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1.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834369

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Limited access to healthcare has been associated with limited uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM). This descriptive analysis examined, in a near universal healthcare setting, differences between MSM reporting using versus not using PrEP in the past 12 months. METHOD: Data come from the 2017 Boston sample of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system, containing a venue-based and time-spaced sample of 530 MSM. The analysis used descriptive frequencies and tests of bivariate associations by PrEP use using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Five hundred four respondents had data necessary to determine if PrEP was indicated, and 233 (43.9%) had an indication for PrEP. Of these 233 participants, 117 (50.2%) reported using PrEP in the past 12 months. Not being out, in terms of disclosing one's sexual orientation to a healthcare provider, lack of health insurance, limited access to healthcare, and history of incarceration were all significantly associated with not using PrEP in the past 12 months. Race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with PrEP use in the past 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of Massachusetts healthcare expansion and reform, and in a sample somewhat uncharacteristic of the population of individuals experiencing difficulties accessing PrEP, structural and demographic factors remain potent barriers to PrEP uptake. Targeted PrEP expansion efforts in Massachusetts may focus on identifying vulnerable subgroups of MSM (e.g., underinsured or criminal justice system-involved MSM) and delivering evidence-based interventions to reduce stigma and promote disclosure of same-sex behavior in healthcare settings.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 275: 113824, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721745

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, substance use, and stigma related to co-existing or intersecting identities that are stigmatized or devalued by society (e.g., being a sexual minority male, a person living with HIV, or a person who uses substances). Evidence indicates that when stigma is internalized it may act as a barrier to engagement in self-care behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Gaining a better understanding of how intersecting internalized stigmas affect HIV self-care among MSM who use substances. METHODS: To investigate these relationships, we conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews until we reached thematic saturation (n = 33) with HIV + MSM who use substances and were sub-optimally engaged in HIV care. Interviews inquired about identity, internalized stigmas, substance use, HIV self-care behaviors, and interrelationships between concepts. RESULTS: Our sample was 61% African American and 76% reported annual incomes of ≤$20,000. Approximately half of the participants explicitly described how intersecting internalized stigmas impacted their sense of self and their behavior. The overwhelming majority conveyed that internalized stigma related to substance use was the most burdensome and was considered a barrier to HIV self-care behaviors. Participants also described internalized stigmas related to HIV and sexual orientation, as well as race, effeminateness, poverty, and housing instability, which together impacted their psychological wellbeing and HIV self-care. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a need for clinicians to consider and address intersecting internalized stigmas, particularly internalized stigma related to substance use, to both reduce substance use and improve HIV self-care among MSM who use substances and are sub-optimally engaged in HIV care.

4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e446-e455, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740407

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are extremely marginalised and stigmatised, and therefore experience immense psychosocial stress. As current HIV prevention interventions in India do not address mental health or resilience to these stressors, we aimed to evaluate a resilience-based psychosocial intervention in the context of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention. METHODS: We did a multicity, randomised, clinical efficacy trial in Chennai (governmental tuberculosis research institute) and Mumbai (non-governmental organisation for MSM), India. Inclusion criteria were MSM, aged 18 years or older, who were at risk of HIV acquisition or transmission, defined as having any of the following in the 4 months before screening: anal sex with four or more male partners (protected or unprotected), diagnosis of an STI, history of transactional sex activity, or condomless anal sex with a man who was of unknown HIV status or serodiscordant. Participants were required to speak English, Tamil (in Chennai), or Hindi (in Mumbai) fluently. Eligible individuals were randomly assigned (1:1) to either a resilience-based psychosocial HIV prevention intervention, consisting of group (four sessions) and individual (six sessions) counselling alongside HIV and STI voluntary counselling and testing, or a standard-of-care control comprising voluntary counselling and testing alone. The primary outcomes were number of condomless anal sex acts with male partners during the past month (at baseline and 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months after randomisation), and incident bacterial STIs (at 12 months after randomisation). Resilience-related mediators included self-esteem, self-acceptance, and depression. Recruitment is now closed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02556294. FINDINGS: Between Sept 4, 2015, and June 28, 2018, we enrolled 608 participants; 305 (50%) were assigned to the psychosocial intervention condition and 303 (50%) were assigned to the control condition. 510 (84%) of 608 men completed an assessment at 4 months after randomisation, 483 (79%) at 8 months, and 515 (85%) at 12 months. 512 (99%) of 515 men had STI data from the 12-month assessment. The intervention condition had a 56% larger reduction in condomless anal sex acts (95% CI 35-71; p<0·0001) from baseline to 4-month follow-up, 72% larger reduction (56-82; p<0·0001) from baseline to 8-month follow-up, and 72% larger reduction (53-83; p<0·0001) from baseline to 12-month follow-up, compared with the standard-of-care control condition (condition by time interaction; χ2=40·29, 3 df; p<0·0001). Improvements in self-esteem and depressive symptoms both mediated 9% of the intervention effect on condomless anal sex acts. Bacterial STI incidence did not differ between study conditions at 12-month follow-up. INTERPRETATION: A resilience-based psychosocial intervention for MSM at risk of HIV acquisition or transmission in India was efficacious in reducing condomless anal sex acts, with evidence for mediation effects in two key target resilience variables. HIV prevention programmes for MSM in India should address mental health resilience to augment reductions in the risk of sexually transmitted HIV. FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Rehabilitación Psiquiátrica/métodos , Resiliencia Psicológica , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Estigma Social , Adulto , Consejo/métodos , Estudios de Seguimiento , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Sexo Inseguro/prevención & control , Sexo Inseguro/psicología , Adulto Joven
5.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-30, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769239

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is a structural barrier to HIV care in peri-urban areas in South Africa (SA), where approximately 80% of households are moderately or severely food insecure.(1) For people with HIV (PWH), food insecurity is associated with poor ART adherence and survival rates. Yet, measurement of food insecurity among PWH remains a challenge. DESIGN: This study examines the factor structure of the 9-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS, isiXhosa-translated) among PWH in SA using a restrictive bifactor model. SETTING: Primary care clinics in Khayelitsha, a peri-urban settlement in Cape Town, SA. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=440) were PWH who received HIV care in Khayelitsha screening for a clinical trial. Most were categorized as severely (n=250, 56.82%) or moderately (n=107, 24.32%) food insecure in the past 30 days. RESULTS: Revised parallel analysis suggested a 3-factor structure, which was inadmissible. A 2-factor structure was examined but did not adequately fit the data. A 2-factor restrictive bifactor model was examined, such that all items loaded on a general factor (food insecurity) and all but two items loaded on one of two specific additional factors, which adequately fit the data (CFI=0.995, SRMR=0.019). The two specific factors identified were: anxiety/insufficient quality, and no food intake. Reliability was adequate (ω=.82). CONCLUSIONS: Results supported the use of a total score, and identified two specific factors of the HFIAS, which may be utilized in future research and intervention development. These findings help identify aspects of food insecurity that may drive relationships between the construct and important HIV-related variables.

6.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(2): 47-55, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571046

RESUMEN

People living with HIV (PLHW) and other concealable stigmatized identities (CSIs) face continual decisions about the degree of openness they are willing to allow for their identities in different social contexts. Disclosing or concealment of CSIs describes potential stigma management strategies that may have distinct psychosocial consequences. This study aimed to examine disclosure processes in a sample of sexual minority men (SMM) with intersecting CSIs, who use substances and were suboptimally engaged in HIV care. Interviews (N = 33) were initially double coded following thematic analysis, which identified disclosure as a theme. Subsequently, content analysis and additional selective double coding were used to iteratively identify and refine subthemes related to disclosure decisions. Illustrative quotes and frequencies of the invoked subthemes and identities were recorded for each participant. The majority of participants discussed experiences of disclosure and nondisclosure (N = 31, 94%). Among these, a spectrum of related behaviors and preferences emerged, including active disclosure, passive disclosure, passive nondisclosure, and concealment. Across disclosure-related content, in addition to HIV status, the majority of participants also described navigating decisions about disclosure of sexual orientation (71%), substance use (61%), and multiple identities at once (55%). Findings from this study highlight the fluid and multi-dimensional nature of identity-related disclosure processes in SMM with multiple CSIs. Participants in this study possessed interlocking stigmatized identities and described being varying degrees of "out" across identities and time. Moreover, these findings challenge common beliefs that disclosure is a binary construct associated with positive gain.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Estigma Social , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Revelación de la Verdad , Adulto , Anciano , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Estereotipo
7.
AIDS Care ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594924

RESUMEN

Rates of chronic pain and cigarette smoking are each substantially higher among people living with HIV (PLWH) than in the general population. The goal of these analyses was to examine the prevalence and impact of comorbid chronic pain and cigarette smoking among PLWH. Participants included 3289 PLWH (83% male) who were recruited from five HIV clinics. As expected, the prevalence of smoking was higher among PLWH with chronic pain (41.9%), than PLWH without chronic pain (26.6%, p < .0001), and the prevalence of chronic pain was higher among current smokers (32.9%), than among former (23.6%) or never (17%) smokers (ps < .0001). PLWH who endorsed comorbid chronic pain and smoking (vs. nonsmokers without chronic pain) were more likely to report cocaine/crack and cannabis use, be prescribed long-term opioid therapy, and have virologic failure, even after controlling for relevant sociodemographic and substance-related variables (ps < .05). These results contribute to a growing empirical literature indicating that chronic pain and cigarette smoking frequently co-occur, and extend this work to a large sample of PLWH. Indeed, PLWH may benefit from interventions that are tailored to address bidirectional pain-smoking effects in the context of HIV.

8.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511574

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide, and prevalence rates are high among people living with HIV (PLWH), particularly in men. Depression is also common among PLWH, especially among smokers, who may use tobacco to manage mood. Although HIV and depression have been linked to functional impairment and poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL), little research has examined the degree to which smoking impacts these relationships in low- and middle-income countries with high HIV burden. METHOD: Participants (N = 289) were people living with HIV (PLWH) who were being assessed for inclusion in a study targeting depression as a barrier to HIV medication adherence. Linear regression models measured the effect of gender on tobacco use (assessed by the WHO-ASSIST) and on each of the five HRQOL functional impairment domains (assessed by the SF-21). Separate multivariable regression models examined the relationships between habitual tobacco use, defined as daily, almost daily, or weekly use, and the HRQOL domains. RESULTS: The prevalence of habitual tobacco use was 23.9% (48.1% among men, 15.5% among women). Habitual tobacco use was associated with decreased cognitive functioning for the whole sample (B = - 8.99, p < 0.05) and with lower levels of pain-related impairment for men (B = 18.1, p < 0.05). Although men reported more tobacco use (B = 8.50, p < 0.001), they reported less pain-related limitations than women (B = 8.70, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, men reported higher rates of habitual tobacco use than women. Smoking was associated with cognitive impairment and with less pain-related impairment among men. Future smoking cessation treatments tailored to PLWH who have symptoms of depression may benefit from strategies that consider pain management as a pathway to habitual smoking and recognize that motivations for use may differ by gender.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245872, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493207

RESUMEN

Mental health disparities among transgender and gender diverse (TGD) populations have been documented. However, few studies have assessed differences in mental health symptom severity, substance use behavior severity, and engagement in care across TGD subgroups. Using data from the electronic health record of a community health center specializing in sexual and gender minority health, we compared the (1) severity of self-reported depression, anxiety, alcohol use, and other substance use symptoms; (2) likelihood of meeting clinical thresholds for these disorders; and (3) number of behavioral health and substance use appointments attended among cisgender, transgender, and non-binary patients. Participants were 29,988 patients aged ≥18 who attended a medical appointment between 2015 and 2018. Depression symptom severity (F = 200.6, p < .001), anxiety symptom severity (F = 102.8, p < .001), alcohol use (F = 58.8, p < .001), and substance use (F = 49.6, p < .001) differed significantly by gender. Relative to cisgender and transgender individuals, non-binary individuals are at elevated risk for depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Gender was also associated with differences in the number of behavioral health (χ2 = 51.5, p < .001) and substance use appointments (χ2 = 39.3, p < .001) attended. Engagement in treatment among certain gender groups is poor; cisgender women and non-binary patients assigned male at birth were the least likely to have attended a behavioral health appointment, whereas transgender men and cisgender women had attended the lowest number of substance use appointments. These data demonstrate the importance of (1) assessing gender diversity and (2) addressing the barriers that prevent TGD patients from receiving affirming care.

10.
Appetite ; 156: 104819, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853713

RESUMEN

Sexual minority men (SMM) face substantial disparities in rates of binge eating compared to heterosexual individuals, underscoring the need to study risk factors for the development of binge eating amongst SMM. One potential explanation for this disparity in binge eating is minority stress theory, which posits that minority groups face stressors, such as discrimination, due to their stigmatized position in society. Additionally, specific domains of discrimination may confer different levels of risk for binge eating. Therefore, the current study examined the association of various forms of discrimination, including appearance-based discrimination, and binge eating in a sample of SMM. A sample of 200 SMM (analytic sample of N = 187) from the greater Boston area completed self-report questionnaires assessing frequency of different forms of perceived discrimination (appearance, sexual orientation, race, etc.) and binge eating. A hierarchical binary logistic regression model was used to examine the association of different forms of discrimination with binge eating. 9% of the sample reported binge eating. Appearance-based discrimination was the most common form of discrimination (47%), and was significantly associated with binge eating, over and above all other forms of discrimination and sociodemographic variables, OR = 1.71, 95% CI = [1.24, 2.35], Wald χ2 (1) = 10.65, p = .001. Findings suggest that appearance-based discrimination may be related to binge eating in SMM. Clinicians may consider assessing appearance-based discrimination among SMM patients.

11.
Int J STD AIDS ; 32(2): 144-151, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323073

RESUMEN

India has one of the largest numbers of men who have sex with men (MSM) globally; however, geographic data on sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and associations with sexual behavior are limited. Six-hundred and eight MSM in Chennai and Mumbai underwent screening for a behavioral trial and were assessed for bacterial STIs (syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea), HIV, and past-month self-reported condomless anal sex (CAS). Mumbai (37.8%) had a greater prevalence of any STI than Chennai (27.6%) (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.73). This pattern also emerged for gonorrhea and chlamydia separately but not syphilis. Conversely, Mumbai MSM reported lower rates of CAS (mean = 2.2) compared to Chennai MSM (mean = 14.0) (mean difference = -11.8, 95% CI: -14.6, -9.1). The interaction of city by CAS on any STI prevalence (PR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.45, 3.01, p < .0001) revealed that in Chennai, higher rates of CAS were not associated with STI prevalence, but in Mumbai they were (PR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.65, 3.76, p < .0001). The higher prevalence of bacterial STIs but lower frequency of CAS in Mumbai (versus Chennai), along with the significant interaction of CAS with city on STI rates, suggests that there are either differences in disease burden or differences by city with respect to self-reported assessment of CAS. Regardless, the high prevalence rates of untreated STIs and condomless sex among MSM suggest the need for additional prevention intervention efforts for MSM in urban India.

12.
AIDS Behav ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219877

RESUMEN

Once daily tenofovir/emtricitabine when used for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in preventing HIV acquisition but requires consistent medication adherence. The use of ingestible technologies to monitor PrEP adherence can assist in understanding the impact of behavioral interventions. Digital pill systems (DPS) utilize an ingestible radiofrequency emitter integrated onto a gelatin capsule, which permits direct, real-time measurement of medication adherence. DPS monitoring may lead to discovery of nascent episodes of PrEP nonadherence and allow delivery of interventions that prevent the onset of sustained nonadherence. Yet, the acceptance and potential use of DPS in high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM; i.e., those who engage in condomless sex and use substances) is unknown. In this investigation, we conducted individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews with 30 MSM with self-reported non-alcohol substance use to understand their responses to the DPS, willingness and perceived barriers to its use, and their perceptions of its potential utility. We also sought to describe how MSM would potentially interact with a messaging system integrated into the DPS. We identified major themes around improved confidence of PrEP adherence patterns, safety of ingestible radiofrequency sensors, and design optimization of the DPS. They also expressed willingness to interact with messaging contingent on DPS recorded ingestion patterns. These data demonstrate that MSM who use substances find the DPS to be an acceptable method to measure and record PrEP adherence.

13.
Pain Med ; 2020 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164102

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: The transition of HIV from an acute, fatal illness to a chronic health condition has shifted the treatment needs of people living with HIV (PLWH). PLWH, including sexual minority men (SMM), are living longer and are subject to health concerns often associated with aging. A major health concern of older SMM living with HIV who report problematic substance use is chronic pain. This qualitative analysis of 15 one-on-one interviews with older SMM living with HIV and chronic pain aimed to characterize this population's experiences with pain, engagement in HIV care, and problematic substance use. This study was conducted in a community health center in Boston, MA. We also solicited suggestions for preferred intervention strategies. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged from the interview transcripts: 1) the impact of chronic pain and pain treatment on engagement in HIV clinical care; 2) the impact of substance use on chronic pain; and 3) response to interventions to address chronic pain and substance use. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the need for interventions that address the structural, physical, and psychological barriers to engagement in medical and self-care that affect older SMM living with HIV and chronic pain.

16.
J Psychoactive Drugs ; 52(5): 412-420, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795151

RESUMEN

Injection drug use (IDU) is of increasing public health concern in the United States. Misuse of and addiction to opioids has contributed to declining life expectancies and rebounding risk of HIV and HCV acquisition among people who inject drugs. While some effective treatment strategies for individuals with substance use disorders have been established, effective interventions to prevent IDU require greater tailoring to subpopulations and social contexts. To better understand contextual variables associated with initiation of IDU, we conducted a narrative review of the existing literature that assessed correlates of age of first injection. We found sixteen studies that met our inclusion criteria. Across studies, later IDU initiation was associated with being African American and female, while early initiation was associated with earlier illicit substance use, childhood trauma, and incarceration. We also found that early initiation was associated with riskier substance-using behaviors, though the findings were mixed with respect to differences between early and late initiates in infectious disease prevalence. These correlates of age of first injection can potentially inform tailored injection prevention strategies. By identifying the features and behaviors of relevant subpopulations before they inject, interventions to prevent IDU could become more effective.

17.
AIDS Behav ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737816

RESUMEN

Men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who use substances have multiple stigmatized identities. Theory suggests that internalization of stigma may elicit avoidance behaviors associated with these stigmas, potentially resulting in suboptimal engagement in HIV care. We investigated interrelationships between internalized stigmas related to HIV, sexual orientation, and substance use; avoidance coping; and missed HIV appointments among 202 MSM living with HIV who use substances. Neither HIV nor sexual orientation-related internalized stigmas were associated with missed appointments, however, internalized substance use stigma (SUS) was associated (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.15, 1.87). The relationship between internalized SUS and missed appointments was partially accounted for by avoidance coping (b = 0.12; bootstrap 95% CI 0.02, 0.25). To better understand the role of SUS, we assessed relationships between enacted and anticipated SUS and missed appointments (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.52, 2.84 and OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10, 1.88, respectively). Avoidance coping fully accounted for the relationship between anticipated SUS and missed appointments (b = 0.12; 95% CI 0.02, 0.25). Results suggest that avoidance strategies to manage anticipated SUS may result in substance using MSM forgoing HIV care appointments.

18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607502

RESUMEN

Background: Substance use is prevalent in South Africa and associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes, yet, it is largely unaddressed in HIV care. Implementing an evidence-based, task-shared intervention for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and substance use integrated into HIV care may be a feasible and effective way to improve HIV treatment outcomes and reduce substance use in this population. Methods: Guided by the RE-AIM framework, a randomized, hybrid type 1 effectiveness-implementation trial (n = 60) is being used to evaluate a peer-delivered intervention that integrates evidence-based intervention components, including Life-Steps (problem solving and motivational skills for HIV medication adherence), behavioral activation to increase alternative, substance-free rewarding activities in one's environment, and relapse prevention skills, including mindfulness. The comparison condition is enhanced standard of care, which includes facilitating a referral to a local substance use treatment clinic (Matrix). Participants are followed for a period of 6 months. Implementation outcomes are defined by Proctor's model for implementation and include mixed methods evaluations of feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Primary patient-level effectiveness outcomes are ART adherence (Wisepill) and substance use (WHO-ASSIST and urinalysis); viral load is an exploratory outcome. Discussion: Results of this trial will provide important evidence as to whether peer delivery of an integrated intervention for ART adherence and substance use is feasible, acceptable, and effective. Implementation outcomes will provide important insight into using peers as an implementation strategy to extend task sharing models for behavioral health in resource-limited settings globally. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03529409. Trial registered on May 18, 2018.

19.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 19: 2325958220934606, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573330

RESUMEN

In India, there is little evidence on reasons for high rates of loss to HIV care. We conducted a clinic-based qualitative study at the YR Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education to explore factors that influence loss to care. In all, 17 men and 14 women were interviewed; median age was 42 (interquartile range [IQR], 36-48) and median CD4 count was 448 (IQR, 163-609). A majority reported avoiding treatment freely available at nearby government facilities because of disclosure concerns and perceptions of poor quality. As a result, participants sought care in the private sector where they were subjected to medication and transport costs. Life circumstances causing lost wages or unexpected expenditures therefore prevented participants from attending clinic, resulting in loss to care. Improving perceptions of quality of care in the public sector, addressing disclosure concerns, and reducing economic hardships among people living with HIV may be important in reducing loss to HIV care in India.

20.
Behav Ther ; 51(3): 503-517, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402264

RESUMEN

Given the alarmingly high HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence among gay and bisexual men (GBM) worldwide, there is a critical need for HIV prevention interventions specifically for GBM. Social anxiety, or anxiety about being evaluated in interpersonal situations, is a risk factor for condomless anal sex (CAS) among GBM (e.g., Hart & Heimberg, 2005; Hart, James, Purcell, & Farber, 2008). Social anxiety may also increase substance use in sexual situations, which is another risk factor for HIV/STIs in this risk group (Semple, Strathdee, Zians, McQuaid, & Patterson, 2011). The goal of the Sexual Confidence Study was to provide initial evidence of efficacy for a 10-session integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety, substance use management in sexual situations, and HIV sexual risk reduction for HIV-negative GBM. Diagnostic and self-report assessments were completed at baseline, posttreatment, 3-month follow-up, and 6-month follow-up. In this open trial design, we observed a 50% reduction in engagement in HIV/STI sexual risk behavior at 6-month follow-up. We also observed large uncontrolled treatment effect sizes for reductions in social anxiety disorder and problematic alcohol use. These preliminary findings suggest that the present treatment may offer an efficient way of concurrently reducing social anxiety, problematic alcohol use, and the risk of contracting HIV and STIs via CAS with serodiscordant partners among HIV-negative GBM.

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