose of this review was to outline (a) the risk profile for suicidality in women who were identified to experience Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD), a condition characterized by severe physical and psychological changes that occur during the luteal menstrual phase, and (b) the implications of these findings for clinical practice. A systematic literature review was conducted using five databases to identify any peer-reviewed articles published between 1989 and 2019. Ten papers eligible for inclusion were identified: three pertaining to suicide cognitions, five to suicide attempts and two to both cognitions and attempts. Findings showed that suicidal thoughts, ideation, plans and attempts were strongly associated with experiences of PMDD and that these findings were independent of psychiatric co-morbidities. However, women with PMDD did not present with more severe risk profiles for suicide attempts (in terms of frequency, impulsivity and lethality) or make more frequent attempts during the luteal menstrual phase compared with suicide attempters without PMDD. Women with PMDD should be considered a high risk group for suicidality; thus, identifying and treating symptoms are vital in reducing suicide attempts. Implications for clinical practice are outlined in the discussion.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Disfórico Premenstrual , Síndrome Premenstrual , Suicidio , Femenino , Humanos , Trastorno Disfórico Premenstrual/epidemiología , Síndrome Premenstrual/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio
10.
Exp Astron (Dordr) ; 52(3): 407-437, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35153378

RESUMEN

The proposed THESEUS mission will vastly expand the capabilities to monitor the high-energy sky. It will specifically exploit large samples of gamma-ray bursts to probe the early universe back to the first generation of stars, and to advance multi-messenger astrophysics by detecting and localizing the counterparts of gravitational waves and cosmic neutrino sources. The combination and coordination of these activities with multi-wavelength, multi-messenger facilities expected to be operating in the 2030s will open new avenues of exploration in many areas of astrophysics, cosmology and fundamental physics, thus adding considerable strength to the overall scientific impact of THESEUS and these facilities. We discuss here a number of these powerful synergies and guest observer opportunities.

11.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 242, 2020 10 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115437

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a complex and disabling condition that affects women of reproductive age, characterised by severe physical and psychological symptoms that occur cyclically and remit following the onset of menses. As the psychological nature and consequences of PMDD often seem indistinguishable from symptoms of other mental health difficulties, this condition presents distinct diagnostic challenges for healthcare professionals. Therefore, this study aimed to explore women's experiences of both having PMDD and of receiving this diagnosis. METHODS: Participant recruitment took place in the United Kingdom during 2018. Seventeen women who had been diagnosed with PMDD by a medical specialist and met the clinical criteria for PMDD on the premenstrual symptoms screening tool were interviewed. The data from these semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and inductively analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twelve subthemes were identified and organised around four main themes: (1) A broken woman, (2) Misdiagnosis and the lost decades, (3) A life transformed and (4) Negotiating the aftermath. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study highlight the critical importance of the accurate and timely detection of PMDD, with the aim of preventing women from experiencing severe and prolonged psychological distress. In order to achieve this, there needs to be a greater understanding and awareness of PMDD within both the medical and lay communities, alongside training for healthcare practitioners in PMDD assessment.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Disfórico Premenstrual/diagnóstico , Síndrome Premenstrual/diagnóstico , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastorno Disfórico Premenstrual/psicología , Síndrome Premenstrual/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Reino Unido
12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 184(3): 733-741, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940847

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Anthracyclines are frequently used in adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer (ESBC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiotoxic effects in the first five years after treatment with different anthracycline-based regimens. METHODS: CCTG MA.21 (NCT000142) was a phase III trial in ESBC that compared cyclophosphamide (75 mg/m2) orally for 14 days, epirubicin (60 mg/m2) and fluorouracil, IV days one and eight (CEF) for six cycles; dose-dense epirubicin (120 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide, IV every 2 weeks for six cycles with concurrent G-CSF then paclitaxel every 2 weeks for four cycles (ddEC/T); doxorubicin (60 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m2) every 3 weeks for four cycles then four cycles q3 weekly paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) (AC/T). ENDPOINTS: LVEF decline; LV function changes (heart failure), or Grade 3-4 cardiac ischemia/infarction. A competing risk analysis was performed with endpoints of cardiotoxicity or recurrence in first 5 years after completion of chemotherapy. RESULTS: 2104 women were randomized. Compliance with cardiac LVEF assessments was 70% at 5 years in all arms. The 5-year cumulative risks of any cardiac event for CEF, ddECT, and AC/T were 22.3% (95%CI 18.9 to 25.7), 14.2% (95%CI 11.0 to 17.3), and 8.1% (95%CI 5.8 to 10.4), respectively, p < 0.0001. At 5 years, women in the ddEC/T and AC/T group had significantly lower risk of cardiotoxicity than those given CEF (HR 0.599 and 0.371, respectively). Most events were asymptomatic drop in LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic changes in LVEF accounted for most of the cardiotoxicity. The majority of cardiac events occurred in year one although occurrence of cardiotoxicity over time highlights the need for improved risk stratification to guide cardiac surveillance strategies.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Antraciclinas/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Canadá , Cardiotoxicidad/epidemiología , Cardiotoxicidad/etiología , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Ciclofosfamida/efectos adversos , Epirrubicina/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia
13.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 56(1): 122-123, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608568
14.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 55(5): 586-592, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180292

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: There are limited case series reporting the impact on women affected by coronavirus during pregnancy. In women affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), the case fatality rate appears higher in those affected in pregnancy compared with non-pregnant women. We conducted a rapid review to guide health policy and management of women affected by COVID-19 during pregnancy, which was used to develop the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists' (RCOG) guidelines on COVID-19 infection in pregnancy. METHODS: Searches were conducted in PubMed and MedRxiv to identify primary case reports, case series, observational studies and randomized controlled trials describing women affected by coronavirus in pregnancy. Data were extracted from relevant papers. This review has been used to develop guidelines with representatives of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) and RCOG who provided expert consensus on areas in which data were lacking. RESULTS: From 9965 search results in PubMed and 600 in MedRxiv, 21 relevant studies, all of which were case reports or case series, were identified. From reports of 32 women to date affected by COVID-19 in pregnancy, delivering 30 babies (one set of twins, three ongoing pregnancies), seven (22%) were asymptomatic and two (6%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), one of whom remained on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. No maternal deaths have been reported to date. Delivery was by Cesarean section in 27 cases and by vaginal delivery in two, and 15 (47%) delivered preterm. There was one stillbirth and one neonatal death. In 25 babies, no cases of vertical transmission were reported; 15 were reported as being tested with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after delivery. Case fatality rates for SARS and MERS were 15% and 27%, respectively. SARS was associated with miscarriage or intrauterine death in five cases, and fetal growth restriction was noted in two ongoing pregnancies affected by SARS in the third trimester. CONCLUSIONS: Serious morbidity occurred in 2/32 women with COVID-19, both of whom required ICU care. Compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 appears less lethal, acknowledging the limited number of cases reported to date and that one woman remains in a critical condition. Preterm delivery affected 47% of women hospitalized with COVID-19, which may put considerable pressure on neonatal services if the UK's reasonable worst-case scenario of 80% of the population being affected is realized. Based on this review, RCOG, in consultation with RCPCH, developed guidance for delivery and neonatal care in pregnancies affected by COVID-19, which recommends that delivery mode be determined primarily by obstetric indication and recommends against routine separation of affected mothers and their babies. We hope that this review will be helpful for maternity and neonatal services planning their response to COVID-19. © 2020 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , COVID-19 , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Desarrollo Fetal , Humanos , Pandemias , Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Nature ; 575(7783): 459-463, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748725

RESUMEN

Long-duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs) originate from ultra-relativistic jets launched from the collapsing cores of dying massive stars. They are characterized by an initial phase of bright and highly variable radiation in the kiloelectronvolt-to-megaelectronvolt band, which is probably produced within the jet and lasts from milliseconds to minutes, known as the prompt emission1,2. Subsequently, the interaction of the jet with the surrounding medium generates shock waves that are responsible for the afterglow emission, which lasts from days to months and occurs over a broad energy range from the radio to the gigaelectronvolt bands1-6. The afterglow emission is generally well explained as synchrotron radiation emitted by electrons accelerated by the external shock7-9. Recently, intense long-lasting emission between 0.2 and 1 teraelectronvolts was observed from GRB 190114C10,11. Here we report multi-frequency observations of GRB 190114C, and study the evolution in time of the GRB emission across 17 orders of magnitude in energy, from 5 × 10-6 to 1012 electronvolts. We find that the broadband spectral energy distribution is double-peaked, with the teraelectronvolt emission constituting a distinct spectral component with power comparable to the synchrotron component. This component is associated with the afterglow and is satisfactorily explained by inverse Compton up-scattering of synchrotron photons by high-energy electrons. We find that the conditions required to account for the observed teraelectronvolt component are typical for GRBs, supporting the possibility that inverse Compton emission is commonly produced in GRBs.

16.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(8): 1009-1014, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362547

RESUMEN

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the trajectory of recovery following fixation of tibial plateau fractures up to five-year follow-up, including simple (Schatzker I-IV) versus complex (Schatzker V-VI) fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for tibial plateau fractures were enrolled into a prospective database. Functional outcome, using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey Physical Component Summary (SF-36 PCS), was collected at baseline, six months, one year, and five years. The trajectory of recovery for complex fractures (Schatzker V and VI) was compared with simple fractures (Schatzker I to IV). Minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated between timepoints. In all, 182 patients were enrolled: 136 (74.7%) in simple and 46 (25.3%) in complex. There were 103 female patients and 79 male patients with a mean age of 45.8 years (15 to 86). RESULTS: Mean SF-36 PCS improved significantly in both groups from six to 12 months (p < 0.001) and one to five years (simple, p = 0.008; complex, p = 0.007). In both groups, the baseline scores were not reached at five years. The SF-36 PCS was significantly higher in the simple group compared with the complex group at both six months (p = 0.007) and 12 months (p = 0.01), but not at five years (p = 0.17). Between each timepoint, approximately 50% or more of the patients in each group achieved an MCID in their score change, indicating a significant clinical change in condition. The complex group had a much larger drop off in the first six months, with comparable proportions achieving MCID at the subsequent time intervals. CONCLUSION: Tibial plateau fracture recovery was characterized overall by an initial decline in functional outcome from baseline, followed by a steep improvement from six to 12 months, and ongoing recovery up to five years. In simple patterns, patients tended to achieve a higher functional score by six months compared with the complex patterns. However, comparable functional scores between the groups achieved only at the five-year point suggest later recovery in the complex group. Function does not improve to baseline by five years in either group. This information is useful in counselling patients about the course of prospective recovery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1009-1014.


Asunto(s)
Fijación Interna de Fracturas , Curación de Fractura , Reducción Abierta , Recuperación de la Función , Fracturas de la Tibia/cirugía , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
17.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 2(1): 1-5, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294361

RESUMEN

Background: Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) present with mechanical type dysphagia. Barium esophagrams occasionally demonstrate focal strictures or multiple concentric rings. Diffuse narrowing has also been reported but may be difficult to recognize because of lack of normative data. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess esophageal diameters at multiple sites in healthy controls in comparison with EoE patients. Methods: A standardized barium swallow was performed in 22 healthy male volunteers without esophageal symptoms and compared with 10 untreated EoE patients. A radiopaque ruler attached at the subject's back was used to measure maximal esophageal diameter at three esophageal sites by a blinded observer. Peak intraepithelial eosinophil counts and Mayo Dysphagia Questionnaire scores were correlated to esophageal diameters in EoE patients. Results: Two of 10 EoE patients had areas of focal narrowing on barium Xray. Esophageal diameters were significantly less at all three esophageal sites in EoE patients compared with controls. Using a total esophageal diameter score (i.e., sum of the three diameters) to establish the 95th percentile for minimal diameter in controls, four of 10 EoE patients fell below the normal range. There was no significant correlation between esophageal diameters, peak eosinophil counts and any of the Mayo Dysphagia Questionnaire severity scores. Conclusion: Patients with EoE have a diffusely narrow esophagus in comparison to healthy controls, and this abnormality may not be appreciated without using appropriate normative data.

18.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 55, 2019 06 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171011

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Elders living with polypharmacy may be taking medications that do not benefit them. Polypharmacy can be associated with elevated risks of poor health, reduced quality of life, high care costs, and persistently complex care needs. While many medications could be problematic, this project targets medications that should be deprescribed for most elders and for which guidelines and evidence-based deprescribing tools are available. These are termed potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs) and are as follows: proton pump inhibitors, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, and sulfonylureas. Implementation strategies for deprescribing PIPs in complex older patient populations are needed. METHODS: This will be a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in community-based primary care practices across Canada. Eligible practices provide comprehensive primary care and have at least one physician that consents to participate. Community-dwelling patients aged 65 years and older with ten or more unique medication prescriptions in the past year will be included. The objective is to assess whether the intervention reduces targeted PIPs for these patients compared with usual care. The intervention, Structured Process Informed by Data, Evidence and Research (SPIDER), is a collaboration between quality improvement (QI) and research programs. Primary care teams will form interprofessional Learning Collaboratives and work with QI coaches to review electronic medical record data provided by their regional Practice Based Research Networks (PBRNs), identify areas of improvement, and develop and implement changes. The study will be tested for feasibility in three PBRNs (Toronto, Montreal, and Edmonton) using prospective single-arm mixed methods. Findings will then guide a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in five PBRNs (Calgary, Winnipeg, Ottawa, Montreal, and Halifax). Seven practices per PBRN will be recruited for each arm. The analysis will be by intention to treat. Ten percent of patients who have at least one PIP at baseline will be randomly selected to participate in the assessment of patient experience and self-reported outcomes. Qualitative methods will be used to explore patient and physician experience and evaluate SPIDER's processes. CONCLUSION: We are testing SPIDER in a primary care population with complex care needs. This could provide a widely applicable model for care improvement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03689049 ; registered September 28, 2018.


Asunto(s)
Polifarmacia , Atención Primaria de Salud/normas , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Canadá , Humanos , Prescripción Inadecuada , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Proyectos de Investigación
19.
Clin Radiol ; 74(9): 731.e21-731.e25, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122715

RESUMEN

AIMS: To determine the workload of acute computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients presenting with suspected acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and rate of large vessel occlusion (LVO) and thrombectomy relative to suspected and confirmed stroke diagnoses across three stroke centres within the Republic of Ireland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of data from three stroke centres, one of which provides a 24-hour thrombectomy service was undertaken. The number of CTA studies performed from January 2015 to December 2017 for suspected AIS was quantified using the national PACS in addition to occlusion location, collateral status, and rates of LVO and thrombectomy. The hospital inpatient enquiry (HIPE) system was searched for all patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of stroke and then correlated with patients who underwent CTA on admission. RESULTS: A total of 2,358 CTA studies were performed for suspected AIS during the study period across three stroke centres. LVO was demonstrated in 18.4% of suspected AIS, 18.4% of primary discharge stroke diagnoses, and 40.2% of confirmed AIS who underwent CTA. A total of 283 thrombectomies were performed of which 64.6% were LVO. Thrombectomy was performed in 12% of suspected AIS, 12% of overall primary discharge diagnoses of stroke cases, and 26% of confirmed stroke who underwent CTA. CONCLUSION: Establishing the volume of acute CTAs and rates of LVO and thrombectomy when compared to suspected AIS on admission, confirmed stroke diagnoses who underwent CTA and primary discharge diagnosis of stroke is essential for the planning and provision of stroke services worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Arteriopatías Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagen , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagen , Angiografía Cerebral/métodos , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada/métodos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico por imagen , Trombectomía/estadística & datos numéricos , Arteriopatías Oclusivas/cirugía , Isquemia Encefálica/cirugía , Circulación Cerebrovascular , Femenino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/cirugía
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 98, 2019 05 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064342

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Micronycterinae form a subfamily of leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) that contains the genera Lampronycteris Sanborn, 1949, and Micronycteris Gray, 1866 (stricto sensu), and is characterized by marked karyotypic variability and discrepancies in the phylogenetic relationships suggested by the molecular versus morphological data. In the present study, we investigated the chromosomal evolution of the Micronycterinae using classical cytogenetics and multidirectional chromosome painting with whole-chromosomes probes of Phyllostomus hastatus and Carollia brevicauda. Our goal was to perform comparative chromosome mapping between the genera of this subfamily and explore the potential for using chromosomal rearrangements as phylogenetic markers. RESULTS: The Micronycterinae exhibit great inter- and intraspecific karyotype diversity, with large blocks of telomere-like sequences inserted within or adjacent to constitutive heterochromatin regions. The phylogenetic results generated from our chromosomal data revealed that the Micronycterinae hold a basal position in the phylogenetic tree of the Phyllostomidae. Molecular cytogenetic data confirmed that there is a low degree of karyotype similarity between Lampronycteris and Micronycteris specimens analyzed, indicating an absence of synapomorphic associations in Micronycterinae. CONCLUSIONS: We herein confirm that karyotypic variability is present in subfamily Micronycterinae. We further report intraspecific variation and describe a new cytotype in M. megalotis. The cytogenetic data show that this group typically has large blocks of interstitial telomeric sequences that do not appear to be correlated with chromosomal rearrangement events. Phylogenetic analysis using chromosome data recovered the basal position for Micronycterinae, but did not demonstrate that it is a monophyletic lineage, due to the absence of common chromosomal synapomorphy between the genera. These findings may be related to an increase in the rate of chromosomal evolution during the time period that separates Lampronycteris from Micronycteris.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/clasificación , Quirópteros/genética , Evolución Molecular , Cariotipo , Filogenia , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Mapeo Cromosómico , Pintura Cromosómica/métodos , Cromosomas de los Mamíferos/genética
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