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1.
BJU Int ; 2024 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409928

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the causes of the decrease in bladder cancer survival that has occurred over the past four decades. METHODS: We extracted data from the South Australian Cancer Registry. Data from the period 1 January 1977 to 31 December 2020 were extracted to explore changes in incidence and survival among a total of 8356 patients diagnosed with ≥pT1 disease. Invasive bladder cancer was defined as ≥pT1 in this study. RESULTS: Invasive bladder cancer age-standardized incidence decreased from 7.20 cases per 100 000 people in 1977 to 5.85 cases per 100 000 in 2020. The mean age at diagnosis increased from 68 years to 76 years. The crude incidence for patients aged 80 years and over increased by 3.3% per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1 to 4.6). Overall survival decreased over the study period (hazard ratio [HR] 1.22 [95% CI 1.09 to 1.35]), however, survival increased after adjusting for age at diagnosis (HR 0.80 [95% CI 0.76 to 0.94]). Despite a decrease in non-bladder cancer-specific deaths in older people, there was no change in the bladder cancer-specific death rate in older people (HR 0.94 [95% CI 0.70 to 1.26]). Male sex was associated with higher survival (HR 0.87 [95% CI 0.83 to 0.92]), whereas socioeconomic advantage was not. CONCLUSIONS: Invasive bladder cancer survival has decreased over the past 40 years, with the age structure of the population being a significant contributing factor. PATIENT SUMMARY: We looked at why bladder cancer survival is decreasing using a large cancer registry with information from 1977 to 2020. We found that people are now more likely to be diagnosed at an older age. Older people often live for a shorter time with bladder cancer compared to younger people. Bladder cancer survival has decreased because there are more older people with the disease than previously.

2.
BMC Urol ; 24(1): 30, 2024 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310269

RESUMEN

Kidney stones, a persistent urological condition, continue to affect people globally. In this critical review, we examine the work of Borghi et al. who evaluated patients with idiopathic stone formation and randomised 99 patients to increased water intake (≥ 2 L/day) and 100 patients to usual care in a 5-year randomized controlled trial. The study examined baseline urine volume in individuals with idiopathic calcium stones, recurrence rates, and relevant biochemical factors. The study found reduced recurrence rate (12.1% vs. 27% (p = 0.008)), and time to recurrence with increased water intake (38.7 ± 13.2 months) vs. (25 ± 16.4 months) (p = 0.016). These findings inform clinical practice, contributing to the guideline recommendations that kidney stone patients should aim for fluid intake of at least 2.5 L per day to prevent stone recurrence.


Asunto(s)
Cálculos Renales , Nefrolitiasis , Urología , Humanos , Calcio , Estudios Prospectivos , Agua , Recurrencia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
3.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 22(2): 599-609.e2, 2024 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369388

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to assess the association between comorbidities and prostate cancer management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 12,603 South Australian men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2003 and 2019. Comorbidity was measured one year prior to prostate cancer diagnosis using a medication-based comorbidity index (Rx-Risk). Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between comorbidities and primary treatment selection (active surveillance, radical prostatectomy (RP), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), brachytherapy, ADT alone, and watchful waiting (WW)). Certain common comorbidities within Rx-Risk (cardiac disorders, diabetes, chronic airway diseases, depression and anxiety, thrombosis, and chronic pain) were also assessed. All models were adjusted for sociodemographic and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: Likelihood of receiving RP was lower among men with Rx-Risk score ≥3 (odds ratio (OR) 0.62, 95%CI:0.56-0.69) and Rx-Risk 2 (OR 0.80, 95%CI:0.70-0.92) compared with no comorbidity (Rx-Risk ≤0). Men with high comorbidity (Rx-Risk ≥3) were more likely to have received ADT alone (OR 1.76, 95%CI:1.40-2.21), EBRT (OR 1.30, 95%CI:1.17-1.45) or WW (OR 1.49, 95%CI:1.19-1.88) compared with Rx-Risk ≤0. Pre-existing cardiac and respiratory disorders, thrombosis, diabetes, depression and anxiety, and chronic pain were associated with lower likelihood of selecting RP and higher likelihood of EBRT (except chronic airway disease) or WW (except diabetes and depression and anxiety). Cardiac disorders and thrombosis were associated with higher likelihood of selecting ADT alone. Furthermore, age had greater effect on treatment choice than the level of comorbidity. CONCLUSION: High comorbidity burden was associated with primary treatment choice, with significantly less RP and more EBRT, WW and ADT alone among men with higher levels of comorbidity. Each of the individual comorbid conditions also influenced treatment selection.


Asunto(s)
Braquiterapia , Dolor Crónico , Diabetes Mellitus , Cardiopatías , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Trombosis , Masculino , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Antagonistas de Andrógenos/uso terapéutico , Dolor Crónico/cirugía , Australia/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Prostatectomía , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/cirugía , Cardiopatías/cirugía , Trombosis/cirugía
4.
BMC Urol ; 24(1): 2, 2024 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166977

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2020, a research group published five linear longitudinal models, predict Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26) scores post-treatment for radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy and active surveillance collectively in US patients with localized prostate cancer. METHODS: Our study externally validates the five prediction models for patient reported outcomes post-surgery for localised prostate cancer. The models' calibration, fit, variance explained and discrimination (concordance-indices) were assessed. Two Australian validation cohorts 1 and 2 years post-prostatectomy were constructed, consisting of 669 and 439 subjects, respectively (750 in total). Patient reported function in five domains post-prostatectomy: sexual, bowel, hormonal, urinary incontinence and other urinary dysfunction (irritation/obstruction). Domain function was assessed using the EPIC-26 questionnaire. RESULTS: 1 year post-surgery, R2 was highest for the sexual domain (35%, SD = 0.02), lower for the bowel (21%, SD = 0.03) and hormone (15%, SD = 0.03) domains, and close to zero for urinary incontinence (1%, SD = 0.01) and irritation/obstruction (- 5%, SD = 0.04). Calibration slopes for these five models were 1.04 (SD = 0.04), 0.84 (SD = 0.06), 0.85 (SD = 0.06), 1.16 (SD = 0.13) and 0.45 (SD = 0.04), respectively. Calibration-in-the-large values were - 2.2 (SD = 0.6), 2.1 (SD = 0.01), 5.1 (SD = 0.1), 9.6 (SD = 0.9) and 4.0 (SD = 0.2), respectively. Concordance-indices were 0.73, 0.70, 0.70, 0.58 and 0.62, respectively (all had SD = 0.01). Mean absolute error and root mean square error were similar across the validation and development cohorts. The validation measures were largely similar at 2 years post-surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The sexual, bowel and hormone domain models validated well and show promise for accurately predicting patient reported outcomes in a non-US surgical population. The urinary domain models validated poorly and may require recalibration or revision.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata , Incontinencia Urinaria , Masculino , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Prospectivos , Australia , Neoplasias de la Próstata/radioterapia , Incontinencia Urinaria/epidemiología , Incontinencia Urinaria/etiología , Incontinencia Urinaria/cirugía , Prostatectomía/efectos adversos , Hormonas
5.
BJUI Compass ; 5(1): 109-120, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38179028

RESUMEN

Objectives: To describe real-world clinical and functional outcomes in an Australian cohort of men with localised prostate cancer according to treatment type and risk category. Subjects and methods: Men diagnosed from 2008 to 2018 who were enrolled in South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative registry-a multi-institutional prospective clinical registry-were studied. The main outcome measures were overall survival, cancer-specific survival, decline in functional outcomes, biochemical recurrence and transition to active treatment following active surveillance. Multivariable adjusted models were applied to estimate outcomes. Results: Of the 8513 eligible men, majority of men (46%) underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) followed by external beam radiation therapy with or without androgen deprivation therapy (EBRT +/- ADT) in 22% of the cohort. Five-year overall survival was above 91%, and 5-year prostate cancer-specific survival was above 97% in the low- and intermediate-risk categories across all treatments. Five-year prostate cancer-specific survival in the active surveillance group was 100%. About 37% of men with high-risk disease treated with RP and 17% of men treated with EBRT +/- ADT experienced biochemical recurrence within 5 years of treatment. Of men on active surveillance, 15% of those with low risk and 20% with intermediate risk converted to active treatment within 2 years. The decline in urinary continence and sexual function 12 months after treatment was greatest among men who underwent RP while the decline in bowel function was greatest for men who received EBRT +/- ADT. Conclusion: This contemporary real-world evidence on risk-appropriate treatment outcomes helps inform treatment decision-making for clinicians and patients.

6.
BMC Urol ; 24(1): 16, 2024 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229041

RESUMEN

In this critical review, we explore the study design, strengths and limitations of the paper: "Two-Year Outcomes of Sacral Neuromodulation Versus OnabotulinumtoxinA for Refractory Urgency Urinary Incontinence: A Randomized Trial." The paper reports 24 month follow-up data of the landmark ROSETTA trial. This multi-centre, open-labelled parallel randomised trial allocated females 1:1 to receive Sacral Neuromodulation (SNM) or OnabotulinumtoxinA(BTX) 200 units (U). The primary outcome was change in mean daily urinary urgency incontinence episodes (UUIE) over 24 months. The study did not demonstrate a difference between treatments (-3.88 vs. -3.50 episodes per day), however women treated with BTX were more satisfied; but reported higher rates of UTI. The two treatments provide comparable third-line treatment options for patients with refractory urgency urinary incontinence.


Asunto(s)
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Estimulación Eléctrica Transcutánea del Nervio , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva , Incontinencia Urinaria , Urología , Humanos , Femenino , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapéutico , Incontinencia Urinaria de Urgencia/tratamiento farmacológico , Incontinencia Urinaria de Urgencia/inducido químicamente , Incontinencia Urinaria/etiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vejiga Urinaria Hiperactiva/etiología , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto
7.
J Robot Surg ; 18(1): 46, 2024 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240959

RESUMEN

This study aims to review ophthalmic injuries sustained during of robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). A search of Medline, Embase, Cochrane and grey literature was performed using methods registered a priori. Eligible studies were published 01/01/2010-01/05/2023 in English and reported ophthalmic complications in cohorts of > 100 men undergoing RALP. The primary outcome was injury incidence. Secondary outcomes were type and permanency of ophthalmic complications, treatments, risk factors and preventative measures. Nine eligible studies were identified, representing 100,872 men. Six studies reported rates of corneal abrasion and were adequately homogenous for meta-analysis, with a weighted pooled rate of 5 injuries per 1000 procedures (95% confidence interval 3-7). Three studies each reported different outcomes of xerophthalmia, retinal vascular occlusion, and ophthalmic complications unspecified in 8, 5 and 2 men per 1000 procedures respectively. Amongst identified studies, there were no reports of permanent ophthalmic complications. Injury management was poorly reported. No significant risk factors were reported, while one study found African-American ethnicity protective against corneal abrasion (0.4 vs. 3.9 per 1000). Variables proposed (but not proven) to increase risk for corneal abrasion included steep Trendelenburg position, high pneumoperitoneum pressure, prolonged operative time and surgical inexperience. Compared with standard of care, occlusive eyelid dressings (23 vs. 0 per 1000) and foam goggles (20 vs. 1.3 per 1000) were found to reduce rates of corneal abrasion. RALP carries low rates of ophthalmic injury. Urologists should counsel the patient regarding this potential complication and pro-actively implement preventative strategies.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones de la Cornea , Laparoscopía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados , Masculino , Humanos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados/métodos , Prostatectomía/efectos adversos , Prostatectomía/métodos , Laparoscopía/efectos adversos , Laparoscopía/métodos , Lesiones de la Cornea/etiología
8.
Ir J Med Sci ; 193(1): 425-434, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37354242

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since winter 2020/21, general practitioners (GPs) in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) have been granted access to diagnostic imaging studies on a new publicly funded pathway, expediting access to services previously obtained via hospital-based doctors. AIMS: Outline GP perspectives on imaging studies obtained via the new "GP Access to Community Diagnostics" initiative. METHODS: A mixed-methods design was employed. Referrals over the first six months of 2019 and 2021 were collated by a private imaging provider, and a randomly selected subset of 2021 studies (maximum 30 referrals per GP) was returned to participating GPs to provide detail on the impact on each patient's care. In-depth qualitative interviews were also conducted with participating GPs. RESULTS: Eleven GPs supplied detailed information on 81 studies organized through the new initiative. GPs reported that the initiative had led to a large proportion of cases being managed solely in general practice, with an 81% reduction in referrals to acute hospital settings and a 58% reduction in referrals to secondary care clinics. GPs felt imaging studies improved patient care in 86% of cases and increased GP workload in 58% of cases. GP qualitative interviews revealed four key themes: improved patient care, increased GP workload, reduction in hospital referrals, and opinions on ongoing management of such initiatives, including guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: GPs felt enhancing access to diagnostics improved patient care by expediting diagnosis, decision-making, and treatment and by reducing hospital referrals. GPs were generally positive about the initiative and made some suggestions on future management of the initiative.


Asunto(s)
Medicina General , Médicos Generales , Radiología , Humanos , Atención al Paciente , Derivación y Consulta
9.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 88: 102516, 2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141473

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Drug prescription registries has become an alternative data source to hospital admission databases for measuring comorbidities. However, the predictive validity of prescription-based comorbidity measures varies based on the population under investigation and outcome of interest. We aimed to determine which prescription-based index of comorbidity has most utility in Australian men with prostate cancer. METHODS: We studied 25,414 South Australian men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2003 and 2019 from state-wide administrative linked datasets. The Rx-Risk index, Chronic Disease Score (CDS), Drug Comorbidity Index (DCI) and Pharmaceutical Prescribing Profile (P3) with one year lookback period from prostate cancer diagnosis were evaluated. The predictive ability of each index to determine all-cause deaths within two and five years of prostate cancer diagnosis was compared using the c-statistic from flexible parametric survival models, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status and year of prostate cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The Rx-Risk index performed better in predicting two-year (c-statistic = 0.818) and five-year (c-statistic = 0.784) all-cause mortality than P3, CDS and DCI. Including comorbidity measures as continuous scores resulted in a better performance than including them as categories. Grouping scores into four categories (≤0, >0 - ≤1, >1 - ≤2, and >2) resulted in better performance and calibration than using fewer categories. CONCLUSION: Rx-Risk was validated in Australia and reflects Australian prescribing patterns. It showed better predictive performance for mortality in our study, with a modest improvement over P3, CDS and DCI. For research with prostate cancer populations, we recommend the use of drug-based comorbidity indices that have been validated in a similar population.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Australia/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Predicción , Prescripciones
10.
BMC Urol ; 23(1): 194, 2023 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37996890

RESUMEN

The South West Oncology Group's 2000 randomised-control trial investigated the addition of maintenance intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma (NMIUC) treatment. The results were published when the efficacy of BCG immunotherapy maintenance was unclear.Randomisation produced two arms, each containing 192 patients assessed to be at high risk of recurrence following induction BCG therapy for NMIUC. The treatment arm went on to receive three successive weekly intravesical and percutaneous BCG administrations at three months, six months and then six monthly for three years from the start of induction therapy.Recurrence free-survival (RFS), was higher in the maintenance arm with 41% (95%CI 35-49) RFS at five years in the control arm and 60% RFS (53-67 95% CI) in the maintenance arm (p < 0.0001). Only 16% of patients in the treatment arm received all of the scheduled maintenance courses of BCG.The study's seminal results correlate with contemporary systematic review and have guided international guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma in Situ , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Urología , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/patología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Vacuna BCG/uso terapéutico , Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Administración Intravesical , Carcinoma in Situ/patología , Carcinoma in Situ/terapia , Inmunoterapia , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico
12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 20083, 2023 11 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37973983

RESUMEN

We investigated whether prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) have a higher cumulative incidence of secondary cancer compared with patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). We used state-wide linked data from South Australia to follow men with prostate cancer diagnosed from 2002 to 2019. The cumulative incidence of overall and site-specific secondary cancers between 5 and 15 years after treatment was estimated. Fine-Gray competing risk analyses were performed with additional sensitivity analyses to test different scenarios. A total of 7625 patients were included (54% underwent RP and 46% EBRT). Characteristics of the two groups differed significantly, with the EBRT group being older (71 vs. 64 years), having higher comorbidity burden and being more likely to die during follow-up than the RP group. Fifteen-year cumulative incidence for all secondary cancers was 27.4% and 22.3% in EBRT and RP groups, respectively. In the adjusted models, patients in the EBRT group had a significantly higher risk of genitourinary (adjusted subhazard ratio (aSHR), 2.29; 95%CI 1.16-4.51) and lung (aSHR, 1.93; 95%CI 1.05-3.56) cancers compared with patients in the RP group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for risk of any secondary cancer, gastro-intestinal, skin or haematologic cancers. No statistically significant differences in overall risk of secondary cancer were observed in any of the sensitivity analyses and patterns for risk at specific cancer sites were relatively consistent across different age restriction and latency/time-lag scenarios. In conclusion, the increased risk of genitourinary and lung cancers among men undergoing EBRT may relate partly to treatment effects and partly to unmeasured residual confounding.


Asunto(s)
Braquiterapia , Neoplasias Primarias Secundarias , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Braquiterapia/efectos adversos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/etiología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias Primarias Secundarias/epidemiología , Neoplasias Primarias Secundarias/etiología , Neoplasias Primarias Secundarias/cirugía , Próstata/patología , Prostatectomía/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
Asian J Urol ; 10(4): 502-511, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38024435

RESUMEN

Objective: Positive surgical margins (PSMs) after radical prostatectomy (RP) indicate failure of surgery to completely clear cancer. PSMs confer an increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR), but how more robust outcomes are affected is unclear. This study investigated factors associated with PSMs following RP and determined their impact on clinical outcomes (BCR, second treatment [radiotherapy and/or androgen deprivation therapy], and prostate cancer-specific mortality [PCSM]). Methods: The study cohort included men diagnosed with prostate cancer (pT2-3b/N0/M0) between January 1998 and June 2016 who underwent RP from the South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative database. Factors associated with risk of PSMs were identified using Poisson regression. The impact of PSMs on clinical outcomes (BCR, second treatment, and PCSM) was assessed using competing risk regression. Results: Of the 2827 eligible participants, 28% had PSMs-10% apical, 6% bladder neck, 17% posterolateral, and 5% at multiple locations. Median follow-up was 9.6 years with 81 deaths from prostate cancer recorded. Likelihood of PSM increased with higher pathological grade and pathological tumor stage, and greater tumour volume, but decreased with increasing surgeon volume (odds ratio [OR]: 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, per 100 previous prostatectomies). PSMs were associated with increased risk of BCR (adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio [sHR] 2.5; 95% CI 2.1-3.1) and second treatment (sHR 2.9; 95% CI 2.4-3.5). Risk of BCR was increased similarly for each PSM location, but was higher for multiple margin sites. We found no association between PSMs and PCSM. Conclusion: Our findings support previous research suggesting that PSMs are not independently associated with PCSM despite strong association with BCR. Reducing PSM rates remains an important objective, given the higher likelihood of secondary treatment with associated comorbidities.

14.
BJU Int ; 2023 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37667431

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the association between preoperative membranous urethral length (MUL) and postoperative urinary incontinence (UI) in men who undergo robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)/robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urinary incontinence is common after RARP/RALP, and early recovery of continence is one of the most important functional outcomes following surgery. MUL has been identified as a factor associated with continence recovery after RARP/RALP. A systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, using PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases. Inclusion criteria were English language full journal articles authored within the last 5 years that assessed continence using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool for retrospective cohort studies was used to evaluate study quality. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to pool odds ratios (ORs) from available studies relating to continence as a function of MUL. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations framework was used to synthesise evidence. RESULTS: Six studies including 970 patients reported an association between MUL and continence at 12 months. Longer MUL was associated with reduced UI odds at 12 months after surgery (pooled OR 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.87, P < 0.001). Significant methodological and statistical heterogeneity was encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative MUL measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is significantly associated with postoperative continence in men undergoing RARP/RALP. We recommend consideration of MRI measurement of MUL prior to RARP/RALP to guide treatment decisions in this population.

15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37500786

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Urinary and sexual dysfunction after radical prostatectomy remains a major cause of morbidity, despite widespread availability of pharmacological and rehabilitative treatments. Smoking is a modifiable risk factor known to correlate with erectile and urinary dysfunction and we hypothesise that smoking cessation may improve post-prostatectomy urinary and sexual function recovery. Our objective is to systematically evaluate literature describing the association of smoking status with urinary and sexual function in men following radical prostatectomy. METHODS: In total, 310 unique records were identified through a systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL and CENTRAL databases up to February 2023. Nine studies reported smoking status and post radical prostatectomy urinary and sexual function outcomes in men with localized prostate cancer. Risk of bias was assessed and meta-analysis included six studies. RESULTS: Smokers had inferior erectile function after prostatectomy compared to non-smokers (OR 0.73, [95% CI 0.56-0.95]) during follow-up, while urinary incontinence was not statistically different between groups (OR 1.20, [95% CI 0.75-1.91]). Smoking cessation improved the EPIC-26 sexual domain score with 6.6 points on average [p = 0.03] to a clinically significant maximum of 12.5 points at 18-24 months. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is associated with impaired sexual function recovery after radical prostatectomy and quitting may improve sexual function >18 months. Current evidence shows no such association for urinary outcomes. Further studies are needed to corroborate findings.

17.
Urol Oncol ; 41(7): 324.e13-324.e20, 2023 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37258371

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To describe changes in the use of prostate biopsy techniques among men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Australia and New Zealand and examine factors associated with these changes. METHODS: We extracted data between 2015 and 2019 from 7 jurisdictions of the Australia and New Zealand Prostate Cancer Outcomes Registry (PCOR-ANZ). Distribution and time trend of transrectal (TR) vs. transperineal (TP) biopsy type, differences in the proportion of biopsy type by geographic jurisdiction, diagnosing institute characteristics (public vs. private, metropolitan vs. regional, case volume) and patient characteristics such as socio-economic status (SES), and location of residence were analyzed. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 37,638 patients. The overall proportion of prostate cancer diagnosed by TP increased from 26% to 57% between 2015 and 2019. Patients living in a major city, a more socioeconomically advantaged area or who were diagnosed in a metropolitan or private hospital were more likely to have TP than TR. While all subgroups were observed to increase their use of TP over the study period, uptake grew faster for men from low SES areas and those diagnosed at a regional or low-volume hospital but slower for men living in outer regional/remote areas or treated at a public hospital. CONCLUSIONS: In this binational registry, prostate cancer is now more commonly diagnosed by TP than the TR approach. While the gap between uptakes of TP has diminished for patients with low vs. high SES, disparity has widened for patients from outer regional areas vs major cities and public vs. private hospitals.


Asunto(s)
Próstata , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Próstata/patología , Recto/patología , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Biopsia/métodos , Biopsia Guiada por Imagen/métodos , Perineo
18.
BMC Urol ; 23(1): 98, 2023 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37226116

RESUMEN

In this critical review, we explore the study design, strengths, and limitations of landmark trial "Anticholinergic therapy vs. onabotulinumtoxinA for urgency urinary incontinence". This trial was the first to directly compare two key treatment options for urge urinary incontinence - anticholinergic medication and intravesical botox, and still influences clinical guidelines a decade after publication. This non-inferiority, double-blinded, multi-centre randomised controlled trial administered Solifenacin or intra-detrusor botox to women, measuring outcomes six months post-treatment. Non-inferiority of the treatments was established, though Botox had a higher rate of retention and infection, with side effect profile rising as the key discriminator in selecting first-line therapy.


Asunto(s)
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Incontinencia Urinaria , Urología , Femenino , Humanos , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapéutico , Incontinencia Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapéutico , Proyectos de Investigación , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto
19.
BMC Cancer ; 23(1): 297, 2023 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37005587

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess construct validity and responsiveness of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite Instrument (EPIC-26) relative to the Short-Form Six-Dimension (SF-6D) and Assessment of Quality of Life 6-Dimension (AQoL-6D) in patients following treatment for prostate cancer. METHODS: Retrospective prostate cancer registry data were used. The SF-6D, AQoL-6D, and EPIC-26 were collected at baseline and one year post treatment. Analyses were based on Spearman's correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plots and intra-class correlation coefficient, Kruskal Wallis, and Effect Size and the Standardised Response Mean for responsiveness. RESULTS: The study sample was comprised of 1915 patients. Complete case analysis of 3,697 observations showed moderate evidence of convergent validity between EPIC-26 vitality/hormonal domain and AQoL-6D (r = 0.45 and 0.54) and SF-6D (r = 0.52 and 0.56) at both timepoints. Vitality/hormonal domain also showed moderate convergent validity with coping domain of AQoL-6D (r = 0.45 and 0.54) and with role (r = 0.41 and 0.49) and social function (r = 0.47 and 0.50) domains of SF-6D at both timepoints, and with independent living (r = 0.40) and mental health (r = 0.43) of AQoL-6D at one year. EPIC-26 sexual domain had moderate convergent validity with relationship domain (r = 0.42 and 0.41) of AQoL-6D at both timepoints. Both AQoL-6D and SF-6D did not discriminate between age groups and tumour stage at both timepoints but AQoL-6D discriminated between outcomes for different treatments at one year. All EPIC-26 domains discriminated between age groups and treatment at both timepoints. The EPIC-26 was more responsive than AQoL-6D and SF-6D between baseline and one year following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: AQoL-6D can be used in combination with EPIC-26 in place of SF-12. Although EPIC-26 is not utility based, its popularity amongst clinicians and ability to discriminate between disease-specific characteristics and post-treatment outcomes in clinical trials makes it a candidate for use within cost-effectiveness analyses. The generic measure provides a holistic assessment of quality of life and is suitable for generating quality adjusted life years (QALYs).


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata , Calidad de Vida , Masculino , Humanos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Psicometría
20.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 26(4): 673-680, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36859711

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The prognostic capacity of positive surgical margins (PSM) for biochemical recurrence (BCR) is unclear, with inconsistent findings across published studies. We aimed to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis exploring the impact of Positive surgical margin length on biochemical recurrence in men after radical prostatectomy. METHODS: A search was conducted using the MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase and Cochrane databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, and the protocol was registered in advance (PROSPERO: CRD42020195908). This meta-analysis included 16 studies with BCR as the primary outcome measure. RESULTS: Studies used various dichotomised thresholds for PSM length. A subgroup meta-analysis was performed using the reported multivariable hazard ratio (Continuous, 3, and 1 mm PSM length). PSM length (continuous) was independently associated with an increased risk of BCR (7 studies, HR 1.04 (CI 1.02-1.05), I2 = 8% p < 0.05). PSM length greater than 3 mm conferred a higher risk of BCR compared to less than 3 mm (4 studies, HR 1.99 (1.54-2.58) I2 = 0%, p < 0.05). There was also an increased risk of BCR associated with PSM length of less than 1 mm compared to negative surgical margins (3 studies, HR 1.46 (1.05-2.04), I2 = 0%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: PSM length is independently prognostic for BCR after radical prostatectomy. Further long-term studies are needed to estimate the impact on systemic progression.


Asunto(s)
Márgenes de Escisión , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/etiología , Próstata , Prostatectomía/métodos , Pronóstico , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/epidemiología , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos
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